Power steering

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The term power steering is usually used to describe a system that provides mechanical steering assistance to the driver of a land vehicle, for example, a car or truck. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Power steering

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2019 10th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE 2019 - ECCE Asia)

1. Power Electronic Devices (Si and Wide band-gap) and Applications, 2. Power electronic packaging and integration, 3. Modeling, Simulation and EMI, 4. Lighting Technologies and Applications, 5. Wireless Power Transfer, 6. Uncontrolled Rectifiers and AC/DC Converters, 7. AC/AC Converters, 8. DC/AC Inverters, 9. DC/DC Converters, 10. Multilevel Power Converters, 11. Electric Machines, Actuators and Sensors, 12. Motor Control and Drives, 13. Sensorless and Sensor-Reduction Control, 14. Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation Systems, 15. Smart/Micro Grid, 16. DC Distribution 17. Power Quality (or Power Electronics for Utility Interface), 18. Energy Storage and Management Systems, 19. Power Electronics for Transportation Electrification, 20. Reliability, diagnosis, prognosis and protection, 21. High Voltage DC Transmission, 22. Other Selected Topics in Power Electronics

  • 2015 IEEE 9th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE-ECCE Asia)

    Power electronics, renewable energy, electric vehicle, smart grid

  • 2014 International Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 ECCE-ASIA)

    The seventh International Power Electronics Conference, IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 -ECCE Asia-, will be held from May 18 to May 21, 2014 in Hiroshima, Japan. The conference venue will be the International Conference Center Hiroshima, which is located in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park. Power electronics has been providing numerous new technologies in the fields of electric energy conversion and motor drive systems for more than 40 years. In recent years, global energy and environmental issues are becoming more serious and power electronics is expected to play a key role in solving such problems. The IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 -ECCE Asia- will provide a unique opportunity for researchers, engineers, and academics from all over the world to present and exchange the latest information on power electronics, motor drives, and related subjects.

  • 2011 IEEE 8th International Conference on Power Electronics & ECCE Asia (ICPE 2011- ECCE Asia)

    01. Power Semiconductor Devices and Packaging 02. Modeling, Simulation, EMI and Reliability 03. Electric Machines, Actuators and Sensors 04. Motor Control and Drives 05. Sensorless Control 06. Renewable Green Energy (Wind, Solar, Tidal Power Generation) 07. Micro Grid and Distributed Generation 08. Electric Propulsion System (EV, Train, Electric Ship) 09. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 10. Power Supplies and EV Chargers 11. Power Electronics and Drives for Home Appliance 12. Power Elect

  • 2007 7th International Conference on Power Electronics (ICPE)

    - Power Semiconductor Devices - DC-DC Converters - Inverters and Inverter Control Techniques - Motor Drives - Rectifiers and AC-AC Converters - Renewable Energy - Power Quality and Utility Applications - Automotive Applications and Traction Drives - Energy Storage - Control Techniques Applied to Power Electronics - Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation - Consumer Applications - Other Power Applications


2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power


2019 IEEE Pulsed Power & Plasma Science (PPPS)

Combined conference of the IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science and the IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference


2018 14th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAM

  • 2016 13th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAMs22. Phase Change Memory23. 3-Dimensional Memory24. MEMS Technology25. Thin Film Transistors26. Biosensors27. PV and Energy Harvesting28. Front End of Line (FEOL) R

  • 2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on Solid -State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAMs22. Phase Change Memory23. 3-Dimensional Memory24. MEMS Technology25. Thin Film Transistors26. Biosensors27. PV and Energy Harvesting28. Front End of Line (FEOL) R

  • 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High Kdielectric , Advance Memories , nano -electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices ,sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material erization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation,Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low -power, RF devices & circuits, ICCAD

  • 2010 IEEE 10th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High K dielectric , Advance Memories , nano-electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices , sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material characterization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation, Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low-power, RF devices & circuits, IC CAD .

  • 2008 9th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

  • 2006 8th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

  • 2004 7th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)


2018 15th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (AMC)

1. Advanced Motion Control2. Haptics, Robotics and Human-Machine Systems3. Micro/Nano Motion Control Systems4. Intelligent Motion Control Systems5. Nonlinear, Adaptive and Robust Control Systems6. Motion Systems for Robot Intelligence and Humanoid Robotics7. CPG based Feedback Control, Morphological Control8. Actuators and Sensors in Motion System9. Motion Control of Aerial/Ground/Underwater Robots10. Advanced Dynamics and Motion Control11. Motion Control for Assistive and Rehabilitative Robots and Systems12. Intelligent and Advanced Traffic Controls13. Computer Vision in Motion Control14. Network and Communication Technologies in Motion Control15. Motion Control of Soft Robots16. Automation Technologies in Primary Industries17. Other Topics and Applications Involving Motion Dynamics and Control


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Periodicals related to Power steering

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Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE Transactions on

Speech analysis, synthesis, coding speech recognition, speaker recognition, language modeling, speech production and perception, speech enhancement. In audio, transducers, room acoustics, active sound control, human audition, analysis/synthesis/coding of music, and consumer audio. (8) (IEEE Guide for Authors) The scope for the proposed transactions includes SPEECH PROCESSING - Transmission and storage of Speech signals; speech coding; speech enhancement and noise reduction; ...


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Xplore Articles related to Power steering

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Method of Calculating A Priori Reliability of Elements of Complex System

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Dpt. of Automation of Technological Processes and Production, Voronezh State Technical University, Voronezh, Russia', u'full_name': u'Elena N. Desyatirikova'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University, High School for Cyber physic systems and Control, St.Petersburg, Russia', u'full_name': u'Liudmila V. Chernenkaya'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Peter the Great St.Petersburg Polytechnic University, High School for Cyber physic systems and Control, St.Petersburg, Russia', u'full_name': u'Vladimir E. Mager'}] 2018 International Russian Automation Conference (RusAutoCon), 2018

The method for calculation of a posteriori failure-free operating time of a complex technical system based on the data on failures of system elements is proposed. This method allows one to identify groups of elements, the increasing of a priori reliability of which can lead to an increasing of the reliability of the system during the selected time interval. The ...


Switched reluctance motor for electric power-assisted steering

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u"Grup d'Accionaments El\xe8ctrics amb Commutaci\xf3 Electr\xf2nica (GAECE), EPS d'Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Departament d'Enginyeria El\xe8ctrica, Universitat Polit\xe8cnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Spain", u'full_name': u'P. Andrada'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u"Grup d'Accionaments El\xe8ctrics amb Commutaci\xf3 Electr\xf2nica (GAECE), EPS d'Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Departament d'Enginyeria El\xe8ctrica, Universitat Polit\xe8cnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Spain", u'full_name': u'B. Blanque'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u"Grup d'Accionaments El\xe8ctrics amb Commutaci\xf3 Electr\xf2nica (GAECE), EPS d'Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Departament d'Enginyeria El\xe8ctrica, Universitat Polit\xe8cnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Spain", u'full_name': u'E. Martinez'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u"Grup d'Accionaments El\xe8ctrics amb Commutaci\xf3 Electr\xf2nica (GAECE), EPS d'Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Departament d'Enginyeria El\xe8ctrica, Universitat Polit\xe8cnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Spain", u'full_name': u'J.I. Perat'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u"Grup d'Accionaments El\xe8ctrics amb Commutaci\xf3 Electr\xf2nica (GAECE), EPS d'Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Departament d'Enginyeria El\xe8ctrica, Universitat Polit\xe8cnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Spain", u'full_name': u'J.A. Sanchez'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u"Grup d'Accionaments El\xe8ctrics amb Commutaci\xf3 Electr\xf2nica (GAECE), EPS d'Enginyeria de Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Departament d'Enginyeria El\xe8ctrica, Universitat Polit\xe8cnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Victor Balaguer s/n, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltr\xfa, Spain", u'full_name': u'M. Torrent'}] 2009 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, 2009

In this paper, switched reluctance motors (SRM) are proposed as an alternative for electric power assisted steering (EPAS) applications. The new 42 V power voltage system is a very attractive design for a steering electric motor, both from a cost and size perspective. A four-phase 8/6 SRM drive is designed for a rack type EPAS which should provide a maximum ...


Frontal and lateral control for unmanned vehicles in urban tracks

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Instituto de Automatica Ind., Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain', u'full_name': u'R. Garcia'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'full_name': u'T. de Pedro'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'full_name': u'J.E. Naranjo'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'full_name': u'J. Reviejo'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'full_name': u'C. Gonzalez'}] Intelligent Vehicle Symposium, 2002. IEEE, 2002

This paper presents techniques, related experiments and real results (not simulations) performed with two unmanned vehicles. The test zone is a private circuit with the characteristics of an urban track. The vehicles are common mass-produced cars, provided with automatic actuators operating on the car controls (power-assisted steering and accelerator). These actuators work commanded by a fuzzy logic based control system. ...


Research and simulation of electric power steering based on fuzzy control

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u"Xi'an University of Technology 710048 Xi'an, Shaanxi, China", u'full_name': u'Hui Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u"Xi'an University of Technology 710048 Xi'an, Shaanxi, China", u'full_name': u'Jinhong Liu'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u"Xi'an University of Technology 710048 Xi'an, Shaanxi, China", u'full_name': u'Yuzhi Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u"Xi'an University of Technology 710048 Xi'an, Shaanxi, China", u'full_name': u'Jing Ren'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u"Xi'an Yongdian Electric Co., Ltd 710015 Xi'an, Shaanxi, China", u'full_name': u'Yongjun Gao'}] 2009 International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2009

This article is concerned about the analysis, design, and simulation of an electric power steering (EPS). The article begins by introducing the EPS system concept and comparing the technical and commercial benefits with existing technologies. Being more versatile than conventional hydraulic power steering, EPS systems excel in engine efficiency, space saving, and environmental friendly. The remainder of the article is ...


Research on the energy-saving potentiality of electro-hydraulic Power Steering System based on energy flow

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Hangzhou Wanxiang Polytechnic, Key Laboratory of Fluid Power, Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, China', u'full_name': u'Renxue Zhu'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Mechanincal Engineering Department, Changshu Institute of Technology, China', u'full_name': u'Lanfang Gao'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Hangzhou Wanxiang, Polytechnic, China', u'full_name': u'Xuezhi Li'}] 2010 2nd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (CAR 2010), 2010

The development and design of new energy-saving system of electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS) has extensive application prospect. EHPS system is analyzed by using energy flow method, system model based on energy cost is established, and relevant compute simulation is performed. Tests are carried out on the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) bench. The results showed that system voltage supply, PWM duty cycle, pump ...


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IEEE.tv Videos

A 12-b, 1-GS/s 6.1mW Current-Steering DAC in 14nm FinFET with 80dB SFDR for 2G/3G/4G Cellular Application: RFIC Industry Showcase 2017
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Bob Martin on Industrial Internet Reference Architecture: 2016 End to End Trust and Security Workshop for the Internet of Things
Stan Schneider: Complexity Management in the Industrial IoT - IoT Challenges Industry Forum Panel: WF IoT 2016
Building Your Technical Community in IEEE Collabratec - Fred Mintzer - Ignite: Sections Congress 2017
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APEC Exhibitor Showcase - Texas Instruments Power Management
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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Transmission Line Theory

    This chapter presents aspects of transmission line theory that are beyond the techniques used to describe general two‐port networks using scattering parameters. The extension of scattering parameters to multiport networks is straightforward and the extension of_ABCD_parameters to multiport networks is limited practically to coupled transmission line networks. The chapter presents the transmission line theory required to change the reference plane of_S_parameters along the transmission line, and how to work with cascades when the characteristic impedance of the lines is complex. It presents an outline of microwave transmission line theory, including impedance matching using transmission lines. The chapter considers traveling waves on a transmission line with a possibly complex characteristic impedance. Concepts are presented that enable problems to be solved using_S_parameters with complex characteristic impedances.

  • Loss and Power‐dependent Effects in Microstrip

    This chapter describes the sources of loss with microstrip lines. It begins by defining the quality factor, the Q, used to characterize energy storage relative to loss. This important metric enables different components to be compared and in particular different sources of loss and the performance of different transmission line systems. Separate mechanisms can be identified for power losses and parasitic effects associated with microstrip lines and also applicable to all planar lines. There are two main aspects to any consideration of power‐handling in microstrip: continuously working (CW) and pulse operation. Under CW conditions the major problems and limitations are thermal, whereas under pulse conditions the principal limitation is dielectric breakdown. One of the unexpected power‐dependent effects that can occur with microstrip transmission lines is passive intermodulation distortion (PIM). Design guidelines for minimizing PIM on planar transmission lines are provided in the chapter.

  • Designing Asynchronous Circuits using NULL Convention Logic (NCL)

    Designing Asynchronous Circuits using NULL Convention Logic (NCL) begins with an introduction to asynchronous (clockless) logic in general, and then focuses on delay-insensitive asynchronous logic design using the NCL paradigm. The book details design of input-complete and observable dual-rail and quad-rail combinational circuits, and then discusses implementation of sequential circuits, which require datapath feedback. Next, throughput optimization techniques are presented, including pipelining, embedding registration, early completion, and NULL cycle reduction. Subsequently, low-power design techniques, such as wavefront steering and Multi-Threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) for NCL, are discussed. The book culminates with a comprehensive design example of an optimized Greatest Common Divisor circuit. Readers should have prior knowledge of basic logic design concepts, such as Boolean algebra and Karnaugh maps. After studying this book, readers should have a good understanding of the differences between asynchronous and synchronous circuits, and should be able to design arbitrary NCL circuits, optimized for area, throughput, and power. Table of Contents: Introduction to Asynchronous Logic / Overview of NULL Convention Logic (NCL) / Combinational NCL Circuit Design / Sequential NCL Circuit Design / NCL Throughput Optimization / Low-Power NCL Design / Comprehensive NCL Design Example

  • Discontinuities in Microstrip

    This chapter considers discontinuity modeling based mostly on equivalent capacitor and inductor networks. Some discontinuities, however, especially an open‐circuited line, can also incorporate a short length of line. All practical distributed circuits must inherently contain discontinuities. The chapter shows the calculation of the reactive effects due to most discontinuities. Several forms of discontinuity emerge from circuit requirements such as, foreshortened open circuits, series coupling gaps, short circuits through to the ground plane, right‐angled corners or bends, step width changes, transverse slit, T junction and cross junctions. Discontinuities result in changes in current flow on the strip and ground plane of microstrip and force changes in the balance of the electric and magnetic fields. This can result in additional energy storage in the electric field and if this is the case the effect of the discontinuity is accounted for by a capacitance in the lumped‐element model of the discontinuity.

  • Microstrip Design at Low Frequencies

    Microstrip is a particularly useful transmission line medium for implementation in distributed circuit designs at frequencies from below 1 GHz and up to 110 GHz. This chapter deals with some fundamental aspects of the microstrip structure, and the realization of dimensional design parameters for establishing desired electrical characteristics. It is concerned with basic considerations and microstrip synthesis where the substrate is a homogeneous, isotropic dielectric. The aspects discussed are quasi‐transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) of propagation, static‐TEM parameter effective microstrip permittivity, characteristic impedance, and filling factor. Graphical technique is mainly suitable for approximate guidance purposes. Hence, closed formulas are needed for accurate static‐TEM design calculations. The chapter considers microstrip synthesis using a dielectrically anisotropic substrate. It discusses the effects of finite thickness and manufacturing tolerances, and provides a description of pulse propagation. Finally, recommendations for microstrip design are presented.

  • Applications of Parallel‐coupled Microstrip Lines

    This chapter deals with the detailed design of parallel‐coupled microstrip structures. The main design element considered in the chapter is the design of a directional coupler. Many of the techniques used in designing circuits with coupled transmission lines are introduced, in particular design of coupled lines beginning with an electrical design, such as the required even and odd‐mode characteristic impedances, and then realizing the electrical design in physical form. The chapter discusses some special coupler designs with improved performance such as the Lange coupler, shielded parallel‐coupled microstrips, couplers using dielectric overlay and incorporating lumped capacitors. Thickness effects play only a small part in the accurate design of coupled lines, provided the lines are of thick‐ or thin‐film manufacture and the coupling is around ‐10 dB. The fundamental nature of microstrip line structure is important in relatively simple couplers and significant in circuit applications such as parallel‐coupled bandpass filters.

  • Microwave Network Analysis

    This chapter defines scattering (_S_) parameters in relation to impedance and admittance parameters, and demonstrates the use of_S_parameters in the design and interpretation of RF circuits._S_parameters have become the most important parameters for RF and microwave engineers, and many design methodologies have been developed around them. Single transmission lines are two‐port networks having four terminals, with one port at each end of the line comprising a signal terminal and a reference terminal. The two reference terminals are required as it is not possible to define a global ground that is common to the two ends of a transmission line. Signal‐flow graphs form a logical and convenient means for analysing microwave circuits of virtually any form and complexity, provided only that they can be treated as linear and_S_parameters are applicable. Typical problems requiring this kind of analysis include measurement error assessment and amplifier gain calculations.

  • Parallel‐coupled Microstrip Lines

    Microstrip filters employing the parallel‐coupled structure are usually of the bandpass or bandstop types. This chapter presents the theory behind coupled microstrip lines. The theory and concepts are applicable to nearly all coupled transmission lines. Two sets of formulas for characteristic impedance are presented which were developed by Bryant and Weiss, and Hammerstad and Jensen, respectively. Simple, semi‐empirical analysis formulas are available for the determination of characteristic impedances to an accuracy of within 3%. These could be useful to the designer, who might start with an approximate synthesis and employ the analysis formulas to provide an improvement in accuracy using an iterative technique. The appropriate shape ratios are determined directly from a graph or from closed‐form expressions which are readily available. The approximate static‐TEM formulas presented in the chapter can be used for more comprehensive CAD.

  • Fundamentals of Signal Transmission on Interconnects

    This chapter presents the major concepts required to understand the movement of signals on transmission lines. The important concept of traveling waves is introduced and the origin of reflections on transmission lines identified. The concepts discussed in the chapter include packaging hierarchy, primary and secondary transmission constants, and transmission line impedances. Interference between the incident and reflected waves, traveling at the same velocity but in opposite directions, causes a ‘standing‐wave’ field pattern to be set up. If there is a signal current there must be a return signal current which will tend to be as close to the signal current as possible to minimize stored energy. The provision of a signal return path is important in maintaining the integrity (i.e., predictable signal waveform) of interconnects. A range of models are used for interconnects depending on the accuracy required, the amenability of the net to modelling, and the frequency of operation.

  • Microstrip Passive Elements

    Passive elements in microstrip circuits are generally realized using either transmission line segments or surface mount components. It first describes lumped element components that can be realized by patterning microstrip or obtained as discrete components, such as surface‐mount components, that can be soldered to a microstrip circuit. Termination refers to the termination of a transmission line in a short circuit, an open circuit or a load. π‐type microwave attenuators are used in broadband power‐leveling loops where the microwave output power is maintained constant over a wide range of frequencies. Other passive elements discussed in the chapter are micro‐strip stubs, hybrids, couplers, power combiners, dividers, baluns, and integrated components. The two most commonly used power combiners or dividers are the Wilkinson combiner and the Chireix combiner. Above a few gigahertz or so it is necessary to use transmission line baluns and the best of these is the Marchund balun.



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