In vitro

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In vitro refers to studies in experimental biology that are conducted using components of an organism that have been isolated from their usual biological context in order to permit a more detailed or more convenient analysis than can be done with whole organisms. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to In vitro

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2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power


2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

Neural Engineering

  • 2017 8th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    Neural Engineering is an emerging core discipline,which coalesces neuroscience with engineering.Members of both the Neuroscience and Engineering Communities areencouraged to attend this highly multidisciplinarymeeting. The conference will highlight the emergingengineering innovations in the restoration andenhancement of impaired sensory, motor, andcognitive functions, novel engineering for deepeningknowledge of brain function, and advanced designand use of neurotechnologies

  • 2015 7th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    Neural engineering deals with many aspects of basic and clinical problemsassociated with neural dysfunction including the representation of sensory and motor information, theelectrical stimulation of the neuromuscular system to control the muscle activation and movement, theanalysis and visualization of complex neural systems at multi -scale from the single -cell and to the systemlevels to understand the underlying mechanisms, the development of novel neural prostheses, implantsand wearable devices to restore and enhance the impaired sensory and motor systems and functions.

  • 2013 6th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    Neural engineering deals with many aspects of basic and clinical problems associated with neural dysfunction including the representation of sensory and motor information, the electrical stimulation of the neuromuscular system to control the muscle activation and movement, the analysis and visualization of complex neural systems at multi-scale from the single-cell and to the system levels to understand the underlying mechanisms, the development of novel neural prostheses, implants and wearable devices to restore and enhance the impaired sensory and motor systems and functions.

  • 2011 5th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    highlight the emerging field, Neural Engineering that unites engineering, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science with molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and encompasses such areas as replacing or restoring lost sensory and motor abilities, defining the organizing principles and underlying mechanisms of neural systems, neurorobotics, neuroelectronics, brain imaging and mapping, cognitive science and neuroscience.

  • 2009 4th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER)

    highlight the emerging field, Neural Engineering that unites engineering, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science with molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and encompasses such areas as replacing or restoring lost sensory and motor abilities, defining the organizing principles and underlying mechanisms of neural systems, neurorobotics, neuroelectronics, brain imaging and mapping, cognitive science and neuroscience.

  • 2007 3rd International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering

  • 2005 2nd International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering

  • 2003 1st International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering


2018 14th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAM

  • 2016 13th IEEE International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAMs22. Phase Change Memory23. 3-Dimensional Memory24. MEMS Technology25. Thin Film Transistors26. Biosensors27. PV and Energy Harvesting28. Front End of Line (FEOL) R

  • 2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on Solid -State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAMs22. Phase Change Memory23. 3-Dimensional Memory24. MEMS Technology25. Thin Film Transistors26. Biosensors27. PV and Energy Harvesting28. Front End of Line (FEOL) R

  • 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High Kdielectric , Advance Memories , nano -electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices ,sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material erization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation,Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low -power, RF devices & circuits, ICCAD

  • 2010 IEEE 10th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High K dielectric , Advance Memories , nano-electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices , sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material characterization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation, Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low-power, RF devices & circuits, IC CAD .

  • 2008 9th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

  • 2006 8th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

  • 2004 7th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated-Circuit Technology (ICSICT)


2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops and invitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields of biomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality papers will be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and will be indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE


2018 43rd International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz2018)

Covering terahertz, far infrared and millimeter wave science, technology and applications


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Periodicals related to In vitro

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Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to, sequence analysis, comparison and alignment methods; motif, gene and signal recognition; molecular evolution; phylogenetics and phylogenomics; determination or prediction of the structure of RNA and Protein in two and three dimensions; DNA twisting and folding; gene expression and gene regulatory networks; deduction of metabolic pathways; micro-array design and analysis; proteomics; ...


Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.


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Most published Xplore authors for In vitro

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Xplore Articles related to In vitro

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Visual and quantitative evaluation of selected image combination schemes in ultrasound spatial compound scanning

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Tech. Univ. Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark', u'full_name': u'J. E. Wilhjelm'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Tech. Univ. Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark', u'full_name': u'M. S. Jensen'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'full_name': u'S. K. Jespersen'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'full_name': u'B. Sahl'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'full_name': u'E. Falk'}] IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, 2004

Multi-angle spatial compound images are normally generated by averaging the recorded single-angle images (SAIs). To exploit possible advantages associated with alternative combination schemes, this paper investigates both the effect of number of angles (Nθ) as well as operator (mean, median, mean-excluding- maximum (mem), root-mean-square (rms), geometric mean and maximum) on image quality (tissue delineation and artifacts), speckle signal-to-noise ratio (SNRs) ...


In vitro assessment of pressure recovery through St. Jude heart valve prostheses

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'The Ohio State University', u'full_name': u'N. L. Greenberg'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'full_name': u'P. M. Vandervoort'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'full_name': u'A. I. Veress'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'full_name': u'Min Pu'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'full_name': u'K. A. Powell'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'full_name': u'J. F. Cornhill'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'full_name': u'J. D. Thomas'}] Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Societ, None

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/00978902.png)


No genotoxic effects but mitotic disturbances found after in vitro THz field exposition of cells

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, Germany', u'full_name': u'T. Kleine-Ostmann'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, Germany', u'full_name': u'C. Jastrow'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, Germany', u'full_name': u'T. Schrader'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany', u'full_name': u'B. Heinen'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany', u'full_name': u'M. Schwerdtfeger'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany', u'full_name': u'M. Koch'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Helmholtz-Zentrum für Infektionsforschung, Braunschweig, Germany', u'full_name': u'U. K\xe4rst'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Germany', u'full_name': u'H. Hintzsche'}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Germany', u'full_name': u'H. Stopper'}] 2012 37th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, None

In a project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) two different human skin cell types (HaCaT and HDF) have been exposed under defined environmental conditions to continuous-wave THz radiation at three distinct frequencies of 106 GHz, 380 GHz and 2.52 THz with free-space power densities between 0.03 mW/cm2 and 1.96 mW/cm2 adjusted traceable to the SI ...


Effect of mechanical trauma on neuronal cell viability

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Sch. of Biomed. Eng., Sci. & Health Syst., Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA, USA', u'full_name': u'G. Serbest'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'full_name': u'J. Horwitz'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'full_name': u'K. A. Barbee'}] Proceedings of the IEEE 27th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Cat. No.01CH37201), None

To understand the cellular mechanisms of neuronal injury, it is very important to mimic the mechanical loading conditions experienced by the cells in vivo. A cell culture model is an idealized system to investigate cell injury at the cellular and molecular levels. The authors developed a model that allows mechanical stimuli to be precisely controlled and cellular responses to be ...


In the Spotlight: Tissue Engineering — Quantitative Analysis of Complex 3-D Tissues

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA, USA', u'full_name': u'Tejal A. Desai'}] IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, 2009

This work highlights the impact that integrated measurement techniques in tissue engineering platforms can have in elucidating basic biologic mechanisms. In this work, a composite matrix and strain device is described that can support natural matrices within a macroporous elastic structure of polyurethane. In this way, a well-defined dynamic strain could be imposed on the 3-D collagen and cells within ...


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Educational Resources on In vitro

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eLearning

No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "In vitro"

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • A Biosystems Approach to Industrial Patient Monitoring and Diagnostic Devices

    A medical device is an apparatus that uses engineering and scientific principles to interface to physiology and diagnose or treat a disease. In this Lecture, we specifically consider thosemedical devices that are computer based, and are therefore referred to as medical instruments. Further, the medical instruments we discuss are those that incorporate system theory into their designs. We divide these types of instruments into those that provide continuous observation and those that provide a single snapshot of health information. These instruments are termed patient monitoring devices and diagnostic devices, respectively.Within this Lecture, we highlight some of the common system theory techniques that are part of the toolkit of medical device engineers in industry. These techniques include the pseudorandom binary sequence, adaptive filtering, wavelet transforms, the autoregressive moving average model with exogenous input, artificial neural networks, fuzzy models, and fuzzy control. ecause the clinical usage requirements for patient monitoring and diagnostic devices are so high, system theory is the preferred substitute for heuristic, empirical processing during noise artifact minimization and classification. Table of Contents: Preface / Medical Devices / System Theory / Patient Monitoring Devices / Diagnostic Devices / Conclusion / Author Biography

  • Intravascular MR Antennas: Loops and Solenoids

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction MRI Intravascular MR Antennas MR Antenna Model Antenna Evaluation In Vitro Testing Antenna Synthesis Safety Aspects Conclusions Appendix 2.A. Biot-Savart Law for Quasi‐Static Situation References

  • Antennas for Biological Experiments

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Organized Interdisciplinary Bioelectromagnetics Research Induced Fields and SAR Characteristic Features of Exposure Systems Antennas for _In Vitro_ Experiments Antennas for _In Vivo_ Experiments Summary Acknowledgments References

  • Cardiac Tissue Engineering:Principles, Materials, and Applications

    Cardiac tissue engineering aims at repairing damaged heart muscle and producing human cardiac tissues for application in drug toxicity studies. This book offers a comprehensive overview of the cardiac tissue engineering strategies, including presenting and discussing the various concepts in use, research directions and applications. Essential basic information on the major components in cardiac tissue engineering, namely cell sources and biomaterials, is firstly presented to the readers, followed by a detailed description of their implementation in different strategies, broadly divided to cellular and acellular ones. In cellular approaches, the biomaterials are used to increase cell retention after implantation or as scaffolds when bioengineering the cardiac patch, in vitro. In acellular approaches, the biomaterials are used as ECM replacement for damaged cardiac ECM after MI, or, in combination with growth factors, the biomaterials assume an additional function as a depot for prolong d factor activity for the effective recruitment of repairing cells. The book also presents technological innovations aimed to improve the quality of the cardiac patches, such as bioreactor applications, stimulation patterns and prevascularization. This book could be of interest not only from an educational perspective (i.e. for graduate students), but also for researchers and medical professionals, to offer them fresh views on novel and powerful treatment strategies. We hope that the reader will find a broad spectrum of ideas and possibilities described in this book both interesting and convincing. Table of Contents: Introduction / The Heart: Structure, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Regeneration / Cell Sources for Cardiac Tissue Engineering / Biomaterials: Polymers, Scaffolds, and Basic Design Criteria / Biomaterials as Vehicles for Stem Cell Delivery and Retention in the Infarct / Bioengineering of Cardiac Patches, In Vitro / Perfusion Bioreactors and Stimulation Patterns in Cardiac T ssue Engineering / Vascularization of Cardiac Patches / Acellular Biomaterials for Cardiac Repair / Biomaterial-based Controlled Delivery of Bioactive Molecules for Myocardial Regeneration

  • Regenerative Dentistry

    Dental caries, periodontitis, tooth loss, and bone resorption are considered prevalent health problems that have direct affect on the quality of life. While, advances in stem cell biology and biotechnology have sparked hope for devastating maladies, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc., it also provides a strategy of regenerative therapy for dental tissues. From the prospective of tissue engineering, it is of utmost importance to understand and emulate the complex cell interactions that make up a tissue or organ. Unlike other tissues in the body, dental tissues are unique in their development, function, and even in their maintenance throughout life. The harmonized stimulations of biology and mechanical regulators to promote cellular activities have matured our understanding of the value of regenerative therapy of dental tissue versus the reparative treatment. In this book, we review the current knowledge available to regenerate alveolar bone, periodontal structure, and pulp dentin complex. The book provides researchers with detailed information about development and functional characteristics of the dental unit with detailed protocols covering a comprehensive range of various approaches to engineer dental tissues: to use isolated cells or cell substitutes as cellular replacement, to use acellular biomaterials capable of inducing tissue regeneration, and/or to use a combination of cells, biomaterial and growth factors. We are well aware, with the concept changes in the field toward in-vitro biomimetics of in-vivo tissue development. The theoretical frame work integrating these concepts of developmental biology and developmental engineering is yet to be emphasized and implemented. Until this happens, we consider this book of regenerative dentistry as a call for scientists to achieve, researchers to innovate, practitioners to apply, and students to learn the art and science of regenerative therapy in dentistry. Table of Contents: Introduction to Regenerativ Dentistry / Tissue Engineering Alveolar Bone / Tissue Engineering of the Periodontal Tissues / Dynamics for Pulp-Dentin Tissue Engineering in Operative Dentistry

  • Cells and Biomaterials for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

    Disorders related to the intervertebral disc (IVD) are common causes of morbidity and of severe life quality deterioration. IVD degeneration, although in many cases asymptomatic, is often the origin of painful neck and back diseases. In Western societies IVD related pain and disability account for enormous health care costs as a result of work absenteeism and thus lost production, disability benefits, medical and insurance expenses. Although only a small percentage of patients with disc disorders finally will undergo surgery, spinal surgery has been one of the fastest growing disciplines in the musculoskeletal field in recent years. Nevertheless, current treatment options are still a matter of controversial discussion. In particular, they hardly can restore normal spine biomechanics and prevent degeneration of adjacent tissues. While degeneration affects all areas of the IVD, the most constant and noticeable changes occur in the gel-like central part, the nucleus pulposus (NP). Recent emphasis has therefore been put in biological ways to regenerate the NP; however, there are a number of obstacles to overcome, considering the exceptional biological and biomechanical environment of this tissue. Different biological approaches such as molecular, gene, and cell based therapies have been investigated and have shown promising results in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Nonetheless, considerable hurdles still exist in their application for IVD regeneration in human patients. The choice of the cells and the choice of the cell carrier suitable for implantation pose major challenges for research and development activities. This lecture recapitulates the basics of IVD structure, function, and degeneration mechanisms. The first part reviews the recent progress in the field of disc and stem cell based regenerative approaches. In the second part, most appropriate biomaterials that have been evaluated as cell or molecule carrier to cope with degenerative disc disease are outlin d. The potential and limitations of cell- and biomaterial-based treatment strategies and perspectives for future clinical applications are discussed. Table of Contents: Cell Therapy for Nucleus Pulposus Regeneration / Recent Advances in Biomaterial Based Tissue Engineering for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

  • Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Cartilage injuries in children and adolescents are increasingly observed, with roughly 20% of knee injuries in adolescents requiring surgery. In the US alone, costs of osteoarthritis (OA) are in excess of $65 billion per year (both medical costs and lost wages). Comorbidities are common with OA and are also costly to manage. Articular cartilage's low friction and high capacity to bear load makes it critical in the movement of one bone against another, and its lack of a sustained natural healing response has necessitated a plethora of therapies. Tissue engineering is an emerging technology at the threshold of translation to clinical use. Replacement cartilage can be constructed in the laboratory to recapitulate the functional requirements of native tissues. This book outlines the biomechanical and biochemical characteristics of articular cartilage in both normal and pathological states, through development and aging. It also provides a historical perspective of past and current cartil ge treatments and previous tissue engineering efforts. Methods and standards for evaluating the function of engineered tissues are discussed, and current cartilage products are presented with an analysis on the United States Food and Drug Administration regulatory pathways that products must follow to market. This book was written to serve as a reference for researchers seeking to learn about articular cartilage, for undergraduate and graduate level courses, and as a compendium of articular cartilage tissue engineering design criteria. Table of Contents: Hyaline Articular Cartilage / Cartilage Aging and Pathology / In Vitro / Bioreactors / Future Directions

  • On the Research Subject and the Animal Model

    The Substitutive Research Subject, Animal Politics, From Humanizing the Animal Model to In-Vivo-izing the In Vitro Model

  • Microengineered Polymer- and Ceramic-Based Biomaterial Scaffolds: A Topical Review on Design, Processing, and Biocompatibility Properties

    Porous scaffolds play a critical role in bone regeneration and therefore are widely being developed for various biomedical applications. Porosity and pore size, both at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, are important morphological characteristics of a biomaterial scaffold for bone regeneration. This chapter explores the state-of the-art knowledge on the fabrication of porous scaffolds and their physicomechanical behavior as well as _in vitro_ and _in vivo_ biological response in the context of their bone regeneration capabilities. The availability of a number of scaffold fabrication routes provides an opportunity to develop porous scaffolds of various biocompatible materials with different porosities, pore sizes, and mechanical properties. The chapter discusses mechanical as well as the _in vitro_ and _in vivo_ biocompatibility properties. It highlights some of the outstanding issues related to the future scaffold development to mimic the complex architecture of natural bone for better bone tissue regeneration.

  • Improved Impedance Cardiography

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Physiology of Cardiac Output * In Vivo and In Vitro Cardiac Output Measurements * Problem Significance * Spectrogram Processing in Drexel Patents * Wavelet Processing in CardioDynamics Software * Summary * References * Electrocardiogram QRS Detection Exercises



Standards related to In vitro

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IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz

Recommendations are made to protect against established adverse health effects in human beings associated with exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 3 kHz to 300 GHz. The recommendations are expressed in terms of basic restrictions (BRs) and maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values. The BRs are limits on internal fields, specific absorption rate (SAR), and ...