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Ionization is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions. (

Conferences related to Ionization

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2020 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)

IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.

2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)

Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology

2019 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC)

This conference is the annual premier meeting on the use of instrumentation in the Nuclear and Medical fields. The meeting has a very long history of providing an exciting venue for scientists to present their latest advances, exchange ideas, renew existing collaboration and form new ones. The NSS portion of the conference is an ideal forum for scientists and engineers in the field of Nuclear Science, radiation instrumentation, software engineering and data acquisition. The MIC is one of the most informative venues on the state-of-the art use of physics, engineering, and mathematics in Nuclear Medicine and related imaging modalities, such as CT and increasingly so MRI, through the development of hybrid devices

2019 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC)

The IEEE Photonics Conference, previously known as the IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, offers technical presentations by the world’s leading scientists and engineers in the areas of lasers, optoelectronics, optical fiber networks, and associated lightwave technologies and applications. It also features compelling plenary talks on the industry’s most important issues, weekend events aimed at students and young photonics professionals, and a manufacturer’s exhibition.

2019 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium anEuropean Frequency and Time Forum (EFTF/IFC)

The 33RD European Frequency and Time Forum and the 73rd consecutive meeting of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium will be held as a joint conference in Orlando, Florida, USA April 14-18, 2019. The conference will provide information on recent advances and trends on scientific research, development and manufacturing technology in the area of frequency and time and frequency control. A technical exhibition will be held during the conference, which will be hosted at the Caribe Royale Hotel and Convention Center.

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Periodicals related to Ionization

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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.

Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Broadcast technology, including devices, equipment, techniques, and systems related to broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects.

Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...

Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Methods, algorithms, and human-machine interfaces for physical and logical design, including: planning, synthesis, partitioning, modeling, simulation, layout, verification, testing, and documentation of integrated-circuit and systems designs of all complexities. Practical applications of aids resulting in producible analog, digital, optical, or microwave integrated circuits are emphasized.

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Most published Xplore authors for Ionization

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Xplore Articles related to Ionization

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An Advanced Theory Of Stark Broadening For Diagnostics Of Dense Plasmas

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Auburn University', u'full_name': u'Y. Ispolatov'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'full_name': u'E. Oke'}] IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts. 1992 IEEE International Conference on Plasma, 1993


Breakdown voltage estimation in air and nitrogen

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'A. Reyrolle and Company Ltd., Durham, England', u'full_name': u'J. M. Mattingley'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'A. Reyrolle and Company Ltd., Durham, England', u'full_name': u'H. M. Ryan'}] Conference on Electrical Insulation & Dielectric Phenomena - Annual Report 1971, 1971

In previous papers, the authors have described empirical1and semi- empirical2methods of estimating minimum breakdown voltages for gas-insulated systems. With both methods, extensive use has been made of existing analytical techniques to compute fields for standard3and practical arrangements.4–6

Low-gas-pressure cable

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y.', u'full_name': u'G. B. Shanklin'}] Electrical Engineering, 1939

DURING the past several years the company with which the writer is associated has been conducting an extensive research and engineering study of the possibilities of high-voltage cable utilizing gas as a pressure medium. The purpose has been to develop a practical cable system of this type and determine its best field of usefulness from an engineering and economic standpoint. ...

The role of space charge in the theory of solid-dielectric breakdown

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Physics Department, SUNY, Oswego, N.Y. 13126', u'full_name': u"J. J. O'Dwyer"}] Conference on Electrical Insulation & Dielectric Phenomena - Annual Report 1983, 1983

The first theory for low temperature electrical breakdown in solids was given by Zener[1] who calculated the field strength at which quantum mechanical tunneling from valence to conduction levels should become significantly large. This criterion for breakdown would clearly produce conditions leading to failure of insulating properties, but the critical fields calculated in this way are an order of magnitude ...

Atmosphriuc Pressure Tenuous Collisional Plasma Characteristics And Generation

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'SRI International', u'full_name': u'R.J. Vidmar'}] IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts. 1991 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 1991


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Educational Resources on Ionization

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  • Impulse Characteristics of Grounding Devices

    This chapter introduces the phenomena and mechanism of soil electrical breakdown, the numerical analysis method and impulse characteristics of ground devices and ground grids, impulse effective length of grounding electrodes, and the lightning electromagnetic field generated by grounding electrode.

  • Electrical Breakdown in Gases

    This chapter discusses a short treatise on atomic collisions in gases and a description of Townsend's experiments in the early twentieth century. It presents the Paschen curve, and describes the predominant theories of spark formation. The chapter also discusses other breakdown phenomena, such as coronas and the hollow electrode carrier generation used in pseudosparks. Electrical breakdown occurs in a gas when a high‐conductivity channel is formed between cathode and anode. Before a study is made of the behavior of gases under the influence of an electric field, it is appropriate to review the basic principles of the kinetic theory of gases pertinent to gaseous ionization and breakdown. From there, the various concepts of ionic and electronic can be inferred. The chapter further discusses the efficient use of gaseous insulation with intershields. It concludes by discussing the important aspects of breakdown behavior in gaseous SF6.

  • Fundamentals of Electrical Discharges

    Natural phenomena, such as gamma rays produced by radioactive decay processes in the soil and cosmic radiation originating from solar flares and other galactic objects, can ionize the air molecules. This chapter first discusses ionization and deionization processes in gases. This is followed by a discussion on ionization and attachment coefficients. Two typical breakdown mechanisms occur in gases, each of them operating under specifically favorable conditions: Townsend's mechanism and the streamer mechanism. Corona discharges in air can burn on the overstressed zones of hot electrodes. This kind of discharge occupies a short layer, attached to the energized conductor. When a conductor is in corona, then the electric field on the surface is somehow influenced by the surrounding ion space charge. Kaptzov's hypothesis (KH) relates to the assumption that the space charge emitted into the interelectrode gap is in amounts that hold the surface field at the onset level.

  • Overview

    This chapter introduces recent challenging studies of SOI-Lubistor-based devices and new pn-junction-based devices, and addresses their future prospect. Attention is given to operations of the_i_-MOS transistor, tunnel FET, feedback FET, offset-gate Lubistor, and SOI fin LED.

  • Feasibility of the Lubistor-Based Avalanche Phototransistor

    In the twenty-first century, the traffic carried by optical communication systems will grow year by year, and the provision of rock-solid communication reliability is mandatory. Quantum communication technology is one of the most promising candidates for realizing truly reliable communication. Although the scientific and engineering bases for quantum communication remain under development, many scientists and engineers are carrying out challenging research to try to achieve significant breakthroughs in the near future. I have tried to discuss how the new Lubistor will contribute to meeting the technological challenges.

  • Analysis and Simulations of Space Radiation‐Induced Single‐Event Effects and Transients

    Spacecraft electronics are affected by the space radiation environment. Among the different types of radiation effects that can affect spacecraft electronics is the single‐event transient (SET). This chapter explores the origins of SETs and their effects as outlined by many scientists and researchers, many of which are mentioned in the references. It also explores the modeling of a SET in digital and analog circuit. The chapter also addresses the concept of crosstalk that could develop among digital circuits in the present of a SET event. It provides a discussion of SET hardening. The chapter presents a qualitatively methodology for assessing SETs and its effects so that spacecraft avionics engineers can develop either hardware or software countermeasures in their designs. Single‐event effects is the general term used when space energetic particles are capable of creating an electrical response in an electronics device.

  • Conclusion and Perspectives

    This chapter discusses the application of junctionless field‐effect transistor (JLFET) for biosensing and memory applications. The JLFETs can offer a low‐cost, scalable, and highly sensitive biosensor when operating in the impact ionization dominant regime exhibiting steep subthreshold slopes. The snapback property in the output characteristics of JLFETs may be utilized for capacitorless dynamic random access memory (DRAM) application. Since the JLFETs do not have any metallurgical junctions, there are no stringent constraints on realizing ultrasteep doping profiles. As a result, JLFETs do not require rapid annealing processes and complex thermal budgets. The junctionless thin film transistor (JLTFT) with a hybrid channel offers a better immunity to the short‐channel effects due to the enhanced gate control owing to a lower effective channel thickness. The low OFF‐state leakage current and the improved subthreshold swing of the JLTFT with a hybrid channel are attributed to these factors.

  • Ionization Processes

    The ionization process of atoms or molecules is through energizing the electrons causing them to leave stable orbit revolving around the nucleus and becoming free-moving charges. The main mechanisms for ionization consist of thermal, electron impact, chemical reactions, photoionization, and microwave or electron cyclotron resonance. This chapter describes the ionization that focus on the basic mechanisms of photoemission, thermal, and electron impact discharges. The equilibrium ionization of the mixture of electrons, ions, and neutral particles can be analyzed by the law of mass action and the electronic partition function. Under gas discharge conditions, ionization by electron impact dominates over the photoionization because the cross sections of photoionization close to the ionizing threshold are rather high. The chapter provides Saha equation of ionization. An important parameter for the ionization rate is the mean free path of the gas medium and is ultimately related to the collision cross section.

  • Optimization and Comparison of Power Devices

    We begin this chapter with a discussion of avalanche breakdown and blocking voltage in power devices, which leads naturally into a survey of edge termination techniques. We then discuss the optimum design of unipolar drift regions in devices such as Schottky diodes, JFETs (junction field-effect transistors), and MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors), with a brief discussion of lateral RESURF (reduced-surface- field) devices. Finally, we present a consistent methodology for optimizing and comparing unipolar and bipolar devices for a particular set of specifications (i.e., blocking voltage and switching frequency).

  • Particle-Solid Scattering

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Overview * Scattering Cross Section * Electron Beam Spectroscopies * Auger Electron Spectroscopy * Auger Depth Profiling * Summary

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