Pixel

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In digital imaging, a pixel, or pel, (picture element) is a single point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable screen element in a display device; it is the smallest unit of picture that can be represented or controlled. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Pixel

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ICASSP 2017 - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)

The ICASSP meeting is the world's largest and most comprehensive technical conference focused on signal processing and its applications. The conference will feature world-class speakers, tutorials, exhibits, and over 50 lecture and poster sessions.


2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD)

The NSS/MIC offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested in the fields of nuclear science, radiation detection, accelerators, high energy physics and astrophysics, and related software to present their latest developments and ideas. The scientific program provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in technology and covers a wide range of applications from radiation and accelerator instrumentation, new detector materials, to complex detector systems for physical sciences, and advanced imaging systems for biological and medical research.


2014 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)

The IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) is the flagship conference of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society and the world’s premier networking forum in the highly active fields of theory, design and implementation of circuits and systems.ISCAS 2014 will have a special focus on nano/bio circuits and systems applied to enhancing living and lifestyles, and seeks to address multidisciplinary challenges in healthcare and well-being, the environment and climate change.

  • 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)

    The Symposium will focus on circuits and systems employing nanodevices (both extremely scaled CMOS and non-CMOS devices) and circuit fabrics (mixture of standard CMOS and evolving nano-structure elements) and their implementation cost, switching speed, energy efficiency, and reliability. The ISCAS 2010 will include oral and poster sessions; tutorials given by experts in state-of-the-art topics; and special sessions, with the aim of complementing the regular program with topics of particular interest to the community that cut across and beyond disciplines traditionally represented at ISCAS.

  • 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems - ISCAS 2012

    2012 International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2012) aims at providing the world's premier forum of leading researchers in circuits and systems areas from academia and industries, especially focusing on Convergence of BINET (BioInfoNanoEnviro Tech.) which represents IT, NT and ET and leading Human Life Revolutions. Prospective authors are invited to submit papers of their original works emphasizing contributions beyond the present state of the art. We also welcome proposals on special tuto

  • 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) is the world's premier networking forum of leading researchers in the highly active fields of theory, design and implementation of circuits and systems.

  • 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems - ISCAS 2010

    ISCAS is a unique conference dealing with circuits and systems. It's the yearly "rendez-vous" of leading researchers, coming both from academia and industry, in the highly active fields of theory, design and implementation of circuits and systems. The Symposium will focus on circuits and systems for high quality life and consumer technologies, including mobile communications, advanced multimedia systems, sensor networks and Nano-Bio Circuit Fabrics and Systems.

  • 2009 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems - ISCAS 2009

    Analog Signal Processing, Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Blind Signal Processing, Cellular Neural Networks and Array Computing, Circuits and Systems for Communications, Computer-Aided Network Design, Digital Signal Processing, Life-Science Systems and Applications, Multimedia Systems and Applications, Nanoelectronics and Gigascale Systems, Neural Systems and Applications, Nonlinear Circuits and Applications, Power Systems and Power Electronic Circuits, Sensory Systems, Visual Signal Processing and Communi

  • 2008 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems - ISCAS 2008

  • 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems - ISCAS 2007

  • 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems - ISCAS 2006

  • 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems - ISCAS 2005


2014 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series

The Topical Meetings of the Photonics Society are the premier conference series for exciting new areas in photonic science, technology, and applications, creating the opportunity to learn about emerging fields and to interact with the research and technology leaders in an intimate environment.


2011 International Image Sensor Workshop (IISW)

Solid-state image sensors including pixel design, pixel device physics, sensor readout and signal processing circuits and architecture, color and image signal processing


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Periodicals related to Pixel

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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.


Sensors Journal, IEEE

The Field of Interest of the IEEE Sensors Journal is the science and applications of sensing phenomena, including theory, design, and application of devices for sensing and transducing physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. The emphasis is on the electronics, physics, biology, and intelligence aspects of sensors and integrated sensor-actuators. (IEEE Guide for Authors) (The fields of interest of the IEEE ...


Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of

The IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits publishes papers each month in the broad area of solid-state circuits with particular emphasis on transistor-level design of integrated circuits. It also provides coverage of topics such as device modeling, technology, systems design, layout, and testing that relate directly to IC design. Integrated circuits and VLSI are of principal interest; material related to discrete ...




Xplore Articles related to Pixel

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Vertical Edge Depth Estimation

Yiming Nie; Tao Wu; Xiangjing An; Hangen He 2008 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2008

Through binocular vision the fast disparity image is often desired for many applications, but, stereo vision still is an on studying subject. It is hard to get the precisely result because of the complex of the vision task. Vertical edges of depth images are presented much information of the stereo scene for further image processing. We present an image processing ...


A Reflection and Occlusion Robust Eye Center Searching Algorithm

Guoqing Xu; Yangsheng Wang; Mingcai Zhou; Xiangsheng Huang 2010 Chinese Conference on Pattern Recognition (CCPR), 2010

Eye center detection is an essential module in iris segmentation and gaze tracking. It is more challengeable to achieve this goal using a usual web camera under natural illumination. The image resolution and the eye region scale are main problems. Focusing on solving these problems, this paper proposes a robust eye center searching algorithm which can locate the iris including ...


Novel Contour Vectorization Using Holistic Feature of Object

Qichao Lu; Guang Yang; Feng Gao 2010 Chinese Conference on Pattern Recognition (CCPR), 2010

In this paper, a novel contour vectorization approach based on holistic feature of object is proposed, which aims at avoiding segmenting an entire contour of target into some discrete sets of curves. This method consists of two steps:(1) Digitize pixel-based contour into vectors or arcs referring to holistic feature of object, and the contour trend used in the implementation of ...


A new accurate and fast algorithm of sub-pixel image registration

Jinbo Lu; Bin He IEEE 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SIGNAL PROCESSING PROCEEDINGS, 2010

In terms of large field view and multi-channel TDICCD remote sensing images, previous interpolation methods and curve fitting methods are not able to achieve the high accuracy and fast registration, and their noise immunity and robustness is not high. For that, this paper presents a more accurate and faster method, iterative pixel interpolation and surface fitting method. Firstly, the method ...


Fractal graphics and image compression on a SIMD processor

S. F. Reddaway; A. Wilson; A. Horn Proceedings., 2nd Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computation, 1988

The algorithms best suited to a single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) processor array (in particular the AMT DAP510) both for encoding and image generation (decoding) are discussed. The iterated function system (IFS) literature is reviewed from an engineering rather than a mathematical angle. IFS image regeneration theory and performance data are provided. Some alternative machine architecture are discussed


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Educational Resources on Pixel

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eLearning

Vertical Edge Depth Estimation

Yiming Nie; Tao Wu; Xiangjing An; Hangen He 2008 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2008

Through binocular vision the fast disparity image is often desired for many applications, but, stereo vision still is an on studying subject. It is hard to get the precisely result because of the complex of the vision task. Vertical edges of depth images are presented much information of the stereo scene for further image processing. We present an image processing ...


A Reflection and Occlusion Robust Eye Center Searching Algorithm

Guoqing Xu; Yangsheng Wang; Mingcai Zhou; Xiangsheng Huang 2010 Chinese Conference on Pattern Recognition (CCPR), 2010

Eye center detection is an essential module in iris segmentation and gaze tracking. It is more challengeable to achieve this goal using a usual web camera under natural illumination. The image resolution and the eye region scale are main problems. Focusing on solving these problems, this paper proposes a robust eye center searching algorithm which can locate the iris including ...


Novel Contour Vectorization Using Holistic Feature of Object

Qichao Lu; Guang Yang; Feng Gao 2010 Chinese Conference on Pattern Recognition (CCPR), 2010

In this paper, a novel contour vectorization approach based on holistic feature of object is proposed, which aims at avoiding segmenting an entire contour of target into some discrete sets of curves. This method consists of two steps:(1) Digitize pixel-based contour into vectors or arcs referring to holistic feature of object, and the contour trend used in the implementation of ...


A new accurate and fast algorithm of sub-pixel image registration

Jinbo Lu; Bin He IEEE 10th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SIGNAL PROCESSING PROCEEDINGS, 2010

In terms of large field view and multi-channel TDICCD remote sensing images, previous interpolation methods and curve fitting methods are not able to achieve the high accuracy and fast registration, and their noise immunity and robustness is not high. For that, this paper presents a more accurate and faster method, iterative pixel interpolation and surface fitting method. Firstly, the method ...


Fractal graphics and image compression on a SIMD processor

S. F. Reddaway; A. Wilson; A. Horn Proceedings., 2nd Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computation, 1988

The algorithms best suited to a single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) processor array (in particular the AMT DAP510) both for encoding and image generation (decoding) are discussed. The iterated function system (IFS) literature is reviewed from an engineering rather than a mathematical angle. IFS image regeneration theory and performance data are provided. Some alternative machine architecture are discussed


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Self-Organization in Impulse Noise Removal

    This chapter proposes a novel approach for suppressing impulse noise in digital images while effectively preserving more details than previously proposed methods. The method presented is based on impulse noise detection and noise exclusive restoration. A noise-exclusive median (NEM) filtering algorithm and a noise-exclusive arithmetic mean (NEAM) filtering algorithm are proposed to restore the image. The chapter proposes a more general model in which a noisy pixel can take on arbitrary values in the dynamic range. It presents an iterative approach that is introduced using a recursive NEM filter to restore images corrupted by very strong noise. The chapter proposes a new filtering scheme, which aimed to keep the robustness of median-type and nonlinear mean filters while overcoming their disadvantages. It performs experiments based on different models and with varying percentage of noise.

  • NanoNewton Force Sensing and Control in Microrobotic Cell Manipulation

    Cellular force sensing and control techniques are capable of enhancing the dexterity and reliability of microrobotic cell manipulation systems. This paper presents a vision-based cellular force sensing technique using a microfabricated elastic cell holding device and a sub-pixel visual tracking algorithm for resolving forces down to 3.7nN during microrobotic mouse embryo injection. The technique also experimentally proves useful for in situ differentiation of healthy mouse embryos from those with compromised developmental competence without the requirement of a separate mechanical characterization process. Concerning force-controlled microrobotic cell manipulation (pick-transport-place), this paper presents the first demonstration of nanoNewton force-controlled cell micrograsping using a MEMS- based microgripper with integrated two-axis force feedback. On-chip force sensors are used for detecting contact between the microgripper and cells to be manipulated (resolution: 38.5nN) and sensing gripping forces (resolution: 19.9nN) during force-controlled grasping. The experimental results demonstrate that the microgripper and the control system are capable of rapid contact detection and reliable force-controlled micrograsping to accommodate variations in size and stiffness of cells with a high reproducibility.

  • Fast Bottom-Up Computational Models in the Spectral Domain

    This chapter continues the introduction to bottom-up visual attention models. Following the description of models in the spatial (pixel) domain in the previous chapter, the focus is now put on models in the spectral domain. Since frequency domain models can detect the salient object quicker to enable them to meet real-time requirements in engineering, they are the choice for many real-world applications In this chapter, first the properties of the frequency spectrum for image analysis are given in Section 4.1, and then the major bottom-up computational models based on phase spectrum in frequency domain are presented in Sections 4.2-4.6: the SR, PFT, PQFT, PCT and FDN models, respectively. In Section 4.6, FDN and PFDN models have biological plausibility because they simulate each step from the (spatial domain) BS model, but in the frequency domain. In Section 4.7, the AQFT model based on amplitude spectrum of image patches is introduced and Section 4.8 gives a computational model from the JPEG bit-stream. Finally, the advantages and limitations of frequency computational models are discussed in Section 4.9.

  • Point Operations

    This chapter considers point operations, where the output depends only on the corresponding input pixel in the input image(s). Both direct computation and lookup table approaches are described. With multiple input images, techniques such as image averaging and background subtraction are discussed in detail. The final section in this chapter extends the earlier discussion to the processing of colour images. Particular topics given emphasis are colour space conversion, colour segmentation, and colour balancing.

  • No title

    Fractal analysis is useful in digital image processing for the characterization of shape roughness and gray-scale texture or complexity. Breast masses present shape and gray-scale characteristics in mammograms that vary between benign masses and malignant tumors. This book demonstrates the use of fractal analysis to classify breast masses as benign masses or malignant tumors based on the irregularity exhibited in their contours and the gray-scale variability exhibited in their mammographic images. A few different approaches are described to estimate the fractal dimension (FD) of the contour of a mass, including the ruler method, box-counting method, and the power spectral analysis (PSA) method. Procedures are also described for the estimation of the FD of the gray-scale image of a mass using the blanket method and the PSA method. To facilitate comparative analysis of FD as a feature for pattern classification of breast masses, several other shape features and texture measures are desc ibed in the book. The shape features described include compactness, spiculation index, fractional concavity, and Fourier factor. The texture measures described are statistical measures derived from the gray-level cooccurrence matrix of the given image. Texture measures reveal properties about the spatial distribution of the gray levels in the given image; therefore, the performance of texture measures may be dependent on the resolution of the image. For this reason, an analysis of the effect of spatial resolution or pixel size on texture measures in the classification of breast masses is presented in the book. The results demonstrated in the book indicate that fractal analysis is more suitable for characterization of the shape than the gray-level variations of breast masses, with area under the receiver operating characteristics of up to 0.93 with a dataset of 111 mammographic images of masses. The methods and results presented in the book are useful for computer-aided diagnosis of br ast cancer. Table of Contents: Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Breast Cancer / Detection and Analysis ofnewline Breast Masses / Datasets of Images of Breast Masses / Methods for Fractal Analysis / Pattern Classification / Results of Classification of Breast Masses / Concluding Remarks

  • Genetic Programming for Robot Vision

    Genetic Programming was used to create the vision subsystem of a reactive obstacle avoidance system for an autonomous mobile robot. The representation of algorithms was specifically chosen to capture the spirit of existing, hand written vision algorithms. Traditional computer vision operators such as Sobel gradient magnitude, median filters and the Moravec interest operator were combined arbitrarily. Images from an office hallway were used as training data. The evolved programs took a black and white camera image as input and estimated the location of the lowest non-ground pixel in a given column. The computed estimates were then given to a handwritten obstacle avoidance algorithm and used to control the robot in real time. Evolved programs successfully navigated in unstructured hallways, performing on par with hand- crafted systems

  • Map-Based Precision Vehicle Localization in Urban Environments

    Many urban navigation applications (e.g., autonomous navigation, driver assistance systems) can benefit greatly from localization with centimeter accuracy. Yet such accuracy cannot be achieved reliably with GPS-based inertial guidance systems, specifically in urban settings. We propose a technique for high-accuracy localization of moving vehicles that utilizes maps of urban environments. Our approach integrates GPS, IMU, wheel odometry, and LIDAR data acquired by an instrumented vehicle, to generate high-resolution environment maps. Offline relaxation techniques similar to recent SLAM methods [2, 10, 13, 14, 21, 30] are employed to bring the map into alignment at intersections and other regions of self-overlap. By reducing the final map to the flat road surface, imprints of other vehicles are removed. The result is a 2-D surface image of ground reflectivity in the infrared spectrum with 5cm pixel resolution. To localize a moving vehicle relative to these maps, we present a particle filter method for correlating LIDAR measurements with this map. As we show by experimentation, the resulting relative accuracies exceed that of conventional GPS-IMU-odometry-based methods by more than an order of magnitude. Specifically, we show that our algorithm is effective in urban environments, achieving reliable real-time localization with accuracy in the 10- centimeter range. Experimental results are provided for localization in GPS-denied environments, during bad weather, and in dense traffic. The proposed approach has been used successfully for steering a car through narrow, dynamic urban roads.

  • No title

    Visual information retrieval (VIR) is an active and vibrant research area, which attempts at providing means for organizing, indexing, annotating, and retrieving visual information (images and videos) from large, unstructured repositories. The goal of VIR is to retrieve matches ranked by their relevance to a given query, which is often expressed as an example image and/or a series of keywords. During its early years (1995-2000), the research efforts were dominated by content-based approaches contributed primarily by the image and video processing community. During the past decade, it was widely recognized that the challenges imposed by the lack of coincidence between an image's visual contents and its semantic interpretation, also known as semantic gap, required a clever use of textual metadata (in addition to information extracted from the image's pixel contents) to make image and video retrieval solutions efficient and effective. The need to bridge (or at least narrow) the semanti gap has been one of the driving forces behind current VIR research. Additionally, other related research problems and market opportunities have started to emerge, offering a broad range of exciting problems for computer scientists and engineers to work on. In this introductory book, we focus on a subset of VIR problems where the media consists of images, and the indexing and retrieval methods are based on the pixel contents of those images -- an approach known as content-based image retrieval (CBIR). We present an implementation-oriented overview of CBIR concepts, techniques, algorithms, and figures of merit. Most chapters are supported by examples written in Java, using Lucene (an open-source Java-based indexing and search implementation) and LIRE (Lucene Image REtrieval), an open-source Java-based library for CBIR. Table of Contents: Introduction / Information Retrieval: Selected Concepts and Techniques / Visual Features / Indexing Visual Features / LIRE: An Extensible Java CBIR Li rary / Concluding Remarks

  • Visual Route Recognition with a Handful of Bits

    In this paper we use a sequence-based visual localization algorithm to reveal surprising answers to the question, how much visual information is actually needed to conduct effective navigation? The algorithm actively searches for the best local image matches within a sliding window of short route segments or 'sub-routes', and matches sub-routes by searching for coherent sequences of local image matches. In contrast to many existing techniques, the technique requires no pre-training or camera parameter calibration. We compare the algorithm's performance to the state-of-the-art FAB-MAP 2.0 algorithm on a 70 km benchmark dataset. Performance matches or exceeds the state of the art feature-based localization technique using images as small as 4 pixels, fields of view reduced by a factor of 250, and pixel bit depths reduced to 2 bits. We present further results demonstrating the system localizing in an office environment with near 100% precision using two 7 bit Lego light sensors, as well as using 16 and 32 pixel images from a motorbike race and a mountain rally car stage. By demonstrating how little image information is required to achieve localization along a route, we hope to stimulate future 'low fidelity' approaches to visual navigation that complement probabilistic feature-based techniques.

  • Spectropolarimetric Imaging Techniques with Compressive Sensing

    We describe multi-dimensional imaging systems based on single-pixel photodetectors and compressive sensing techniques. The key element in all cases is a spatial light modulator which sequentially generates a set of intensity light patterns to sample the input object. The optical architectures use off-the-shelf detectors, such as beam polarimeters and fiber spectrometers, with no spatial structure. The developed optical systems are applied to polarimetric, multispectral, and spectropolarimetric imaging.



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