Pituitary gland

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In vertebrate anatomy the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 g (0.02 oz. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Pituitary gland

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2019 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops andinvitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields ofbiomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality paperswill be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and willbe indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE & IEEE Xplore


2019 IEEE 58th Conference on Decision and Control (CDC)

The CDC is recognized as the premier scientific and engineering conference dedicated to the advancement of the theory and practice of systems and control. The CDC annually brings together an international community of researchers and practitioners in the field of automatic control to discuss new research results, perspectives on future developments, and innovative applications relevant to decision making, systems and control, and related areas.The 58th CDC will feature contributed and invited papers, as well as workshops and may include tutorial sessions.The IEEE CDC is hosted by the IEEE Control Systems Society (CSS) in cooperation with the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM), the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS), the Japanese Society for Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE), and the European Union Control Association (EUCA).


2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC)

2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC2019) will be held in the south of Europe in Bari, one of the most beautiful and historical cities in Italy. The Bari region’s nickname is “Little California” for its nice weather and Bari's cuisine is one of Italian most traditional , based of local seafood and olive oil. SMC2019 is the flagship conference of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society. It provides an international forum for researchers and practitioners to report up-to-the-minute innovations and developments, summarize state­of-the-art, and exchange ideas and advances in all aspects of systems science and engineering, human machine systems and cybernetics. Advances have importance in the creation of intelligent environments involving technologies interacting with humans to provide an enriching experience, and thereby improve quality of life.


2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)

robotics, intelligent systems, automation, mechatronics, micro/nano technologies, AI,


2010 2nd International Conference on Information Engineering and Computer Science (ICIECS)

ICIECS2010 will be held on December 25-26, 2010 in Wuhan, China. This conference will bring together the top researchers from Asian Pacific nations, North America, Europe and around the world to exchange their research results and address open issues in Surveying and Mapping, Artificial Intelligence and Its Application, Image Processing and Digital Signal Processing, Computer Modeling and Simulation, and Software Engineering.

  • 2009 International Conference on Information Engineering and Computer Science (ICIECS)

    ICIECS2009 will be held on December 19-20, 2009 in Wuhan, China. This conference will bring together the top researchers from Asian Pacific nations, North America, Europe and around the world to exchange their research results and address open issues in Surveying and Mapping, Artificial Intelligence and Its Application, Image Processing and Digital Signal Processing, Computer Modeling and Simulation, and Software Engineering.



Periodicals related to Pituitary gland

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.




Xplore Articles related to Pituitary gland

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Maintenance of prostatic function by means of exogenous sustained delivery of testosterone in castrated male rats

Proceedings of the 1997 16 Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference, 1997

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various dosages of testosterone (T) delivered in a sustained manner by means of a tricalcium phosphate-lysine (TCPL) delivery system on morphological changes of prostatic tissue using adult male rats as a model. In this experiment, adult male rats (250-300 g BW) were randomly divided into five equal groups (n=8). ...


Fertility information appliance

Proceedings of 15th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS 2002), 2002

Fertility awareness or natural family planning has been used successfully since the 1930s to predict a woman's fertile days. These natural methods are based on the fact that fertilization is most likely to occur around the time of ovulation. Intercourse is avoided during those times when a woman is fertile, thus preventing conception. In this paper, we present a fertility ...


A multiscale model for the selection process of ovulatory follicles

2005 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 27th Annual Conference, 2006

The biological meaning of follicular development is to free fertilizable oocytes at the time of ovulation. The selection of ovulatory follicles in mammal ovaries is an FSH-dependent selection process. In this paper, we design a multi-scale model of follicular development, where selection arises from the feedback between the ovaries and the pituitary gland and appeals to control theory concepts. Each ...


Re-investigation of the mechanism of trilogy imaging characteristics on TTM in cancer patients

The 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2004

According to neuro-endocrine-immune theory, we have done research and tried to find possible explanations of the relationship of trilogy imaging characteristics of thermal texture mapping (TTM) and patients with the malignancies, or the patients susceptible to malignancies. We performed another two experiments to study mechanism of trilogy imaging characteristics, however, the result was not as expected. We have to reconsider ...


Fast 3D chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging

Images of the Twenty-First Century. Proceedings of the Annual International Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society,, 1989

Two methods of water/fat suppression are investigated. The first, selective excitation, suppresses approximately 70% of fat or water signals. The second method, a phase-sensitive modification of the Dixon technique, achieves more than 95% fat or water suppression. Fat-suppressed data acquisition is applied to musculoskeletal and CNS imaging. In comparison to standard 3-D images, these sequences provide an enhanced demonstration of ...


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  • Maintenance of prostatic function by means of exogenous sustained delivery of testosterone in castrated male rats

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various dosages of testosterone (T) delivered in a sustained manner by means of a tricalcium phosphate-lysine (TCPL) delivery system on morphological changes of prostatic tissue using adult male rats as a model. In this experiment, adult male rats (250-300 g BW) were randomly divided into five equal groups (n=8). Rats in group I, II, and III were implanted subcutaneously with TCPL loaded with three different dosages (10, 100 and 200 mg, respectively) of T. Rats in group IV were implanted with sham TCPL capsules, and rats in group V served as intact unimplanted controls. At the end of 8 weeks post implantation, all animals were sacrificed and the prostate tissues were collected, weighted, and embedded for histo-pathological evaluations. Data collected from this study have shown that exogenous intake of T delivered in a sustained manner for eight weeks induced several pathophysiological conditions in ventral prostatic tissue in comparison to the control and sham operated groups. This phenomenon was found to be directly proportional to the dose or the level of sustained delivery. The results demonstrated that the use of 10 mg filled TCPL implants decreased the total mass weight of ventral prostate. Light microscopic evaluation of this group (Group I) revealed a cellular adaptation through an atrophy in the epithelium component. Cytopathological observations such as low cuboidal and thin glands, pleomorphism, and occasional presence of connective tissue stroma were detected. In contrast, ventral prostate collected from animals implanted with TCPL filled with 200 mg T (Group III) showed a significant increase in weights of the wet prostatic tissues in comparison to all groups. Histopathological evaluations demonstrated the following: (i) prostatic hypertrophy alone, or in conjunction with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells, (ii) less connective tissue stroma in comparison to the control group, (iii) occasional involvement of mitotic figures, and (iv) increased angiogenesis. No significant change was observed in those animals implanted with TCPL capsules containing 100 mg T compared to the intact control animals.

  • Fertility information appliance

    Fertility awareness or natural family planning has been used successfully since the 1930s to predict a woman's fertile days. These natural methods are based on the fact that fertilization is most likely to occur around the time of ovulation. Intercourse is avoided during those times when a woman is fertile, thus preventing conception. In this paper, we present a fertility information appliance that combines ovulation, symptom-thermal and LH (luteinizing hormone) methods. The appliance is implemented using a neurofuzzy approach. The device has other features such as PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) and TCP/IP implementation for e-mail and file transfer via a modem.

  • A multiscale model for the selection process of ovulatory follicles

    The biological meaning of follicular development is to free fertilizable oocytes at the time of ovulation. The selection of ovulatory follicles in mammal ovaries is an FSH-dependent selection process. In this paper, we design a multi-scale model of follicular development, where selection arises from the feedback between the ovaries and the pituitary gland and appeals to control theory concepts. Each ovarian follicle is characterized by a 2D density function giving an age and maturity-structured description of its cell population. The control intervenes in the velocity and loss terms of the conservation law ruling the changes in the density. The numerical outputs of the model, integrated with the finite volume method, are consistent with physiological knowledge

  • Re-investigation of the mechanism of trilogy imaging characteristics on TTM in cancer patients

    According to neuro-endocrine-immune theory, we have done research and tried to find possible explanations of the relationship of trilogy imaging characteristics of thermal texture mapping (TTM) and patients with the malignancies, or the patients susceptible to malignancies. We performed another two experiments to study mechanism of trilogy imaging characteristics, however, the result was not as expected. We have to reconsider the relationship between 3 tumor platforms and hypothalamus-thyroid-pancreas. Is there any possible mechanism?.

  • Fast 3D chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging

    Two methods of water/fat suppression are investigated. The first, selective excitation, suppresses approximately 70% of fat or water signals. The second method, a phase-sensitive modification of the Dixon technique, achieves more than 95% fat or water suppression. Fat-suppressed data acquisition is applied to musculoskeletal and CNS imaging. In comparison to standard 3-D images, these sequences provide an enhanced demonstration of bone marrow and cartilage pathology in musculoskeletal imaging, and better delineation of normal morphology and tumors of the pituitary gland in CNS imaging. The technique is especially effective when used in conjunction with administration of a paramagnetic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine).<<ETX>>

  • Optimized Multistable Stochastic Resonance for the Enhancement of Pituitary Microadenoma in MRI

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice as far as imaging diagnosis of pathologies in the pituitary gland is concerned. Furthermore, the advent of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) has enhanced the capability of this modality in detecting minute benign but endocrinologically significant tumors called microadenoma. These lesions are visible with difficulty and a low confidence level in routine MRI sequences, even after administration of intravenous gadolinium. Techniques to enhance the visualization of such foci would be an asset in improving the overall accuracy of DCE-MRI for detection of pituitary microadenomas. The present study proposes an algorithm for postprocessing DCE-MRI data using multistable stochastic resonance (MSSR) technique. Multiobjective ant lion optimization optimizes the contrast enhancement factor (CEF) and anisotropy of an image by varying the parameters associated with the dynamics of MSSR. The marked regions of interest (ROIs) are labeled as normal and microadenoma of pituitary obtained with increased level of accuracy and confidence using proposed algorithm. The increased difference between the mean intensity curves obtained using these ROIs validated the obtained subjective results. Furthermore, the proposed MSSR- based algorithm has been evaluated on standard T1 and T2 weighted BrainWeb dataset images and quantified in terms of CEF, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), structure similarity index measure (SSIM), and universal quality index (UQI). The obtained mean values of CEF 1.22, PSNR 27.68, SSIM 0.75, UQI 0.83 for twenty dataset images were highest among considered contrast enhancement algorithms for the comparison.

  • Classification of plasma cortisol patterns in normal subjects and in Cushing's syndrome

    A pattern recognition system for computer classification of cortisol time series into the normal class and subclasses of Cushing's syndrome with different etiologies was developed. Discriminatory features are extracted from Fourier analysis and Karhunen-Loeve expansion coefficient or cortisol time series. Decision functions are trained by the least mean square error (LMSE) algorithm and tested by the jackknife test procedure on a database of 90 normal and patient patterns. The classification accuracy for normal, pituitary, adrenal, and ectopic classes is 100. 98.1, 98.3. and 100%, respectively. Hence, this pattern recognition system may be useful as an aid in the differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Twenty-four-hour 24-h cortisol patterns can be easily obtained in a clinical research unit. This recognition system can be upgraded as new time series become available.<<ETX>>

  • Analysis of the Adrenocortical Steady-State Characteristics

    The nature of the input signals to the adrenal gland looked upon as a "black box" and the gland's steady-state characteristics with respect to its input channels are analyzed in this correspondence; new experimental data as well as published data are considered. It is shown that the organ has two independent inputs, ACTH concentration of the arterial blood and blood flow through the gland; and, further, that at steady-state the adrenocortical output is linearly related to the absolute Palue of the blood flow under constant ACTH concentration of the adrenal arterial blood and linearly related to the logarithm of ACTH concentration under constant blood flow. This concept replaces the earlier notion of a linear relationship between adrenocortical steady-state response and the logarithm of the product of adrenal blood flow and ACTH concentration.

  • Electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency (60Hz and 120Hz) effects the cell cycle progression and the metabolic activity of the anterior pituitary gland cells in vitro

    The paper shows the results of experiments performed at cultures of the anterior pituitary gland cells of domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica) in vitro. The cells were subjected to the influence of electromagnetic field of extremely low frequencies (60 and 120 Hz) by two hours. We analyzed the cell cycle progression and the metabolic activity. The analysis of the viability and the cell cycle was performed immediately and 24 hours after the end of the experiment. The presented studies indicate on the antiproliferative properties of an electromagnetic field in the tested range of frequencies (60 and 120Hz) by inhibition of cell cycle progression in G0/G1 phase.

  • A Nonlinear Time-Varying Mathematical Analog of the Gluco-Corticoid Control

    The basic characteristics contributing to the nonlinear time-varying gluco- corticoid control mechanism in 300-gram male rats fasted 18 hours have been formulated. Intact animal time responses of the plasma levels of corticosterone to intraperitoneally injected doses of 50, 200, and 500 μg/kg simulated on an analog computer were compared with the experimental results. Nonlinear time-dependent characteristics of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal complex, previously unobtainable experimentally, were arrived at indirectly through the use of experimental data and simple control theory analysis. Involved compartmental analysis of the complex kinetics for the intraperitoneally injected dose was bypassed by using experimental data and concepts of control mechanisms. The model was found to be compatible with the linear model of Yates.



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