Endurance

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Endurance (also called sufferance) is the ability for an animal to exert itself for a long period of time. In humans, it is usually used in aerobic or anaerobic exercise. The definition of 'long' varies according to the type of exertion - minutes for high intensity anaerobic exercise, hours or days for low intensity aerobic exercise. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Endurance

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2020 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (IFCS-ISAF)

Ferroelectric materials and applications


2019 IEEE 11th International Memory Workshop (IMW)

The IMW is a unique forum for specialists in all aspects of memory (nonvolatile & volatile)microelectronics and people with different backgrounds who wish to gain a better understandingof the field. The morning and afternoon technical sessions are organized in a manner thatprovides ample time for informal exchanges amongst presenters and attendees. The eveningpanel discussions will address hot topics in the memory and memory system field. Papers aresolicited in all aspects of semiconductor memory technology (Flash, DRAM, SRAM, PCRAM,RRAM, MRAM, embedded memory, and other NV memories).


2019 IEEE 28th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE)

The conference will provide a forum for discussions and presentations of advancements inknowledge, new methods and technologies relevant to industrial electronics, along with their applications and future developments.


2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)

Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology


2019 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC)

Electrical Materials, Equipment, Testing, Nanotechnologies, Power Systems, Motors, Generators, Transformers, Switchgear


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Periodicals related to Endurance

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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


Computer

Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes peer-reviewed technical content that covers all aspects of computer science, computer engineering, technology, and applications. Computer is a resource that practitioners, researchers, and managers can rely on to provide timely information about current research developments, trends, best practices, and changes in the profession.


Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Methods, algorithms, and human-machine interfaces for physical and logical design, including: planning, synthesis, partitioning, modeling, simulation, layout, verification, testing, and documentation of integrated-circuit and systems designs of all complexities. Practical applications of aids resulting in producible analog, digital, optical, or microwave integrated circuits are emphasized.


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Most published Xplore authors for Endurance

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Xplore Articles related to Endurance

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Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing

Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing: an SAE Technical Paper Compilation, None

Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments ...


PAPER 2 Mazda 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for the Le Mans 24-Hour Endurance Race

Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing: an SAE Technical Paper Compilation, None

Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments ...


The effects of asymmetry repetitive square wave voltages on PD statistics and endurance

2016 IEEE International Conference on Dielectrics (ICD), 2016

Repetitive square wave voltages should be used to perform partial discharge inception voltage and endurance (lifetime) tests on insulation systems of rotating machines fed by power electronics in qualification and type tests according to new published International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). To obtain objective test results, the influence of waveform parameters on partial discharge (PD) and endurance results should be carefully ...


CHAPTER 3 World Endurance Championship: 2012 to Present

Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing: an SAE Technical Paper Compilation, None

Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments ...


Changes of HD-sEMG maps of the upper limb during isometric endurance contractions

2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2014

Recent research in the field of surface EMG recorded with 2D electrode arrays have shown muscle adaptations as reflected on the spatial activation of motor units in response to pain, direction of movement or fatigue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate time- changes in the activation maps of upper limb muscles during endurance tasks associated with the degrees ...


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Educational Resources on Endurance

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing

    Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports. The book also includes a history of endurance racing from the World Sports Car Championship through the 24 Hours of Le Mans to the World Endurance Championship written by the author. The goal is to provide the latest concepts being researched and tested on hybrid systems that will influence vehicles for years to come - appealing to engineers and enthusiasts alike.

  • PAPER 2 Mazda 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for the Le Mans 24-Hour Endurance Race

    Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports. The book also includes a history of endurance racing from the World Sports Car Championship through the 24 Hours of Le Mans to the World Endurance Championship written by the author. The goal is to provide the latest concepts being researched and tested on hybrid systems that will influence vehicles for years to come - appealing to engineers and enthusiasts alike.

  • The effects of asymmetry repetitive square wave voltages on PD statistics and endurance

    Repetitive square wave voltages should be used to perform partial discharge inception voltage and endurance (lifetime) tests on insulation systems of rotating machines fed by power electronics in qualification and type tests according to new published International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). To obtain objective test results, the influence of waveform parameters on partial discharge (PD) and endurance results should be carefully considered and thus accordingly, the appropriate waveform selected. In our previous research, we have concluded that the rise time of the repetitive square wave voltages can influence the PD statistics in both time/frequency domain and the lifetime of magnet wires. However, all the results were obtained under symmetrical repetitive square wave voltages having same rise times and fall times. In fact, many researchers and manufacturers have been using impulsive voltages having asymmetric waveforms with fast rise times (ns level) while much slower fall times (μs level). This study aims to investigate the effects of this type of asymmetric waveform on PD statistics and endurance tests results. A large number of PD and endurance tests were performed on single-contact crossed wires made up of enameled wires used in inverter-fed motors. Experimental results show that repetitive square wave voltages with fast rise time and slow fall time give rise to asymmetrical phase resolved PD patterns, i.e. they give rise to PD events with high magnitude when the voltage slew rate is large, while PDs with much lower magnitude can be observed in correspondence of the flanks with low slew rate. Moreover, endurance results indicate the asymmetric repetitive square wave voltages will, probability, lead to much longer endurance compare with that obtained at symmetrical voltages.

  • CHAPTER 3 World Endurance Championship: 2012 to Present

    Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports. The book also includes a history of endurance racing from the World Sports Car Championship through the 24 Hours of Le Mans to the World Endurance Championship written by the author. The goal is to provide the latest concepts being researched and tested on hybrid systems that will influence vehicles for years to come - appealing to engineers and enthusiasts alike.

  • Changes of HD-sEMG maps of the upper limb during isometric endurance contractions

    Recent research in the field of surface EMG recorded with 2D electrode arrays have shown muscle adaptations as reflected on the spatial activation of motor units in response to pain, direction of movement or fatigue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate time- changes in the activation maps of upper limb muscles during endurance tasks associated with the degrees of freedom at the elbow joint. Preliminary results show time-variations in the distribution of intensity, that is, in the spatial recruitment of motor units, and that such changes may be dependent on the type of task.

  • Endurance-based Dynamic V<inf>TH</inf>Distribution Shaping of 3D-TLC NAND Flash Memories to Suppress Both Lateral Charge Migration and Vertical Charge De-trap and Increase Data-retention Time by 2.7x

    Lateral charge migration and vertical charge detrap degrade the reliability of 3D-Triple-Level Cell (TLC) NAND flash. Lateral charge migration is dominant at the low write/erase (W/E) endurance and vertical charge de-trap is dominant at the high endurance. Conventional techniques address only one of these problems. This paper proposes Endurance-based Dynamic VTHDistribution Shaping (DVDS) to suppress both errors at a wide range of the endurance. At low (1) and high (2k) endurance, measured errors decrease by 27% and 20% and measured acceptable data-retention time increases by 1.7x and 2.7x, respectively.

  • The influence of repetitive square wave voltage duty cycle on partial discharge statistics and insulation endurance

    The influence of voltage duty cycle on partial discharge (PD) characteristics and endurance of inverter-fed motor insulation were investigated through tests performed on single-contact crossed enameled wires under bipolar repetitive square wave voltages with different duty cycles. The PD patterns, amplitude, repetition rate and lifetime obtained show that short duty cycles, i.e., lower than 50 μs, at 10 kHz frequency, can induce asymmetric PD patterns and reduce the probability of PD inception at falling flanks of impulsive voltages. Moreover, the endurance tests indicate that the duty cycle of the repetitive square wave voltage can affect the insulation endurance significantly. Accordingly, when performing PD inception voltage and endurance tests on insulation of inverter-fed motors, the influence of duty cycle on PD statistics and endurance should be carefully considered.

  • Maximal aerobic power in endurance trained and sedentary men and women, 10–74 years of age

    Participation in endurance athletic activities such as running, swimming, and cycling is increasing by people of all ages. It is not unusual for very young and elderly male and female enthusiasts to train for and participate in, short and long distance endurance athletics. The primary purpose of this study was to examine changes in maximal aerobic power (VO2max) in aerobically trained and sedentary untrained men and women over the age range 10-74 yrs. This study is unique in that the data selected for analysis was randomly obtained from 39 years (1970-2009) of peer reviewed published research globally. The data set totaled 18,784 observations from 250 publications and is one of the largest data set of its type. Data was categorized into four sets: aerobically (endurance) trained men, aerobically (endurance) trained women, sedentary untrained men and sedentary untrained women. For each of the four sets, the published VO2maxwas grouped into five-year age periods and the mean VO2maxcalculated for each five-year age period over the age range 10-74 years. The information is important and unique as it provides a benchmark of VO2maxdata from a large global sample of endurance trained and untrained, men and women. This ¿living¿ large database may be queried for analysis providing data on for example; male and female age-related longitudinal changes in aerobic capacity over a lifespan, or differences in aerobic capacity between men and women. Importantly, it definitively proves the inappropriateness of combining male and female physiological data into one group for analysis; a practice which continues to be seen frequently seen in the scientific literature.

  • Endurance based personalized fitness planner

    Endurance is an important factor of cardiovascular fitness indicating the capacity of an individual to perform exercise for a longer duration with increased intensity. Various subject specific and exercise related parameters affect endurance of an individual. In this work, we propose a statistical technique to model endurance as a function of these factors incorporating the serial dependence of observations generated by individuals over time. The proposed model provides a device to predict future endurance of a test subject following particular exercise regime. This facilitates a test user with a fitness planner with the provision to fix exercise regimes to reach a set fitness goal.

  • Endurance Estimate for Solar-Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Calculating endurance is very important for solarpowered airplane, both with respect to aircraft designs and mission planning. This paper presents a graphical method to evaluate the approximate endurance of solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAV). The method, which is based on the principle of energy balance, is established in this study. According to the principle, cruise endurance is considered as a steady-state flight where the effects of date and location are taken into account, but other effects (acceleration or flight path inclination) are neglected. Firstly, to predict the total energy of SUAV, an energy harvesting model, based on clear sky solar irradiance, is introduced. Subsequently, the expression used to calculate the energy consumption for SUAV in level flight is shown. After that, the process of endurance estimation is described. And then, to describe the endurance of SUAV, the perpetual endurance window is introduced. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented, and simulation results demonstrate the graphical method is a feasible and flexible tool to estimate endurance of SUAV.



Standards related to Endurance

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IEEE Recommended Practice for Voltage-Endurance Testing of Enameled Wire


IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Evaluation of Systems of Insulation for Dry-Type Specialty and General-Purpose Transformers

To establish a uniform method for preparing samples, conducting tests, and analyzing results for establishing a comparative thermal life of insulation systems intended for use in dry-type transformers described in NEMA St 1-1988 and NEMA st 20-1992.


Standard for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis - Preferred Ratings and Related Required Capabilities for Voltages above 1000 Volts

This standard applies to all indoor and outdoor types of AC high-voltage circuit breakers rated above 1000 volts and rated on a symmetrical current basis.