Pixel

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In digital imaging, a pixel, or pel, (picture element) is a single point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable screen element in a display device; it is the smallest unit of picture that can be represented or controlled. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Pixel

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2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power


2019 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)

Early Vision and Sensors Color, Illumination and Texture Segmentation and Grouping Motion and TrackingStereo and Structure from Motion Image -Based Modeling Physics -Based Modeling Statistical Methods and Learning in VisionVideo Surveillance and Monitoring Object, Event and Scene Recognition Vision - Based Graphics Image and Video RetrievalPerformance Evaluation Applications


2018 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)

Industrial Informatics, Computational Intelligence, Control and Systems, Cyber-physicalSystems, Energy and Environment, Mechatronics, Power Electronics, Signal and InformationProcessing, Network and Communication Technologies


2018 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC)

IEEE CCNC 2018 will present the latest developments and technical solutions in the areas of home networking, consumer networking, enabling technologies (such as middleware) and novel applications and services. The conference will include a peer-reviewed program of technical sessions, special sessions, business application sessions, tutorials, and demonstration sessions


2018 23rd Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC)

ASP-DAC 2018 is the 23rd annual international conference on VLSI design automation in Asia and South Pacific regions, one of the most active regions of design and fabrication of silicon chips in the world. The conference aims at providing the Asian and South Pacific CAD/DA and Design community with opportunities of presenting recent advances and with forums for future directions in technologies related to Electronic Design Automation (EDA). The format of the meeting intends to cultivate and promote an instructive and productive interchange of ideas among EDA researchers/developers and system/circuit/device designers. All scientists, engineers, and students who are interested in theoretical and practical aspects of VLSI design and design automation are welcomed to ASP-DAC.


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Periodicals related to Pixel

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Broadcast technology, including devices, equipment, techniques, and systems related to broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects.


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Xplore Articles related to Pixel

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Bayesian marker extraction for color watershed in segmenting microscopic images

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'IUT SRC, LUSAC, Saint-Louis, France', u'full_name': u'O. Lezoray'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'IUT SRC, LUSAC, Saint-Louis, France', u'full_name': u'H. Cardot'}] Object recognition supported by user interaction for service robots, None

In this paper we study the ability of the cooperation of Bayesian color pixel classification in extracting seeds for color watershed. Using color pixel classification alone does not extract accurately enough color regions so we suggest to use a strategy based on three steps: simplification, Bayesian classification and color watershed color watershed is based on an aggregation function using local ...


Peak detection in Hough transform via self-organizing learning

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Dept. of Electron. Eng., Hong Kong Polytech., Kowloon, Hong Kong', u'full_name': u'C. S. -T. Choy'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Dept. of Electron. Eng., Hong Kong Polytech., Kowloon, Hong Kong', u'full_name': u'P. -K. Ser'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Dept. of Electron. Eng., Hong Kong Polytech., Kowloon, Hong Kong', u'full_name': u'W. -C. Siu'}] Circuits and Systems, 1995. ISCAS '95., 1995 IEEE International Symposium on, None

In this paper, we suggest a novel concept of applying the self-organizing map (SOM) in the Hough domain for a significant reduction of the Hough space. By using the SOM as the output space of the generalized Hough transform, the conventional 4-D Hough domain is replaced by a 10×10 map, organized in a rectangular grid. Experimental results indicate high accuracy ...


Synthesis of VLSI architectures for two-dimensional discrete wavelet transforms

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Dept. of Electr. Eng. Syst., Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA', u'full_name': u'Jongwoo Bae'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Dept. of Electr. Eng. Syst., Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA', u'full_name': u'V. K. Prasanna'}] Proceedings The International Conference on Application Specific Array Processors, None

We propose VLSI architectures with parallel I/O capability to compute the Two- Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform. Our design can handle large images arriving at high frame rates. A video codec based on our architecture can support multiple channels in parallel and can provide the needed performance for network based video applications. Our architecture with parallel I/O offers a solution for ...


Statistical Sinogram Smoothing for Low-Dose CT With Segmentation-Based Adaptive Filtering

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u"School of Computer Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, China", u'full_name': u'Yuanke Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u"School of Computer Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, China", u'full_name': u'Junying Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u"Department of Biomedical Engineering/Computer Application, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China", u'full_name': u'Hongbing Lu'}] IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2010

As is known, noises in calibrated and log-transformed projection data of low- mA (or low-dose) CT protocol follow approximately a non-stationary Gaussian distribution. In this study, we further demonstrate that some isolated noise points would not satisfy the above observation. Hence, we propose a noise reduction scheme which includes isolated data removal and segmentation-based filtering. In this scheme, an isolated ...


Polar sea-ice classification using enhanced resolution NSCAT data

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT, USA', u'full_name': u'Q. P. Remund'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'full_name': u'D. G. Long'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'full_name': u'M. R. Drinkwater'}] Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proceedings, 1998. IGARSS '98. 1998 IEEE International, None

The NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) collected Ku-band scatterometer measurements from September 1996 to June 1997. These data are converted high resolution six day images of the polar regions through the use of the scatterometer image reconstruction with filter (SIRF) algorithm. SIRF produces images of A and B where A is σ0 at 40° incidence and B is the incidence angle dependence ...


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Educational Resources on Pixel

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eLearning

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Radiation Imaging Detectors Using SOI Technology

    <p>Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology is widely used in high-performance and low-power semiconductor devices. The SOI wafers have two layers of active silicon (Si), and normally the bottom Si layer is a mere physical structure. The idea of making intelligent pixel detectors by using the bottom Si layer as sensors for X-ray, infrared light, high-energy particles, neutrons, etc. emerged from very early days of the SOI technology. However, there have been several difficult issues with fabricating such detectors and they have not become very popular until recently.</p><p>This book offers a comprehensive overview of the basic concepts and research issues of SOI radiation image detectors. It introduces basic issues to implement the SOI detector and presents how to solve these issues. It also reveals fundamental techniques, improvement of radiation tolerance, applications, and examples of the detectors.</p><p>Since the SOI detector has both a thick ensing region and CMOS transistors in a monolithic die, many ideas have emerged to utilize this technology. This book is a good introduction for people who want to develop or use SOI detectors.</p>

  • CMOS Dual&#x2010;mode pH&#x2010;Image Sensor

    This chapter develops a dual‐mode sensor to provide an image as well as pH information for sample analysis. In addition to the pH sensing, the chapter introduces optical sensing for the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) ion‐sensitive field‐effect transistor (ISFET). The chapter compares the schematics for 4 T‐ CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) pixel and ISFET pixel with the proposed dual‐mode pixel. When the chip area of a CMOS sensor array is fixed, the only way to improve throughput is to reduce the pixel size and increase the pixel number. The correlated double sampling (CDS) readout circuit for CIS is realized through the signal chain of CIS pixel, column S/H, and switched‐capacitor amplifier. The chapter illustrates top architecture of the dual‐mode sensor, including a 64 × 64 dual‐mode pixel array, S/H circuit, and global switched‐capacitor operational amplifier for CDS readout, 12‐bit pipelined analog‐to‐digital conversion (ADC), and row/column decoders.

  • CMOS Image Sensor

    The solid‐state image sensor is the critical component of photo‐electronic devices such as mobile phones, digital video cameras, automotive imaging, surveillance, and biometrics. Two types of solid‐state image sensor technologies have been developed: charged coupled devices (CCD) and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS). This chapter introduces the low‐noise CIS sensor design for biomedical application. It analyzes the key sensor design block pixel and associated noise sources. The chapter then discusses the different sensor readout architectures. Noise appearing in a reproduced image, which is "fixed" at certain spatial positions, is referred to as fixed pattern noise (FPN), usually caused by the CIS readout circuitry. Dark current FPN due to the mismatches in the pixel photodiode leakage currents tends to dominate the non‐coherent component of FPN, especially with long exposure times. The chapter also introduces 3 Meg pixel CIS design, and evaluates sensor performance for lens less imaging system.

  • CMOS Dual&#x2010;mode Energy&#x2010;harvesting&#x2010;image Sensor

    Recently, with the benefit of low power, high speed, and feasibility of system‐on‐chip (SoC) integration, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors (CIS) are replacing power‐hungry charge‐coupled devices (CCD) in many biomedical applications. This chapter introduces an energy harvesting type ultra‐low‐power CIS design with an integrated power management system (PMS) towards personal diagnosis application. It explains the design details of the new energy high‐energy harvesting image (EHI) pixel structure and pixel operations. The chapter describes the details of the readout circuitry block design, as well as other ultra‐low power functional imaging and energy harvesting blocks. It also introduces the overall architecture of the EHI imager with PMS. With the 96 × 96 sensor array under 1‐V power supply, the power consumption is only 6 μW with 5 fps speed, and simulated and measured performance characteristics of the EHI CIS are also presented.

  • CMOS Impedance Sensor

    This chapter discusses a high‐density complimentary metal‐oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electrical‐impedance spectroscopy (EIS) biosensor array for precise counting of breast cancer MCF‐7 cells. The device consists of a 96 × 96 array of densely packed active microelectrodes in an area of 3 mm × 3 mm to enable counting over a wide range of MCF‐7 cells. The chapter analyses the impedance percentage change over a large number of working electrodes by incubating with a large number of cells. The results indicated clearly that the impedance change of the electrode covered by cells is more than 7%, whereas the impedance change in the control experiment by changing the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution is negligible. The chapter describes CMOS impedance pixel array, equivalent circuit model, and the working principle, and then employs a readout scheme. It illustrates the overall architecture of the 96 × 96 impedance sensing system.

  • CMOS Sensor Design

    This chapter introduces basic column circuit blocks, such as the column amplifier and single‐slope analog‐to‐digital converter (ADC). It then introduces readout strategies, correlated double sampling, and correlated multiple sampling for high‐performance sensing. The chapter discusses row or column timing control blocks that determine operations and readout of the pixel array. It presents the widely used low‐power and high‐speed interface, low‐voltage differential signaling (LVDS) that meets the requirements of modern high‐throughput applications. The chapter illustrates the origin of thermal noise, flicker noise, and shot noise in circuit design. It discloses two types of the popular structures, including the Nyquist‐rate single‐slope ADC for area‐efficient sensing and oversampling sigma‐delta ADC for low‐noise and high‐resolution detection. The chapter proposes interface standards, such as voltage‐mode logic (VML), current‐mode logic (CML), and LVDS. It introduces the widely‐used LVDS readout strategy found in most large array complimentary metal‐oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors.

  • Optical Camera Communication: Fundamentals

    This chapter discusses the fundamentals of optical camera communication (OCC), with the OCC system employing the pervasive image sensor assembled in consumer electrons as the receiver. It occupies a wide spectrum, and can be easily built upon pervasive optical light sources and the pervasive consumer cameras. OCC emerges as a new form of visible light communication. It employs an image sensor assembled in consumer electronic devices, such as smartphone, iPad as a receiver to serve as an alternative to the photodiode (PD) or avalanche photodiode (APD) based receiver. The major driving force of OCC applications stems from the availability of commercial visible light LEDs for data transmission and the possibility of utilizing the camera in the smart devices to decode signal received from LEDs. The imaging lens projects light on to the image sensor, which is comprised of multiple PD‐based pixels to detect the incident optical (photon) radiation. Each activated pixel generates a voltage proportional to the number of impinging photons.

  • Optical Camera Communication: Modulation and System Design

    This chapter reviews modulation schemes and discusses system design issues in optical camera communication (OCC). It can be accomplished by employing multilevel coding (MLC) and multi‐stage decoding (MSD) with a deterministic mapper applied to multiple binary linear codes. Furthermore, a non‐uniform map per coupled with a binary low density parity check (LDPC) code can be used to generate the desired in put distribution. The pixel, being basically a power detection unit and a fundamental element in an image sensor, responds to the instantaneous field count rate process. Its output appears as hot noise process, whose count rate is proportional to the instantaneous received power. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is one of the most popular intensity modulation schemes developed for an optical communication system, and on‐off keying (OOK), as a binary‐level version of PAM, is also widely used.

  • Image and Video Matting:A Survey

    If you've ever wanted to add that missing member of your family to a group photograph, you can now, given newly developed technology. Simply find a picture of the missing person, determine a "matte" that will lift them out and leave the background behind, and use the matte to insert them in the original image. Matting refers to the problem of accurate foreground estimation in images and video. The matte defines which pixels are foreground, which are background, and for pixels along the boundary or in semi-transparent regions such as hair, the matte defines the mixture of foreground and background at each pixel. Matting is one of the key techniques in many image editing and film production applications, thus has been extensively studied in the research literature. With the recent advances of digital cameras, using matting techniques to create novel composites or facilitate other editing tasks has gained increasing interest from both professionals as well as consumers. Consequently, va ious matting techniques and systems have been proposed to try to efficiently extract high quality mattes from both still images and video sequences. Image and Video Matting: A Survey provides a comprehensive review of existing image and video matting algorithms and systems, with an emphasis on the advanced techniques that have been recently proposed. Various methods are described and contrasted and finally tested against a uniform set of examples. Image and Video Matting: A Survey is most appropriate for a graduate level course in computational photography, or for any student or serious practitioner interested in the inner workings of matting methods.

  • A Survey of Photometric Stereo Techniques

    Reconstructing the shape of an object from images is an important problem in computer vision that has led to a variety of solution strategies. This monograph focuses on photometric stereo, that is, techniques that exploit the observed intensity variations caused by illumination changes to recover the orientation of the surface. In the most basic setting, a diffuse surface is illuminated from at least three directions and captured with a static camera. Under some conditions, this allows to recover per-pixel surface normals. Modern approaches generalize photometric stereo in various ways; for example, relaxing constraints on lighting, surface reflectance and camera placement, or creating different types of local surface estimates. Starting with an introduction for readers unfamiliar with the subject, A Survey of Photometric Stereo Techniques discusses the foundations of this field of research. It then summarizes important trends and developments that have emerged in the last three decad s. The focus is on approaches with the potential to be applied in a broad range of scenarios. This implies, for example, simple capture setups, relaxed model assumptions, and increased robustness requirements. This is an ideal reference for anyone looking for an understanding of the diverse concepts and ideas around this topic and how we can move towards more general techniques than traditional photometric stereo




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