Ionization

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Ionization is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions. (Wikipedia.org)






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Periodicals related to Ionization

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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

The development and application of electric systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.


Lightwave Technology, Journal of

All aspects of optical guided-wave science, technology, and engineering in the areas of fiber and cable technologies; active and passive guided-wave componentry (light sources, detectors, repeaters, switches, fiber sensors, etc.); integrated optics and optoelectronics; systems and subsystems; new applications; and unique field trials.


Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.


Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Generation, amplification, modulation, detection, waveguiding, or techniques and effects that can affect the propagation characteristics of coherent electromagnetic radiation having submillimeter and shorter wavelengths


Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

40% devoted to special issues published in J. Quantum Electronics. Other topics: solid-state lasers, fiber lasers, optical diagnostics for semi-conductor manufacturing, and ultraviolet lasers and applications.


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Xplore Articles related to Ionization

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A Liquid Argon Heavy Ion Ionization Detector

R. A. Loveman; C. R. Gruhn; W. Pang; M. Roach IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1982

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/04335864.png)


Initial Results of Argon Purification in the Liquid State

P. J. Doe; H. -J. Mahler; H. H. Chen IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1982

Argon, deliberately contaminated with air, has been purified in the liquid state by the use of molecular sieves to a level better than one part per billion (02 equivalent). This argon was maintained for a period exceeding 10 days with no detectable increase in impurity concentration. Twelve hours after transfer to a test detector, an attenuation length of 170 cm ...


Data Acquisition System for a Time Projection Chamber

J. W. Lillberg IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1982

A data acquisition system has been designed to digitize the trajectory information of muon decay every eight milliseconds. A time projection chamber is used which operates in a solenoidal magnetic field. It has 315 sense wires which induce signals on 5355 pads and thus create approximately 402,000 bits of data for each event or 55 megabits per second. Most of ...


Model for Simulation of AlGaAs-GaAs Power Heterostructure FETs

G. Z. Garber EUROCON 2005 - The International Conference on "Computer as a Tool", 2005

A two-dimensional model of AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure FETs that takes into account avalanche multiplication of charge carriers is proposed. The model suggested is a combination of the quasihydrodynamic model of electron transport, drift-diffusion model of hole transport, and Anderson model of heterojunctions. On its basis, a computer program simulating transistor structures with SiN on the sides of the Ti gate is ...


Dimensional effects in modelling RF glow discharges

C. -H. Wu; F. Young; J. -H. Tsai International Conference on Plasma Sciences (ICOPS), 1993

Summary form only given. The effects due to the difference between 1D and 2D models are presented in both kinetic and fluid models in order to illustrate the importance of the charged-particle transport along the radial direction. Electrons are shown to have a higher mean energy and ionization rate in the plasma bulk in the 2D kinetic model. The plasma ...


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Educational Resources on Ionization

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eLearning

A Liquid Argon Heavy Ion Ionization Detector

R. A. Loveman; C. R. Gruhn; W. Pang; M. Roach IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1982

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/04335864.png)


Initial Results of Argon Purification in the Liquid State

P. J. Doe; H. -J. Mahler; H. H. Chen IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1982

Argon, deliberately contaminated with air, has been purified in the liquid state by the use of molecular sieves to a level better than one part per billion (02 equivalent). This argon was maintained for a period exceeding 10 days with no detectable increase in impurity concentration. Twelve hours after transfer to a test detector, an attenuation length of 170 cm ...


Data Acquisition System for a Time Projection Chamber

J. W. Lillberg IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1982

A data acquisition system has been designed to digitize the trajectory information of muon decay every eight milliseconds. A time projection chamber is used which operates in a solenoidal magnetic field. It has 315 sense wires which induce signals on 5355 pads and thus create approximately 402,000 bits of data for each event or 55 megabits per second. Most of ...


Model for Simulation of AlGaAs-GaAs Power Heterostructure FETs

G. Z. Garber EUROCON 2005 - The International Conference on "Computer as a Tool", 2005

A two-dimensional model of AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure FETs that takes into account avalanche multiplication of charge carriers is proposed. The model suggested is a combination of the quasihydrodynamic model of electron transport, drift-diffusion model of hole transport, and Anderson model of heterojunctions. On its basis, a computer program simulating transistor structures with SiN on the sides of the Ti gate is ...


Dimensional effects in modelling RF glow discharges

C. -H. Wu; F. Young; J. -H. Tsai International Conference on Plasma Sciences (ICOPS), 1993

Summary form only given. The effects due to the difference between 1D and 2D models are presented in both kinetic and fluid models in order to illustrate the importance of the charged-particle transport along the radial direction. Electrons are shown to have a higher mean energy and ionization rate in the plasma bulk in the 2D kinetic model. The plasma ...


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IEEE.tv Videos

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Principles of Substrate Crosstalk Generation in CMOS Circuits

    Substrate noise injection is evaluated for a O.2S-µm CMOS technology, to determine the mechanisms that contribute to substrate crosstalk. At the transistor level, we find that impact ionization current and capacitive coupling from the junctions are the most significant contributors to substrate current injection. An investigation of substrate fluctuations at a circuit level included switching transients, capacitive damping, and separate substrate biasing. This investigation revealed that voltage transients on power-supply lines can be the dominant source of substrate fluctuations. Finally, a statistical analysis of signal cancellation in an integrated circuit was performed. The results indicate that more cancellation will take place for the high-frequency noise components than for the average and low- frequency components. As a consequence, the de and low-frequency components of the transient that results from an individual switching event can not be neglected even if they are a relatively small fraction of the single transient.

  • Appendix A: Incomplete Dopant Ionization in 4H-SiC

    No abstract.

  • Upsets Produced by Heavy Ion Nuclear Reactions

    This chapter contains sections titled: Heavy Ion Nuclear Reactions Upset Rate Calculations for Combined Ionization and Reactions Heavy Nuclear Ion Reactions Summary

  • Space Charge in HVDC Extruded Insulation: Storage, Effects, and Measurement Methods

    This chapter discusses space-charge storage in HVDC extruded insulation, the relevant manifold effects, and the techniques developed by researchers in order to measure the amount and distribution of space charge stored in the insulation, and the electric field profile associated with such distribution. It reviews the theoretical background of charge injection and transport in insulating polymers. The chapter illustrates the processes that result in space-charge accumulation namely charge generation - via electronic charge injection, field-assisted thermal ionization of impurities, spatially inhomogeneous electric polarization, and steady DC current coupled with a spatially varying ratio ofpermittivity to conductivity. It also reviews the space-charge measurement methods for HVDC extruded insulation. The chapter focuses on the up-to-date developments of the best-suited techniques for measuring space charges in extruded insulation for HVDC cables. It provides a comparison between the best space-charge measurement methods for power cables: pulsed electro acoustic (PEA) versus thermal step method (TSM).

  • Proton Single Event Rate Calculations

    This chapter contains sections titled: Nuclear Reaction Analysis Semiempirical Approaches and the Integral Cross-Section Calculation Relationship of Proton and Heavy Ion Upsets Correlation of the FOM with Proton Upset Cross Sections Upsets Due to Rare High Energy Proton Reactions Upset Due to Ionization by Stopping Protons, Helium Ions, and Iron Ions

  • Modeling Electron Impact Ionization

    Electron impact ionization is the mainstay for plasma-based flow control actuators because it actuates in less than microseconds and the electrode configuration can be made nonintrusive to oncoming stream. In addition, when the actuator is not needed, unlike most mechanical flow control devices, it will not be parasitic and degrade performance of aerospace vehicles. The space charges induce an additional electric field potential that makes it different from the corona discharge. This chapter presents the best physics-based, multifluid model for the electron impact ionization. The physics for electron impact ionization is well known through the luminary contributions by Townsend, the ionization is evolving from the electrons collision, secondary emission, and avalanche. The secondary emission from cathode arises as controlling mechanism for all electron impact ionization. A high concentration of positive charges over an electrode creates an extremely high electrical field potential, which is comparable to the magnitude in a nuclei.

  • Analysis of Neutron Damage in HighTemperature Silicon Carbide JFETs

    Neutron-induced displacement damage effects in n-channel, depletion-mode junction-fleld-effect transistors (JFETs) fabricated on 6H-silicon carbide are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300°C. The data are analyzed in terms of a refined model that folds in recently reported information on the two-level ionization energy structure of the nitrogen donors. A value of 5 ± 1 cm-3 per n/cm2 is obtained for the deep- level defect introduction rate induced by the neutron irradiation. Due to partial ionization of the donor atoms at RT, the carrier removal rate is a function of temperature, varying from 3.5 cm-1 at RT to 4.75 cm-1 at 300°C. The relative neutron effect on carrier mobility varies with temperature approximately as T-7/2, dropping by an order of magnitude at 300°C compared with the RT effect. The results offer further support for the use of SiC devices in applications which combine high-temperature and severe radiation environments, where the use of Si and GaAs technologies is limited.

  • Specialized Silicon Carbide Devices and Applications

    The unique characteristics of SiC make it attractive for a variety of applications that are not well served by existing silicon technology. One such application is high-power, moderate-frequency microwave amplifiers and power sources based on devices such as MESFETs (metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors), static induction transistors (SITs), and IMPATT (impact ionization avalanche transit-time) diodes. Another important application involves high-temperature integrated circuits for sensing and control, where SiC bipolar and JFET (junction field-effect transistor) integrated circuits are the preferred implementations. A major emerging opportunity for SiC lies in the area of sensors for hostile environments. Developments to date include MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical sensor) devices for motion sensors, gas sensors for combustion control, and solar-blind UV optical detectors. In each area we describe the application requirements, highlight the advantages of SiC, and report the current status of SiC technology.

  • Ionization Processes

    The ionization process of atoms or molecules is through energizing the electrons causing them to leave stable orbit revolving around the nucleus and becoming free-moving charges. The main mechanisms for ionization consist of thermal, electron impact, chemical reactions, photoionization, and microwave or electron cyclotron resonance. This chapter describes the ionization that focus on the basic mechanisms of photoemission, thermal, and electron impact discharges. The equilibrium ionization of the mixture of electrons, ions, and neutral particles can be analyzed by the law of mass action and the electronic partition function. Under gas discharge conditions, ionization by electron impact dominates over the photoionization because the cross sections of photoionization close to the ionizing threshold are rather high. The chapter provides Saha equation of ionization. An important parameter for the ionization rate is the mean free path of the gas medium and is ultimately related to the collision cross section.

  • The Scaled MOS Transistor

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Classical Scaling Laws Lateral Field Gradient Narrow and Inverse Width Effects Reverse Short Channel Effect Carrier Mobility Reduction Velocity Overshoot Channel Length Modulation: A Pseudo-2-D Analysis Series Resistance Effect on Drain Current Polydepletion Effect on Drain Current Impact Ionization in High Field Region Channel Punch-Through Empirical Alpha Power MOSFET Model References



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