Ionization

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Ionization is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Ionization

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Periodicals related to Ionization

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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

The development and application of electric systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.


Lightwave Technology, Journal of

All aspects of optical guided-wave science, technology, and engineering in the areas of fiber and cable technologies; active and passive guided-wave componentry (light sources, detectors, repeaters, switches, fiber sensors, etc.); integrated optics and optoelectronics; systems and subsystems; new applications; and unique field trials.


Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.


Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Generation, amplification, modulation, detection, waveguiding, or techniques and effects that can affect the propagation characteristics of coherent electromagnetic radiation having submillimeter and shorter wavelengths


Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

40% devoted to special issues published in J. Quantum Electronics. Other topics: solid-state lasers, fiber lasers, optical diagnostics for semi-conductor manufacturing, and ultraviolet lasers and applications.


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Xplore Articles related to Ionization

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Calculation of tungsten emission spectra for mega ampere Z-pinches

Vladimir G. Novikov; Ilya Yu. Vichev; Anna D. Solomyannaya 2007 16th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, 2007

Opacity effects and reabsorption in spectral lines is very important for calculation of the ionization equilibrium and radiation issue of tungsten pinch plasma. The assumption of manifold collapses with different parameters and thermalization of issued radiation gives reasonable spectra of mega ampere z-pinches.


Deflecting, detecting, and funneling atoms using near-field light

K. Totsuka; H. Ito; A. Takamizawa; K. Yamamoto; M. Ohtsu 2003 European Quantum Electronics Conference. EQEC 2003 (IEEE Cat No.03TH8665), 2003

A slit-type atom deflector is developed, that sends atoms at the aimed point on a substrate. In addition, a multi-slit atom detector with high spatial resolution is made. For the atom deflection by near-field light, a cold atomic beam is required. Cold atomic beam is generated with an atom funnel composed of evanescent-light mirrors.


Dielectric Breakdown-Assisted Corona Discharge-Based Pressure Sensor Using Poly-Si Microtips

Tania Mukherjee; Ambarish Paul IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2016

We report the development of low-power, dielectric breakdown-assisted corona discharge (CD)-based ionization pressure sensor for low-to-high vacuum measurements. The device possesses a reduced interelectrode spacing dint (=1.25 μm under unbiased condition) and utilizes sharp microtip corners to generate electric field E > dielectric breakdown field of the air Eb (=3 MV/m) at low bias voltage Vb > 2 V. E ...


High-sensitive remote diagnostics of the accelerated particles' beam cross section

P. Yu. Komissarov; V. G. Mikhailov; V. A. Rezvov; A. A. Roschin; V. I. Sclyarenko; L. I. Judin Conference Record of the 1991 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference, 1991

A gauge for remote monitoring of the density distribution of an accelerated particle beam over a cross section is described. It is based on the analysis of spatial distribution of residual gas ionization products. With the transverse homogeneous electric field the released charges are transported through a narrow slot behind which they are analyzed. Then they are registered by the ...


Breakdown Gradients in SF6-N2, SF6-Air and SF6-CO2 Mixtures

N. H. Malik; A. H. Qureshi IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, 1980

A method to calculate the uniform field breakdown gradients for SF6-N2, SF6-air and SF6-CO2 mixtures is discussed. Calculated values of the breakdown gradients in these mixtures are compared with experimentally measured values using plane-plane electrode configuration and direct applied voltages. The results show a reasonably good degree of agreement between the calculated and the measured values.


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Educational Resources on Ionization

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eLearning

Calculation of tungsten emission spectra for mega ampere Z-pinches

Vladimir G. Novikov; Ilya Yu. Vichev; Anna D. Solomyannaya 2007 16th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, 2007

Opacity effects and reabsorption in spectral lines is very important for calculation of the ionization equilibrium and radiation issue of tungsten pinch plasma. The assumption of manifold collapses with different parameters and thermalization of issued radiation gives reasonable spectra of mega ampere z-pinches.


Deflecting, detecting, and funneling atoms using near-field light

K. Totsuka; H. Ito; A. Takamizawa; K. Yamamoto; M. Ohtsu 2003 European Quantum Electronics Conference. EQEC 2003 (IEEE Cat No.03TH8665), 2003

A slit-type atom deflector is developed, that sends atoms at the aimed point on a substrate. In addition, a multi-slit atom detector with high spatial resolution is made. For the atom deflection by near-field light, a cold atomic beam is required. Cold atomic beam is generated with an atom funnel composed of evanescent-light mirrors.


Dielectric Breakdown-Assisted Corona Discharge-Based Pressure Sensor Using Poly-Si Microtips

Tania Mukherjee; Ambarish Paul IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2016

We report the development of low-power, dielectric breakdown-assisted corona discharge (CD)-based ionization pressure sensor for low-to-high vacuum measurements. The device possesses a reduced interelectrode spacing dint (=1.25 μm under unbiased condition) and utilizes sharp microtip corners to generate electric field E > dielectric breakdown field of the air Eb (=3 MV/m) at low bias voltage Vb > 2 V. E ...


High-sensitive remote diagnostics of the accelerated particles' beam cross section

P. Yu. Komissarov; V. G. Mikhailov; V. A. Rezvov; A. A. Roschin; V. I. Sclyarenko; L. I. Judin Conference Record of the 1991 IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference, 1991

A gauge for remote monitoring of the density distribution of an accelerated particle beam over a cross section is described. It is based on the analysis of spatial distribution of residual gas ionization products. With the transverse homogeneous electric field the released charges are transported through a narrow slot behind which they are analyzed. Then they are registered by the ...


Breakdown Gradients in SF6-N2, SF6-Air and SF6-CO2 Mixtures

N. H. Malik; A. H. Qureshi IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, 1980

A method to calculate the uniform field breakdown gradients for SF6-N2, SF6-air and SF6-CO2 mixtures is discussed. Calculated values of the breakdown gradients in these mixtures are compared with experimentally measured values using plane-plane electrode configuration and direct applied voltages. The results show a reasonably good degree of agreement between the calculated and the measured values.


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IEEE.tv Videos

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Analysis of Neutron Damage in HighTemperature Silicon Carbide JFETs

    Neutron-induced displacement damage effects in n-channel, depletion-mode junction-fleld-effect transistors (JFETs) fabricated on 6H-silicon carbide are reported as a function of temperature from room temperature (RT) to 300°C. The data are analyzed in terms of a refined model that folds in recently reported information on the two-level ionization energy structure of the nitrogen donors. A value of 5 ± 1 cm-3 per n/cm2 is obtained for the deep- level defect introduction rate induced by the neutron irradiation. Due to partial ionization of the donor atoms at RT, the carrier removal rate is a function of temperature, varying from 3.5 cm-1 at RT to 4.75 cm-1 at 300°C. The relative neutron effect on carrier mobility varies with temperature approximately as T-7/2, dropping by an order of magnitude at 300°C compared with the RT effect. The results offer further support for the use of SiC devices in applications which combine high-temperature and severe radiation environments, where the use of Si and GaAs technologies is limited.

  • Modeling Electron Impact Ionization

    Electron impact ionization is the mainstay for plasma-based flow control actuators because it actuates in less than microseconds and the electrode configuration can be made nonintrusive to oncoming stream. In addition, when the actuator is not needed, unlike most mechanical flow control devices, it will not be parasitic and degrade performance of aerospace vehicles. The space charges induce an additional electric field potential that makes it different from the corona discharge. This chapter presents the best physics-based, multifluid model for the electron impact ionization. The physics for electron impact ionization is well known through the luminary contributions by Townsend, the ionization is evolving from the electrons collision, secondary emission, and avalanche. The secondary emission from cathode arises as controlling mechanism for all electron impact ionization. A high concentration of positive charges over an electrode creates an extremely high electrical field potential, which is comparable to the magnitude in a nuclei.

  • Appendix B: Physical Phenomena

    This appendix contains sections titled: Drift Velocity and Mobility Diffusion Thermionic Emission Image-Force Lowering Recombination and Generation Impact Ionization and Avalanche Space-Charge Effect and Space-Charge-Limited Current Tunneling Ohmic Contact Hall Effect Heterojunction, Quantum Well, Superlattice, and Quantum Dot

  • Appendix A: Incomplete Dopant Ionization in 4H-SiC

    No abstract.

  • Ionospheric Tomography

    Proposals for tomographic-reconstruction techniques, using ?>differential Doppler?> data gained from the signals of polar-orbiting navigation satellites, began to appear around 1980. The reconstruction results are two- dimensional electron-density distributions, e.g., in height and geographic latitude. In mid- and high latitudes, the height range from about 200 to 600 km is covered; in the surroundings of the equatorial anomaly, the upper limit can be considerably higher. The horizontal range depends on the number and the spacing of the receiving stations. A typical range is 15 degrees. In recent years, several different reconstruction methods have been worked out. Some of them are have found practical application and are used in the production of two-dimensional electron-density profiles. All techniques suffer from the inherent problem that the data set available for the reconstruction is necessarily incomplete. Therefore, additional information has to be used, and it is not possible to select only one reconstruction method that should give the most plausible results under all conditions. Most of the reconstruction methods that have been published fall into the categories of ?>pixel?> methods (matrix reconstruction) or ?>model?> methods (fitting of model parameters). The main differences are found in the inversion techniques, and in the way a priori information about plausible electron- density distributions is incorporated. Incoherent-scatter radars can give the height dependence of electron density over the height range covered by ionosphere tomography. In general, such profiles are not available for the locations and observation times of satellite passes. The second-best way to gain additional information is the use of true height profiles from ionosondes, or, at least, the use of ionogram parameters. If no additional data exist from observations, one has to fall back to model considerations. (The large experience with ionospheric data and ionospheric physics that is now available allows filling in for missing information in a consistent way, and assessing the plausibility of the two- dimensional electron-density distributions from different reconstruction methods by inspecting the results.) The newest developments in observation possibilities allow one to overcome the inherent weakness of ground-based ionospheric tomography by using the global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS: the Global Positioning System, GPS, and/or its Russian equivalent, GLONASS), and reception of the navigation-beacon signals from satellites in low-Earth orbits. Shortly before Earth occultation of the signals, the rays connecting transmitters and receivers are nearly horizontal, and provide the information missing in ground-based tomography. Presently, one receiving satellite exists, and several more will be launched in the near future. Of course, the electron content along near-horizontal rays is only one part of the data system for tomographic reconstruction. It provides information about the average height distribution of ionization. Classical inversion techniques allow retrieval of just this information. Ground-based reception of satellite- beacon signals can provide complimentary information about the horizontal distribution of ionization. The old navigation systems are fading out, but their satellites in low polar orbits will continue to transmit signals for several years, and can provide the ground segment (high-elevation rays). Several other possibilities to gain and inco...

  • The Scaled MOS Transistor

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Classical Scaling Laws Lateral Field Gradient Narrow and Inverse Width Effects Reverse Short Channel Effect Carrier Mobility Reduction Velocity Overshoot Channel Length Modulation: A Pseudo-2-D Analysis Series Resistance Effect on Drain Current Polydepletion Effect on Drain Current Impact Ionization in High Field Region Channel Punch-Through Empirical Alpha Power MOSFET Model References

  • J.J. Thompson and the Electron, 1897–1899

    This chapter contains sections titled: Some Historical Background, J.J. Thompson on Cathode Rays -- 1897, J.J. Thompson on the Charge of Ions -- 1898, The Electron and Ionization -- 1899, Aftermath--The Next Decade, Thompson's Contribution to the Electron, Acknowledgments, Notes

  • Fundamentals of Electrical Discharges

    Natural phenomena, such as gamma rays produced by radioactive decay processes in the soil and cosmic radiation originating from solar flares and other galactic objects, can ionize the air molecules. This chapter first discusses ionization and deionization processes in gases. This is followed by a discussion on ionization and attachment coefficients. Two typical breakdown mechanisms occur in gases, each of them operating under specifically favorable conditions: Townsend's mechanism and the streamer mechanism. Corona discharges in air can burn on the overstressed zones of hot electrodes. This kind of discharge occupies a short layer, attached to the energized conductor. When a conductor is in corona, then the electric field on the surface is somehow influenced by the surrounding ion space charge. Kaptzov's hypothesis (KH) relates to the assumption that the space charge emitted into the interelectrode gap is in amounts that hold the surface field at the onset level.

  • Upsets Produced by Heavy Ion Nuclear Reactions

    This chapter contains sections titled: Heavy Ion Nuclear Reactions Upset Rate Calculations for Combined Ionization and Reactions Heavy Nuclear Ion Reactions Summary

  • Overview of Tunnel Field???Effect Transistor

    The device dimensions in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has reached the nanometer level, where power management has become the most crucial issue for further scaling of this technology. The devices that are demonstrated to have SS of sub???60???mV/dec at room temperature are tunnel field???effect transistors (TFETs) and impact ionization MOSFETs (I???MOSs). An I???MOS structure consists of a p???i???n diode where the intrinsic region is partially gated so that a very high electric field exists in the nongated portion of the i???region when the device is in the ON???state leading to avalanche breakdown. The device structures of an n???channel MOSFET and an n???channel TFET look very similar except: the highly doped n???region of the MOSFET is replaced by a highly doped p???region in a TFET, and either an intrinsic or a lightly doped n??? or p???type substrate may be used for a TFET instead of the lightly doped p???type substrate for the MOSFET.



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