Ionization

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Ionization is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions. (Wikipedia.org)






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Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

The development and application of electric systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.


Lightwave Technology, Journal of

All aspects of optical guided-wave science, technology, and engineering in the areas of fiber and cable technologies; active and passive guided-wave componentry (light sources, detectors, repeaters, switches, fiber sensors, etc.); integrated optics and optoelectronics; systems and subsystems; new applications; and unique field trials.


Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.


Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology; controlled thermonuclear fusion; electron, ion, and plasma sources; space plasmas; high-current relativistic electron beams; laser-plasma interactions; diagnostics; plasma chemistry and colloidal and solid-state plasmas.


Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Generation, amplification, modulation, detection, waveguiding, or techniques and effects that can affect the propagation characteristics of coherent electromagnetic radiation having submillimeter and shorter wavelengths


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Xplore Articles related to Ionization

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An analysis of program and erase operation for FC-SGT flash memory cells

M. Hioki; T. Endoh; H. Sakuraba; M. Lenski; F. Masuoka 2000 International Conference on Simulation Semiconductor Processes and Devices (Cat. No.00TH8502), 2000

The floating channel type surrounding gate transistor (FC-SGT) flash memory cell realizes high-speed bipolarity program and erase operations. In this investigation, the time dependence of the surface potential in the floating channel region, which strongly affects program and erase performance, is studied during program and erase operation. By analyzing the carrier generation processes in the floating channel region, the program ...


The merits and limitations of local impact ionization theory [APDs]

S. A. Plimmer; J. P. R. David; D. S. Ong IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2000

Multiplication measurements on GaAs p+-i-n+s with i-region thicknesses, w, between 1 μm and 0.025 μm and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of the avalanche process are used to investigate the applicability of the local ionization theory. The local expressions for multiplication are able to predict the measured values surprisingly well in p+-i-n+s with i-region thicknesses, w, as thin as 0.2 μm ...


Evolution of resist roughness during development: Stochastic simulation and dynamic scaling analysis

V. Constantoudis; G. P. Patsis; E. Gogolides 2010 27th International Conference on Microelectronics Proceedings, 2010

The examination of the roughness evolution of open-surface resist films during development may elucidate the material origins of Line Edge Roughness. In this paper, a stochastic simulator of resist development is used and the surface roughness evolution is analyzed with dynamic scaling theory. A power-law increase of rms roughness and correlation length is found for resists with homogeneous solubility. The ...


Coupled Monte Carlo-energy transport simulation with quasi-three-dimensional temperature analysis for SOI MOSFET

M. Koyanagi; H. Kiba; H. Kurino; T. Hashimoto; H. Mori; K. Yamaguchi IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1992

Summary form only given. The authors evaluate a temperature-rise effect in short-channel SOI MOSFET using a device simulator that employs a quasi-3-D temperature analysis together with 2-D coupled Monte-Carlo-energy-transport analysis. It is shown that one can accurately simulate the drain current reduction and the negative output resistance in the saturation region due to the temperature rise in the channel. It ...


A Neutron Flux Measuring Channel Covering Ten Decades of Reactor Power with a Single Fixed-Position Detector

William M. Trenholme; Donald J. Keefe IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1967

A new type of instrument for neutron flux measurement in reactor control systems is described. It requires only a single fixed-position fission chamber of standard design to continuously cover ten decades of neutron flux level. The wide range of coverage is achieved by utilizing both the individual pulses from the chamber and the statistical fluctuation signal developed by the overlap ...


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Educational Resources on Ionization

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eLearning

An analysis of program and erase operation for FC-SGT flash memory cells

M. Hioki; T. Endoh; H. Sakuraba; M. Lenski; F. Masuoka 2000 International Conference on Simulation Semiconductor Processes and Devices (Cat. No.00TH8502), 2000

The floating channel type surrounding gate transistor (FC-SGT) flash memory cell realizes high-speed bipolarity program and erase operations. In this investigation, the time dependence of the surface potential in the floating channel region, which strongly affects program and erase performance, is studied during program and erase operation. By analyzing the carrier generation processes in the floating channel region, the program ...


The merits and limitations of local impact ionization theory [APDs]

S. A. Plimmer; J. P. R. David; D. S. Ong IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2000

Multiplication measurements on GaAs p+-i-n+s with i-region thicknesses, w, between 1 μm and 0.025 μm and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of the avalanche process are used to investigate the applicability of the local ionization theory. The local expressions for multiplication are able to predict the measured values surprisingly well in p+-i-n+s with i-region thicknesses, w, as thin as 0.2 μm ...


Evolution of resist roughness during development: Stochastic simulation and dynamic scaling analysis

V. Constantoudis; G. P. Patsis; E. Gogolides 2010 27th International Conference on Microelectronics Proceedings, 2010

The examination of the roughness evolution of open-surface resist films during development may elucidate the material origins of Line Edge Roughness. In this paper, a stochastic simulator of resist development is used and the surface roughness evolution is analyzed with dynamic scaling theory. A power-law increase of rms roughness and correlation length is found for resists with homogeneous solubility. The ...


Coupled Monte Carlo-energy transport simulation with quasi-three-dimensional temperature analysis for SOI MOSFET

M. Koyanagi; H. Kiba; H. Kurino; T. Hashimoto; H. Mori; K. Yamaguchi IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1992

Summary form only given. The authors evaluate a temperature-rise effect in short-channel SOI MOSFET using a device simulator that employs a quasi-3-D temperature analysis together with 2-D coupled Monte-Carlo-energy-transport analysis. It is shown that one can accurately simulate the drain current reduction and the negative output resistance in the saturation region due to the temperature rise in the channel. It ...


A Neutron Flux Measuring Channel Covering Ten Decades of Reactor Power with a Single Fixed-Position Detector

William M. Trenholme; Donald J. Keefe IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1967

A new type of instrument for neutron flux measurement in reactor control systems is described. It requires only a single fixed-position fission chamber of standard design to continuously cover ten decades of neutron flux level. The wide range of coverage is achieved by utilizing both the individual pulses from the chamber and the statistical fluctuation signal developed by the overlap ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • J.J. Thompson and the Electron, 1897–1899

    This chapter contains sections titled: Some Historical Background, J.J. Thompson on Cathode Rays -- 1897, J.J. Thompson on the Charge of Ions -- 1898, The Electron and Ionization -- 1899, Aftermath--The Next Decade, Thompson's Contribution to the Electron, Acknowledgments, Notes

  • Space Charge in HVDC Extruded Insulation: Storage, Effects, and Measurement Methods

    This chapter discusses space-charge storage in HVDC extruded insulation, the relevant manifold effects, and the techniques developed by researchers in order to measure the amount and distribution of space charge stored in the insulation, and the electric field profile associated with such distribution. It reviews the theoretical background of charge injection and transport in insulating polymers. The chapter illustrates the processes that result in space-charge accumulation namely charge generation - via electronic charge injection, field-assisted thermal ionization of impurities, spatially inhomogeneous electric polarization, and steady DC current coupled with a spatially varying ratio ofpermittivity to conductivity. It also reviews the space-charge measurement methods for HVDC extruded insulation. The chapter focuses on the up-to-date developments of the best-suited techniques for measuring space charges in extruded insulation for HVDC cables. It provides a comparison between the best space-charge measurement methods for power cables: pulsed electro acoustic (PEA) versus thermal step method (TSM).

  • Principles of Substrate Crosstalk Generation in CMOS Circuits

    Substrate noise injection is evaluated for a O.2S-µm CMOS technology, to determine the mechanisms that contribute to substrate crosstalk. At the transistor level, we find that impact ionization current and capacitive coupling from the junctions are the most significant contributors to substrate current injection. An investigation of substrate fluctuations at a circuit level included switching transients, capacitive damping, and separate substrate biasing. This investigation revealed that voltage transients on power-supply lines can be the dominant source of substrate fluctuations. Finally, a statistical analysis of signal cancellation in an integrated circuit was performed. The results indicate that more cancellation will take place for the high-frequency noise components than for the average and low- frequency components. As a consequence, the de and low-frequency components of the transient that results from an individual switching event can not be neglected even if they are a relatively small fraction of the single transient.

  • Proton Single Event Rate Calculations

    This chapter contains sections titled: Nuclear Reaction Analysis Semiempirical Approaches and the Integral Cross-Section Calculation Relationship of Proton and Heavy Ion Upsets Correlation of the FOM with Proton Upset Cross Sections Upsets Due to Rare High Energy Proton Reactions Upset Due to Ionization by Stopping Protons, Helium Ions, and Iron Ions

  • Appendix B: Physical Phenomena

    This appendix contains sections titled: Drift Velocity and Mobility Diffusion Thermionic Emission Image-Force Lowering Recombination and Generation Impact Ionization and Avalanche Space-Charge Effect and Space-Charge-Limited Current Tunneling Ohmic Contact Hall Effect Heterojunction, Quantum Well, Superlattice, and Quantum Dot

  • The Scaled MOS Transistor

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Classical Scaling Laws Lateral Field Gradient Narrow and Inverse Width Effects Reverse Short Channel Effect Carrier Mobility Reduction Velocity Overshoot Channel Length Modulation: A Pseudo-2-D Analysis Series Resistance Effect on Drain Current Polydepletion Effect on Drain Current Impact Ionization in High Field Region Channel Punch-Through Empirical Alpha Power MOSFET Model References

  • Specialized Silicon Carbide Devices and Applications

    The unique characteristics of SiC make it attractive for a variety of applications that are not well served by existing silicon technology. One such application is high-power, moderate-frequency microwave amplifiers and power sources based on devices such as MESFETs (metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors), static induction transistors (SITs), and IMPATT (impact ionization avalanche transit-time) diodes. Another important application involves high-temperature integrated circuits for sensing and control, where SiC bipolar and JFET (junction field-effect transistor) integrated circuits are the preferred implementations. A major emerging opportunity for SiC lies in the area of sensors for hostile environments. Developments to date include MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical sensor) devices for motion sensors, gas sensors for combustion control, and solar-blind UV optical detectors. In each area we describe the application requirements, highlight the advantages of SiC, and report the current status of SiC technology.

  • Ionization Processes

    The ionization process of atoms or molecules is through energizing the electrons causing them to leave stable orbit revolving around the nucleus and becoming free-moving charges. The main mechanisms for ionization consist of thermal, electron impact, chemical reactions, photoionization, and microwave or electron cyclotron resonance. This chapter describes the ionization that focus on the basic mechanisms of photoemission, thermal, and electron impact discharges. The equilibrium ionization of the mixture of electrons, ions, and neutral particles can be analyzed by the law of mass action and the electronic partition function. Under gas discharge conditions, ionization by electron impact dominates over the photoionization because the cross sections of photoionization close to the ionizing threshold are rather high. The chapter provides Saha equation of ionization. An important parameter for the ionization rate is the mean free path of the gas medium and is ultimately related to the collision cross section.

  • Modeling Electron Impact Ionization

    Electron impact ionization is the mainstay for plasma-based flow control actuators because it actuates in less than microseconds and the electrode configuration can be made nonintrusive to oncoming stream. In addition, when the actuator is not needed, unlike most mechanical flow control devices, it will not be parasitic and degrade performance of aerospace vehicles. The space charges induce an additional electric field potential that makes it different from the corona discharge. This chapter presents the best physics-based, multifluid model for the electron impact ionization. The physics for electron impact ionization is well known through the luminary contributions by Townsend, the ionization is evolving from the electrons collision, secondary emission, and avalanche. The secondary emission from cathode arises as controlling mechanism for all electron impact ionization. A high concentration of positive charges over an electrode creates an extremely high electrical field potential, which is comparable to the magnitude in a nuclei.

  • Upsets Produced by Heavy Ion Nuclear Reactions

    This chapter contains sections titled: Heavy Ion Nuclear Reactions Upset Rate Calculations for Combined Ionization and Reactions Heavy Nuclear Ion Reactions Summary



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