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In digital imaging, a pixel, or pel, (picture element) is a single point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable screen element in a display device; it is the smallest unit of picture that can be represented or controlled. (Wikipedia.org)

Conferences related to Pixel

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2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power

2019 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)

Early Vision and Sensors Color, Illumination and Texture Segmentation and Grouping Motion and TrackingStereo and Structure from Motion Image -Based Modeling Physics -Based Modeling Statistical Methods and Learning in VisionVideo Surveillance and Monitoring Object, Event and Scene Recognition Vision - Based Graphics Image and Video RetrievalPerformance Evaluation Applications

2018 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)

Industrial Informatics, Computational Intelligence, Control and Systems, Cyber-physicalSystems, Energy and Environment, Mechatronics, Power Electronics, Signal and InformationProcessing, Network and Communication Technologies

2018 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC)

IEEE CCNC 2018 will present the latest developments and technical solutions in the areas of home networking, consumer networking, enabling technologies (such as middleware) and novel applications and services. The conference will include a peer-reviewed program of technical sessions, special sessions, business application sessions, tutorials, and demonstration sessions

2018 23rd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC)

ASP-DAC 2018 is the 23rd annual international conference on VLSI design automation in Asia and South Pacific regions, one of the most active regions of design and fabrication of silicon chips in the world. The conference aims at providing the Asian and South Pacific CAD/DA and Design community with opportunities of presenting recent advances and with forums for future directions in technologies related to Electronic Design Automation (EDA). The format of the meeting intends to cultivate and promote an instructive and productive interchange of ideas among EDA researchers/developers and system/circuit/device designers. All scientists, engineers, and students who are interested in theoretical and practical aspects of VLSI design and design automation are welcomed to ASP-DAC.

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Periodicals related to Pixel

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.

Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...

Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.

Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Broadcast technology, including devices, equipment, techniques, and systems related to broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects.

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Xplore Articles related to Pixel

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A Hopfield Neural Network for Image Change Detection

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos y Programacion, Univ. Complutense de Madrid', u'full_name': u'G. Pajares'}] IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 2006

This paper outlines an optimization relaxation approach based on the analog Hopfield neural network (HNN) for solving the image change detection problem between two images. A difference image is obtained by subtracting pixel by pixel both images. The network topology is built so that each pixel in the difference image is a node in the network. Each node is characterized ...

A multi-stage classifier based algorithm of pedestrian detection in night with a near infrared camera in a moving car

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Dept.of Autom., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Hui Sun'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Dept.of Autom., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Chengying Hua'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Dept.of Autom., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Yupin Luo'}] Image and Graphics (ICIG'04), Third International Conference on, None

The paper presents an algorithm of pedestrian detection in night using a near infrared camera which is installed in a moving car. To deal with several kinds of primary disturbances in the road, we adopt a multi-stage classifier which eliminates certain kinds of disturbances in every stage. In the final stage, a classifier based on 2D pedestrian shape model is ...

Border Extraction Using Linked Edge Pyramids

None IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 1982


A new approach of generating atmospheric path radiation images based on atmospheric radiation transmittance theory

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Research Center of Remote Sensing and Spatial, Information Science, Shanghai University, China', u'full_name': u'Xiangyong Shi'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Research Center of Remote Sensing and Spatial, Information Science, Shanghai University, China', u'full_name': u'Xianhua Li'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Research Center of Remote Sensing and Spatial, Information Science, Shanghai University, China', u'full_name': u'Ruifang Zhu'}] 2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010), None

Atmospheric path radiation is an important source to monitor atmospheric pollution and quality effectively due to its feature depending on the status of atmosphere only but not involving ground information. Based on atmospheric radiation transmittance theory, a new approach of generating atmospheric path radiation images for inhomogenous atmosphere over land on MODIS remote sensing images is proposed through quantitative analysis ...

A decision network based frame-work for visual off-road path detection problem

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u"Dipt. di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Universita di Parma", u'full_name': u'A. Broggi'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u"Dipt. di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Universita di Parma", u'full_name': u'C. Caraffi'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u"Dipt. di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Universita di Parma", u'full_name': u'S. Cattani'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u"Dipt. di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Universita di Parma", u'full_name': u'R. I. Fedriga'}] 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, None

This paper describes a decision network based frame-work used for path- detection algorithm development in autonomous vehicle applications. Lane marker detection algorithms do not work in off-road environments. Off-road trails have too much complexity, with widely varying textures and many differing natural boundaries. The authors have developed a general approach. Images are segmented into regions, based on the homogeneity of ...

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Educational Resources on Pixel

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  • Radiation Imaging Detectors Using SOI Technology

    <p>Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology is widely used in high-performance and low-power semiconductor devices. The SOI wafers have two layers of active silicon (Si), and normally the bottom Si layer is a mere physical structure. The idea of making intelligent pixel detectors by using the bottom Si layer as sensors for X-ray, infrared light, high-energy particles, neutrons, etc. emerged from very early days of the SOI technology. However, there have been several difficult issues with fabricating such detectors and they have not become very popular until recently.</p><p>This book offers a comprehensive overview of the basic concepts and research issues of SOI radiation image detectors. It introduces basic issues to implement the SOI detector and presents how to solve these issues. It also reveals fundamental techniques, improvement of radiation tolerance, applications, and examples of the detectors.</p><p>Since the SOI detector has both a thick ensing region and CMOS transistors in a monolithic die, many ideas have emerged to utilize this technology. This book is a good introduction for people who want to develop or use SOI detectors.</p>

  • CMOS Dual&#x2010;mode pH&#x2010;Image Sensor

    This chapter develops a dual‐mode sensor to provide an image as well as pH information for sample analysis. In addition to the pH sensing, the chapter introduces optical sensing for the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) ion‐sensitive field‐effect transistor (ISFET). The chapter compares the schematics for 4 T‐ CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) pixel and ISFET pixel with the proposed dual‐mode pixel. When the chip area of a CMOS sensor array is fixed, the only way to improve throughput is to reduce the pixel size and increase the pixel number. The correlated double sampling (CDS) readout circuit for CIS is realized through the signal chain of CIS pixel, column S/H, and switched‐capacitor amplifier. The chapter illustrates top architecture of the dual‐mode sensor, including a 64 × 64 dual‐mode pixel array, S/H circuit, and global switched‐capacitor operational amplifier for CDS readout, 12‐bit pipelined analog‐to‐digital conversion (ADC), and row/column decoders.

  • CMOS Image Sensor

    The solid‐state image sensor is the critical component of photo‐electronic devices such as mobile phones, digital video cameras, automotive imaging, surveillance, and biometrics. Two types of solid‐state image sensor technologies have been developed: charged coupled devices (CCD) and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS). This chapter introduces the low‐noise CIS sensor design for biomedical application. It analyzes the key sensor design block pixel and associated noise sources. The chapter then discusses the different sensor readout architectures. Noise appearing in a reproduced image, which is "fixed" at certain spatial positions, is referred to as fixed pattern noise (FPN), usually caused by the CIS readout circuitry. Dark current FPN due to the mismatches in the pixel photodiode leakage currents tends to dominate the non‐coherent component of FPN, especially with long exposure times. The chapter also introduces 3 Meg pixel CIS design, and evaluates sensor performance for lens less imaging system.

  • CMOS Dual&#x2010;mode Energy&#x2010;harvesting&#x2010;image Sensor

    Recently, with the benefit of low power, high speed, and feasibility of system‐on‐chip (SoC) integration, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS) are replacing power‐hungry charge‐coupled devices (CCD) in many biomedical applications. This chapter introduces an energy harvesting type ultra‐low‐power CIS design with an integrated power management system (PMS) towards personal diagnosis application. It explains the design details of the new energy high‐energy harvesting image (EHI) pixel structure and pixel operations. The chapter describes the details of the readout circuitry block design, as well as other ultra‐low power functional imaging and energy harvesting blocks. It also introduces the overall architecture of the EHI imager with PMS. With the 96 × 96 sensor array under 1‐V power supply, the power consumption is only 6 μW with 5 fps speed, and simulated and measured performance characteristics of the EHI CIS are also presented.

  • CMOS Impedance Sensor

    This chapter discusses a high‐density complimentary metal‐oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electrical‐impedance spectroscopy (EIS) biosensor array for precise counting of breast cancer MCF‐7 cells. The device consists of a 96 × 96 array of densely packed active microelectrodes in an area of 3 mm × 3 mm to enable counting over a wide range of MCF‐7 cells. The chapter analyses the impedance percentage change over a large number of working electrodes by incubating with a large number of cells. The results indicated clearly that the impedance change of the electrode covered by cells is more than 7%, whereas the impedance change in the control experiment by changing the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution is negligible. The chapter describes CMOS impedance pixel array, equivalent circuit model, and the working principle, and then employs a readout scheme. It illustrates the overall architecture of the 96 × 96 impedance sensing system.

  • CMOS Sensor Design

    This chapter introduces basic column circuit blocks, such as the column amplifier and single‐slope analog‐to‐digital converter (ADC). It then introduces readout strategies, correlated double sampling, and correlated multiple sampling for high‐performance sensing. The chapter discusses row or column timing control blocks that determine operations and readout of the pixel array. It presents the widely used low‐power and high‐speed interface, low‐voltage differential signaling (LVDS) that meets the requirements of modern high‐throughput applications. The chapter illustrates the origin of thermal noise, flicker noise, and shot noise in circuit design. It discloses two types of the popular structures, including the Nyquist‐rate single‐slope ADC for area‐efficient sensing and oversampling sigma‐delta ADC for low‐noise and high‐resolution detection. The chapter proposes interface standards, such as voltage‐mode logic (VML), current‐mode logic (CML), and LVDS. It introduces the widely‐used LVDS readout strategy found in most large array complimentary metal‐oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors.

  • Optical Camera Communication: Fundamentals

    This chapter discusses the fundamentals of optical camera communication (OCC), with the OCC system employing the pervasive image sensor assembled in consumer electrons as the receiver. It occupies a wide spectrum, and can be easily built upon pervasive optical light sources and the pervasive consumer cameras. OCC emerges as a new form of visible light communication. It employs an image sensor assembled in consumer electronic devices, such as smartphone, iPad as a receiver to serve as an alternative to the photodiode (PD) or avalanche photodiode (APD) based receiver. The major driving force of OCC applications stems from the availability of commercial visible light LEDs for data transmission and the possibility of utilizing the camera in the smart devices to decode signal received from LEDs. The imaging lens projects light on to the image sensor, which is comprised of multiple PD‐based pixels to detect the incident optical (photon) radiation. Each activated pixel generates a voltage proportional to the number of impinging photons.

  • Optical Camera Communication: Modulation and System Design

    This chapter reviews modulation schemes and discusses system design issues in optical camera communication (OCC). It can be accomplished by employing multilevel coding (MLC) and multi‐stage decoding (MSD) with a deterministic mapper applied to multiple binary linear codes. Furthermore, a non‐uniform map per coupled with a binary low density parity check (LDPC) code can be used to generate the desired in put distribution. The pixel, being basically a power detection unit and a fundamental element in an image sensor, responds to the instantaneous field count rate process. Its output appears as hot noise process, whose count rate is proportional to the instantaneous received power. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is one of the most popular intensity modulation schemes developed for an optical communication system, and on‐off keying (OOK), as a binary‐level version of PAM, is also widely used.

  • A Survey of Photometric Stereo Techniques

    Reconstructing the shape of an object from images is an important problem in computer vision that has led to a variety of solution strategies. This monograph focuses on photometric stereo, that is, techniques that exploit the observed intensity variations caused by illumination changes to recover the orientation of the surface. In the most basic setting, a diffuse surface is illuminated from at least three directions and captured with a static camera. Under some conditions, this allows to recover per-pixel surface normals. Modern approaches generalize photometric stereo in various ways; for example, relaxing constraints on lighting, surface reflectance and camera placement, or creating different types of local surface estimates. Starting with an introduction for readers unfamiliar with the subject, A Survey of Photometric Stereo Techniques discusses the foundations of this field of research. It then summarizes important trends and developments that have emerged in the last three decad s. The focus is on approaches with the potential to be applied in a broad range of scenarios. This implies, for example, simple capture setups, relaxed model assumptions, and increased robustness requirements. This is an ideal reference for anyone looking for an understanding of the diverse concepts and ideas around this topic and how we can move towards more general techniques than traditional photometric stereo

  • Image Alignment and Stitching:A Tutorial

    Image Alignment and Stitching: A Tutorial reviews image alignment and image stitching algorithms. Image alignment algorithms can discover the correspondence relationships among images with varying degrees of overlap. They are ideally suited for applications such as video stabilization, summarization, and the creation of panoramic mosaics. Image stitching algorithms take the alignment estimates produced by such registration algorithms and blend the images in a seamless manner, taking care to deal with potential problems such as blurring or ghosting caused by parallax and scene movement as well as varying image exposures. Image Alignment and Stitching: A Tutorial reviews the basic motion models underlying alignment and stitching algorithms, describes effective direct (pixel-based) and feature-based alignment algorithms, and describes blending algorithms used to produce seamless mosaics. It closes with a discussion of open research problems in the area. Image Alignment and Stitching: A T torial is an invaluable resource for anyone planning or conducting research in this particular area, or computer vision generally. The essentials of the topic are presented in a tutorial style and an extensive bibliography guides towards further reading.

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