Conferences related to Morphology

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2018 25th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)

The International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), sponsored by the IEEE Signal Processing Society, is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances and research results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and applied image and video processing. ICIP 2018, the 25th in the series that has been held annually since 1994, brings together leading engineers and scientists in image and video processing from around the world.


2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2018 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC)

Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create a forum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latest advancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2017 29th Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create a forum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latest advancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2016 Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create aforum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latestadvancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2015 27th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create a forum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latest advancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2014 26th Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create aforum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latestadvancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2013 25th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create a forum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latest advancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2012 24th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create a forum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latest advancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2011 23rd Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create a forum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latest advancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2010 Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create a forum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latest advancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies

  • 2009 Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)

    Chinese Control and Decision Conference is an annual international conference to create a forum for scientists, engineers and practitioners throughout the world to present the latest advancement in Control, Decision, Automation, Robotics and Emerging Technologies.

  • 2008 Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC)


2018 IEEE 15th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2018)

The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2018 will be the 15th meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2018 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2019 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging.ISBI 2019 will be the 16th meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2019 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering cross fertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2017 IEEE 14th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2017)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2017 will be the 14th meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2017 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2016 IEEE 13th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2016)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forumfor the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2016 willbe the thirteenth meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitatinginteraction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2016 meeting will continue thistradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrativeapproach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2015 IEEE 12th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2015)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2015 will be the 12th meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2014 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2014 IEEE 11th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2014)

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is the premier forum for the presentation of technological advances in theoretical and applied biomedical imaging. ISBI 2014 will be the eleventh meeting in this series. The previous meetings have played a leading role in facilitating interaction between researchers in medical and biological imaging. The 2014 meeting will continue this tradition of fostering crossfertilization among different imaging communities and contributing to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging across all scales of observation.

  • 2013 IEEE 10th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2013)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2012 IEEE 9th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2012)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2011 IEEE 8th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2011)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2010 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2010)

    To serve the biological, biomedical, bioengineering, bioimaging, and other technical communities through a quality program of presentations and papers on the foundation, application, development, and use of biomedical imaging.

  • 2009 IEEE 6th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2009)

    Algorithmic, mathematical and computational aspects of biomedical imaging, from nano- to macroscale. Topics of interest include image formation and reconstruction, computational and statistical image processing and analysis, dynamic imaging, visualization, image quality assessment, and physical, biological and statistical modeling. Molecular, cellular, anatomical and functional imaging modalities and applications.

  • 2008 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI 2008)

    Algorithmic, mathematical and computational aspects of biomedical imaging, from nano- to macroscale. Topics of interest include image formation and reconstruction, computational and statistical image processing and analysis, dynamic imaging, visualization, image quality assessment, and physical, biological and statistical modeling. Molecular, cellular, anatomical and functional imaging modalities and applications.

  • 2007 IEEE 4th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Macro to Nano (ISBI 2007)

  • 2006 IEEE 3rd International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Macro to Nano (ISBI 2006)

  • 2004 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Macro to Nano (ISBI 2004)

  • 2002 1st IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: Macro to Nano (ISBI 2002)


2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

Nanotechnology

  • 2017 IEEE 17th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    IEEE Nano is one of the largest nanotechnology conferences in the world, directly sponsored by the IEEE Nanotechnology Council. IEEE NANO 2017 will provide an international forum for inspiration, interactions and exchange of ideas in a wide variety of branches of nanotechnology and nanoscience, through feature tutorials, workshops, and track sessions; plenary and invited talks from the world most renowned scientists and engineers; exhibition of software, hardware, equipment, materials, services and literature. It is a must for students, educators, researchers, scientists and engineers engaged in a wide range of nanotechnology fields and related applications, including electronic materials, photonics, biotechnology, medicine, alternative energy, environment and electronic devices.

  • 2016 IEEE 16th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    IEEE-NANO is the flagship IEEE Nanotechnology conference. The conference scope covers a wide range in nanoscience and technology. In particular, it covers nanofabrication, nanomanufacturing, nanomaerials, nanobiomedicine, nanoenergy, nanoplasmonics, nanoelectronics, nanosensors and nanoactuators, characterisation and modelling of nano structures and devices. Research in both experiments and simulation is reported. Industry is encouraged to present its research projects.

  • 2015 IEEE 15th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    The conference scope is to bring together researchers, industry workers, entrepreneurs and funding agency leaders, in the general area of nanotechnology. IEEE NANO 2015 will provide a forum for the exchange of ideas, interaction, networking and collaboration for research and development in nanotechnology with special attention to the latest advances in nanotechnology

  • 2014 IEEE 14th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    NANO is the flagship IEEE conference in Nanotechnology, which makes it a must for students, educators, researchers, scientists and engineers alike, working at the interface of nanotechnology and the many fields of electronic materials, photonics, bio-and medical devices, alternative energy, environmental protection, and multiple areas of current and future electrical and electronic applications. In each of these areas, NANO is the conference where practitioners will see nanotechnologies at work in both their own and related fields, from basic research and theory to industrial applications.

  • 2013 IEEE 13th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    Nanoelectronics, nanomanufacturing, nanomaterials, nanodevice, nanofibration, nanofluidics, nano-bio-medicine, NEMS applications, nanocircuits, nanorobotics, nanomanipulation, nanosensors and actuators, nanophotonics, nanomagnetics, micro-to-nano-scale bridging

  • 2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    The conference scope covers a wide range in nanoscience and technology. In particular, it covers nanofabrication, nanomanufacturing, nanomaerials, nanobiomedicine, nanoenergy, nanoplasmonics, nanoelectronics, nanosensors and nanoactuators, characterisation and modelling of nano structures and devices. Research in both experiments and simulation is reported. Industry is encouraged to present its research projects.

  • 2011 10th Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    1. Nanomaterials and Nanostructures 2. Nanoelectronics and Nanodevices 3. Nanophotonics 4. Nano biotechnology and Nanomedicine 5. Nanorobotics and NEMS

  • 2011 IEEE 11th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    All areas of nanotechnology within the areas of IEEE interest, as covered by the member societies of the Nanotechnology Council.

  • 2010 IEEE 10th Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    - More Moore, More than Moore and Beyond-CMOS - Nano-optics, Nano-Photonics, Plasmonics, Nano-optoelectronics - Nanofabrication, Nanolithography, Nano Manipulation, Nanotools - Nanomaterials and Nanostructures - Nanocarbon, Nanodiamond, Graphene and CNT Based Technologies - Nano-sensors and Nano Membranes - Modeling and Simulation - System Integration (Nano/Micro/Macro), NEMS, and Actuators - Molecular Electronics, Inorganic Nanowires, Nanocrystals, Quantum Dots

  • 2009 9th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    THE CONFERENCE FOCUSES ON THE APPLICATION OF NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY. SPECIFICALLY, BOTH ENGINEERING ISSUE RELATED TO NANOFABBRICATION , NANOELECTRONICS, SENSOR SYSTEMS WILL BE COVERED IN ADDITION FOUNDAMENTAL ISSUES SUCH AS MODELLING, SYNTHESIS, CARACTARIZATION ETC.

  • 2008 8th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

    This conference is the sequel to meetings held in Maui (2001), Washington (2002), San Francisco (2003), Munich (2004), Nagoya (2005), Cinncinati (2006), and Hong Kong (2007). The conference focus will be on engineering and business issues related to nanoelectronics, circuits, architectures, sensor systems, integration, reliability and manufacturing in addition to fundamental issues such as modeling, growth/synthesis, and characterization. The conference will feature plenary, invited, and contributed papers

  • 2007 7th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

  • 2006 6th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

  • 2005 5th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

  • 2004 4th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

  • 2003 3rd IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

  • 2002 2nd IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)

  • 2001 1st IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)


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Periodicals related to Morphology

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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in

The IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering will review the state-of-the-art and trends in the emerging field of biomedical engineering. This includes scholarly works, ranging from historic and modern development in biomedical engineering to the life sciences and medicine enabled by technologies covered by the various IEEE societies.


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...


Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Electrical insulation common to the design and construction of components and equipment for use in electric and electronic circuits and distribution systems at all frequencies.


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Most published Xplore authors for Morphology

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Xplore Articles related to Morphology

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A morphological algorithm for photomosaicking

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'IC - UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6065, 13081-970 Campinas - SP, Brazil', u'full_name': u'P. A. Francisco'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'IC - UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6065, 13081-970 Campinas - SP, Brazil', u'full_name': u'Neucimar J. Leite'}] 1996 8th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 1996), 1996

We define a morphological algorithm to combine two overlapping images into a single one by a process named photomosaicking. By means of a very powerful morphological operation, namely, the watershed transformation, the method described here considers global information of a correlation image to obtain a seam which is connected, irregular and, thus, more realistic than those defined by the existing ...


Structural fault detection in random macro textures

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, UK', u'full_name': u'M Mirmehdi'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, UK', u'full_name': u'R Ma\u0159\xedk'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, UK', u'full_name': u'M Petrou'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, UK', u'full_name': u'J Kittler'}] 1996 8th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 1996), 1996

In this paper, we present a scheme based on iterative morphology for highlighting defects in random textures. The idea is to identify abnormally sized structures in the texture by determining their persistence when iterative morphological erosion is applied. We present some results from a large testbed database of images of granite and ceramic tiles.


Modification of the surface layer of metal materials under the combined influence of high intensity pulsed ion beam and magnetron sputtering

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia', u'full_name': u'G. E. Remnev'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia', u'full_name': u'A. M. Lebedynskiy'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia', u'full_name': u'V. N. Legostaev'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia', u'full_name': u'S. K. Pavlov'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia', u'full_name': u'A. V. Petrov'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia', u'full_name': u'E. V. Smolyanskiy'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia', u'full_name': u'A. V. Stepanov'}] 2015 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Sciences (ICOPS), 2015

The enhancement of metal and alloys operating characteristics can be achieved by high intensity pulsed ion beam treatment due to modification of the morphology and the structural phase state of the surface. It is possible to improve the functional properties of the tools by coating too. The combination of these methods in a single technological cycle allow us enhance the ...


Ultra-thick wetting layer induced phase separations in P3HT/fullerene solar cells: The femtosecond time-resolved photo-luminescence and the transient absorption

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan', u'full_name': u'Hsieh-Cheng Han'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan', u'full_name': u'Chi-Feng Lin'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Department of Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan, R.O.C.', u'full_name': u'Tien-Li Chang'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan', u'full_name': u'Jiun-Haw Lee'}] 2016 Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium (PIERS), 2016

Control over morphology in polymer solar cell of conjugated polymer:fullerene active layer has gained experimental interest as the phase separation will change vertical and lateral composition and enhance the optical and electrical properties. While the vertical composition, lateral morphology with electrical or optical charateristics have been observed to support the speculation that surface energy is the driving force for phase ...


Investigation of carrot reduction effect on 4H-silicon carbide epitaxial wafers with optimized buffer layer

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'SHOWA DENKO K.K., 1505 Shimokagemori, Chichibu, Saitama 369-1893, Japan', u'full_name': u'Y. Mabuchi'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'SHOWA DENKO K.K., 1505 Shimokagemori, Chichibu, Saitama 369-1893, Japan', u'full_name': u'T. Masuda'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'SHOWA DENKO K.K., 1505 Shimokagemori, Chichibu, Saitama 369-1893, Japan', u'full_name': u'D. Muto'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'SHOWA DENKO K.K., 1505 Shimokagemori, Chichibu, Saitama 369-1893, Japan', u'full_name': u'K. Momose'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'SHOWA DENKO K.K., 1505 Shimokagemori, Chichibu, Saitama 369-1893, Japan', u'full_name': u'H. Osawa'}] 2016 European Conference on Silicon Carbide & Related Materials (ECSCRM), 2016

We investigated the carrot-defect reduction effect by optimizing the buffer layers of 4H-Silion Carbide(SiC) epitaxial wafers. The SiC epitaxial wafer with the 0.5 μm-thick optimized buffer layer show the carrot-defect density of 0.13 cm-2, since that with the conventional buffer layer were 0.68 cm-2. Although the average bunching length with the optimized buffer layer was 7-times longer than those with ...


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Educational Resources on Morphology

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eLearning

No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Morphology"

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • OLED Materials

    OLED performance is largely dependent upon OLED materials. This chapter describes the classification of OLED materials and typical OLED materials.OLED materials are divided into two types – vacuum evaporation type and solution type – from a process point of view. Vacuum evaporation materials are usually small molecular materials, while solution type materials contain polymers, dendrimers, and small molecular materials. In addition, materials are also divided into fluorescent materials, phosphorescent materials, and thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) materials in terms of emission mechanisms. From the function point of view, OLED materials can be classified as hole injection material, hole transport material, emission material, host material in emissive layer, electron transport material, electron injection material, charge blocking material, etc.Anode and cathode materials are also important, so this chapter also describes anode and cathode materials.In addition, this chapter describes molecular orientations of organic materials because this also influences OLED characteristics.

  • Surface EMG Decomposition

    This chapter provides an overview of surface EMG decomposition techniques, along with their basic assumptions, properties, and limitations. Surface electrodes measure the electrical activity of several nearby muscle fibers that are active during a muscle contraction. The electrical activity of each fiber can be described by a single fiber action potential (SFAP) that propagates from the neuromuscular junction towards the tendons. There is large diversity of decomposition techniques that can roughly be categorized either as template matching or latent component analysis (blind source separation) approaches. Decomposition of surface EMG is a powerful tool enabling noninvasive insight not only into muscle control strategies, but also into peripheral muscle properties. It provides unambiguous information on physiological parameters of individual motor units that can easily be interpreted. The identification of motor units (MUs) discharge patterns from surface EMG signals, acquired during dynamic muscle contractions, needs to be addressed.

  • Evolutionary Computation

    The simplest evolutionary algorithm can be viewed as a search procedure that generates potential solutions to a problem, tests each for suitability, and then generates new solutions. It's important to understand how this process differs from exhaustive search or blind random search. Evolutionary algorithms operate in two ways that are fundamentally different from traditional gradient methods. First, rather than executing a point-to-point search, they incorporate a population of solutions, each individual solution competing for survival. Second, instead of utilizing gradient information from the response surface being searched, they utilize random variation to explore for new solutions. Behavior of evolutionary algorithms illustrate that the algorithm designer has certain choices to make about initialization, representation, variation, and selection. The most common application of evolutionary algorithms comes in optimization. The problems addressed span numerical and combinatorial optimization, with representation and operators tailored to the specific problems.

  • Surface and Interface Analysis

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Surface and Interface Techniques * Excited Electron Spectroscopies * Principles of Surface Sensitivity * Surface Analytic and Processing Chambers * Summary

  • Wireless Network Design

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  • A Predictive Model for Whisker Formation Based on Local Microstructure and Grain Boundary Properties

    This chapter reviews the characteristic properties of the local microstructure around whisker and hillock grains with the aim to identify why these particular grains and locations became predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. Whiskers and hillocks typically grow from surface grains in fine‐grained Sn and Sn‐alloyed films in both isothermal and thermal cycling conditions. The grain boundary sliding limited model for whisker growth explains whisker growth behavior under thermal cycling conditions, where the author observed that the whisker radius changes with the number of thermal cycles. The chapter also discusses the effects of grain boundary sliding friction and localized stress, which are highly dependent on grain boundary structure, grain orientations, and misorientations. It suggests that, before whisker or hillock formation, highly misoriented grains with high out‐of‐plane elastic strains and elastic strain energy densities (ESEDs) relative to their neighbors determined which grains became whiskers or hillocks.

  • Electronic Materials' Surfaces

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Overview * Geometric Structure * Chemical Structure * Etching * Electronic Implications * Summary

  • Wireless Market Modeling

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  • Quantitative Assessment of Stress Relaxation in Tin Films by the Formation of Whiskers, Hillocks, and Other Surface Defects

    This chapter focuses on development and validation of a surface‐defect counting procedure, which can be applied in research on the specific mechanisms responsible for stress relaxation and tin whisker formation in tin films. It describes how to quantify the stress relaxation that can be attributed to the separate types of defects, each with a lower reliability risk than tin whiskers, and how the data can be combined to quantify overall stress relaxation in a given film under a given set of conditions. The chapter explains what comparisons of such data from the same films under different conditions, or different films under the same stressing conditions. It reveals about the relationship between film microstructure, stressing conditions, and stress relaxation. The defect assessment methodology documented evolution of film microstructure and defect formation among the 18 different sample types, providing a method to quantify the complexity of stress relaxation in tin surface finishes.

  • RF Channel Performance Prediction

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