Conferences related to Green products

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2018 10th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

10th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN 2017) is organized to address various issues to prosper the creation of intelligent solutions in future. The aim is to bring together worldwide leading researchers, developers, practitioners and educators interested in advancing the state of the art in computational intelligence and communication Networks for exchanging knowledge that encompasses a broad range of disciplines among various distinct communities. It is expected that researchers will bring new prospect for collaboration across disciplines and gain idea facilitating novel breakthrough. The theme for this conference is Innovating and Inspiring the researchers to adopt the outcome for implementation.

  • 2017 9th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

    Soft computing, Fuzzy Logic and ANN • Sensors and networks (wireless ad hoc N/W, Vehicular N/W) • Acoustic and under water electronics/communication and sonar systems • Image, Signal and Speach Processing • Microwave IC, antennas and Wave Propagation • Modeling and simulation• Digital Design, VLSI and SOC • Data Mining, Big data, Ontology and Web Services • Parallel and distributed systems• Telecommunication and Mobile communication • Grid, Cloud, High Speed/Performance and Green Computing • RFIDs and applicatons• Embedded systems and Hardware Design/Implementation • Mobile Computing, Computational Intelligence • Power Electronics, Transmission and Power Systems • Computer Vision and Artificial Intelligence • Bio-informatics, Biometry and Medical Imaging• Information security,Network Security and Steganography • Remote sensing and GIS

  • 2016 8th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

    Soft computing, Fuzzy Logic and ANN ? Sensors and networks (wireless ad hoc N/W, Vehicular N/W) ? Acoustic and under water electronics/communication and sonar systems ? Signal and Speach Processing ? Microwave IC, antennas and Wave Propagation ? Modeling and simulation ? VLSI Design and SOC ? Data Mining, Ontology and Web Services ? Parallel and distributed systems ? Telecommunication and Mobile communication ? Grid, Cloud, High Speed/Performance and Green Computing ? RFIDs and applicatons ? Embedded systems and Hardware Design/Implementation ? Mobile Computing, Computational Intelligence

  • 2015 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

    Soft computing, Fuzzy Logic and ANN • Sensors and networks (wireless ad hoc N/W, Vehicular N/W) • Acoustic and under water electronics/communication and sonar systems • Signal and Speach Processing • Microwave IC, antennas and Wave Propagation • Modeling and simulation• VLSI Design and SOC • Data Mining, Ontology and Web Services • Parallel and distributed systems• Telecommunication and Mobile communication • Grid, Cloud, High Speed/Performance and Green Computing • RFIDs and applicatons• Embedded systems and Hardware Design/Implementation • Mobile Computing, Computational Intelligence

  • 2014 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

    The International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN 2014) is organized to address various issues to prosper the creation of intelligent solutions in future. The aim is to bring together worldwide leading researchers, developers, practitioners and educators interested in advancing the state of the art in computational intelligence and communication Networks for exchanging knowledge that encompasses a broad range of disciplines among various distinct communities. It is expected that researchers will bring new prospect for collaboration across disciplines and gain idea facilitating novel breakthrough. The theme for this conference is Innovating and Inspiring the researchers to adopt the outcome for implementation. The conference will provide an exceptional platform to the researchers to meet and discuss the utmost solutions, scientific results and methods in solving intriguing problems with people that actively involved in these evergreen fields. T

  • 2013 5th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

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  • 2012 4th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

    The lnternational Conference CICN 2012 aims to bring together researchers, engineers, developers and practitioners from academia and industry working in all major areas and interdisciplinary to brainstorm for fruitful results and applications.

  • 2011 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

    The International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN2011) is organized to address various issues to prosper the creation of intelligent solutions in future. The aim is to bring together worldwide leading researchers, developers, practitioners and educators interested in advancing the state of the art in computational intelligence and communication Networks for exchanging knowledge that encompasses a broad range of disciplines among various distinct communities.

  • 2010 International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN)

    The International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN2010) is organized to address various issues to prosper the creation of intelligent solutions in future. The aim is to bring together worldwide leading researchers, developers, practitioners and educators interested in advancing the state of the art in computational intelligence and communication Networks for exchanging knowledge that encompasses a broad range of disciplines among various distinct communities.


2018 20th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'18 ECCE Europe)

Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies


2018 25th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

The conference for researchers and experts has been providing good opportunitiesto exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays(AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics(PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, thefollowing topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): flexible display, LCDs, OLED, e-papers, 3D displays,touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFTsTechnologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline Si-based TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, such as graphene, semiconductor nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and device modeling, device & circuit simulation, and their reliability.Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous /crystalline Si heterojunction, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2017 24th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Paper are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): flexible display, LCDs, OLED, e-papers, 3D displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline Si-based TFTs, organic TFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2016 23rd International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs, displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2015 22nd International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs,displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs,organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2014 21st International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices(AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs, displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems.TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2013 Twentieth International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AM-FPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • 2012 19th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific ideas for advanced information on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AM-FPDs) including thin-film transistors (TFTs), and solar cells.


2018 41st International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronicsand Microelectronics (MIPRO)

Computer in Technical Systems, Intelligent Systems, Distributed Computing and VisualizationSystems, Communication Systems, Information Systems Security, Digital Economy, Computersin Education, Microelectronics, Electronic Technology, Education


2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon)

The Conference addresses the discipline of systemsengineering, including theory, technology, methodology,and applications of complex systems, system-of-systems,and integrated systems of national and globalsignificance. It focuses on Systems Engineering for Complex Systems; and the conference caters to both practitioners andacademics, providing a forum to exchange ideas andexperiences on technology, methodology, applications,study cases, and practical experiences.

  • 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon)

    addresses the discipline of systems engineering,including theory, technology, methodology, andapplications of complex systems, system-of-systems,and integrated systems of national and globalsignificance.

  • 2017 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon)

    The IEEE International Systems Conference facilitates interactions among communities of interest on system-level problems andapplications. System-level thinking is essential in the worldtoday, not only for technical systems, but also for societyat large. The Conference addresses the discipline of systemsengineering, including theory, technology, methodology,and applications of complex systems, system-of-systems,and integrated systems of national and globalsignificance.

  • 2016 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon)

    The theme of the IEEE International SystemsConference is Engineering of Complex Systems, to includeSystems-of-systems, Systems Engineering, Systems Integration,and Systems Thinking

  • 2015 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon)

    The theme of the IEEE International Systems Conference is Engineering of Complex Systems, to include Systems-of-systems, Systems Engineering, Systems Integration, and Systems Thinking.

  • 2014 8th Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon)

    This conference seeks to create an interactive forum forthe advancement of the practice of systems engineeringacross the multiple disciplines and specialty areasassociated with the engineering of complex systems. Theconference will provide a venue for systems engineeringpractitioners, managers, researchers, and educators toexchange innovative concepts, ideas, applications, andlessons learned addressing: Applications-oriented topics on large-scale systemsand system-of-systems in topics noted below

  • 2013 7th Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon)

    Conference addresses systems, complex systems, systems-of-systems, critical systems, and the systems engineering disciplines needed to implement such large-scale or complex systems in the international arena.

  • 2012 6th Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon)

    The IEEE Systems Conference is Engineering Complex Integrated Systems and Systems-of-Systems Implications for Systems Engineering, Systems Integration, and Systems Thinking.

  • 2011 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon)

    IEEE International Systems Conference Scope is Engineering of Complex Systems, to include Systems-of-systems, Large-scale Systems Integration, and Systems Engineering and Systems Thinking.

  • 2010 4th Annual IEEE Systems Conference

    The theme of the IEEE Systems Conference is Engineering Complex Integrated Systems and Systems-of-systems Implications for Systems Engineering, Systems Integration, and Systems Thinking.

  • 2009 3rd Annual IEEE Systems Conference

    Engineering Comles Integtared Systems and Systems-of-Systems - Implications for Systems Engineering, Systems Integration, and Systems Thinking

  • 2008 2nd Annual IEEE Systems Conference

    The theme of the IEEE Systems Conference is Engineering Complex Integrated Systems and Systems-of-systems- Implications for Systems Engineering, Systems Integration, and Systems Thinking.

  • 2007 1st Annual IEEE Systems Conference

    The theme of the IEEE Systems Conference is Engineering Complex Integrated Systems and Systems-of-systems - Implications for Systems Engineering, Systems Integration, and Systems Thinking.


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Periodicals related to Green products

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Automation Sciences and Engineering (T-ASE) publishes fundamental papers on Automation, emphasizing scientific results that advance efficiency, quality, productivity, and reliability. T-ASE encourages interdisciplinary approaches from computer science, control systems, electrical engineering, mathematics, mechanical engineering, operations research, and other fields. We welcome results relevant to industries such as agriculture, biotechnology, healthcare, home automation, maintenance, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, retail, ...


Communications Magazine, IEEE

IEEE Communications Magazine was the number three most-cited journal in telecommunications and the number eighteen cited journal in electrical and electronics engineering in 2004, according to the annual Journal Citation Report (2004 edition) published by the Institute for Scientific Information. Read more at http://www.ieee.org/products/citations.html. This magazine covers all areas of communications such as lightwave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications ...


Computer

Computer, the flagship publication of the IEEE Computer Society, publishes peer-reviewed technical content that covers all aspects of computer science, computer engineering, technology, and applications. Computer is a resource that practitioners, researchers, and managers can rely on to provide timely information about current research developments, trends, best practices, and changes in the profession.


Display Technology, Journal of

This publication covers the theory, design, fabrication, manufacturing and application of information displays and aspects of display technology that emphasize the progress in device engineering, device design, materials, electronics, physics and reliabilityaspects of displays and the application of displays.


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Most published Xplore authors for Green products

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Xplore Articles related to Green products

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Behavior statistics and social network analysis of online Go game players

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Wireless Information Network LAB., Dept. of EEIS, USTC, Hefei, Anhui, China 230027', u'full_name': u'Sihai Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Advanced Robotics and Intelligent Control Center, Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore', u'full_name': u'Zhiwei Song'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'School of Life Science, USTC, Hefei, Anhui, China 230027', u'full_name': u'Zhi Liang'}] 2011 International Conference on Cloud and Service Computing, None

The statistics and principle of human behavior are of great importance in interpreting the origin and formation of human behavior in many scopes including economics, sociology, biology and engineering systems. As a basic step toward the understanding of Go Players' behavior, we investigate several statistical properties, including the distribution of total game number in different time scale, the match intensity ...


Study of segmentation method based on infrared images and visible-light images

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Higher Educ. Key Lab. for Meas. & Control Technol. & Instrumentations of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Univ. of Sci. & Technol., Harbin, China', u'full_name': u'Changzheng Liu'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'full_name': u'Guiyun Ye'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'full_name': u'Hui Wang'}] Proceedings of 2011 6th International Forum on Strategic Technology, None

A technique based on infrared images acquisition from infrared thermal imaging technology combined visible-light images for image segmentation is introduced. Under the same hardware (infrared camera) acquisition devices captured the same point of the visible-light images and infrared images. The infrared image is used LOG operator to be objective edge. Then gets the original boundary to the larger lattice re-sampling, ...


Experiment and feasibility study on saline water purification by using natural cold resource

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Department of Traffic Engineering, Henan University of Urban Construction, Pingdingshan, China', u'full_name': u'Congshuang Luo'}] 2011 International Conference on Multimedia Technology, None

In order to explore an economic, rational, practical method of saline water desalination, this paper mainly uses freeze saline water purification method of experimental study for the exploitation and utilization of natural cold resource. According to the freezing points of water condensate theory, the authors have made cryogenic pilot studies for saline water, we carried out the freezing experiment under ...


Source energy distribution and successive forwarding in layered and functionally graded elastic substructures

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Mathematics, Mechanics and Informatics, Kuban State University, Krasnodar, 350040, Russia', u'full_name': u'E. V. Glushkov'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Mathematics, Mechanics and Informatics, Kuban State University, Krasnodar, 350040, Russia', u'full_name': u'N. V. Glushkova'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Mathematics, Mechanics and Informatics, Kuban State University, Krasnodar, 350040, Russia', u'full_name': u'S. I. Fomenko'}] Proceedings of the International Conference Days on Diffraction 2014, None

The paper is focused on the source energy distribution in vertically inhomogeneous elastic half-spaces with soft internal channels. The analysis is performed using the Fourier transform technique and Green's matrix integral representations. Time-averaged wave energy fluxes are calculated based on the Umov-Poynting energy vector concept. The excited guided waves exhibit a peculiar effect of wave energy localization in certain, specific ...


The efficacy of voluntary leadership in environmental collective action

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, 518055, China', u'full_name': u'Charlene Xie'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Shenzhen Graduate School, Harbin Institute of Technology, 518055, China', u'full_name': u'Yang Liu'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'School of Finance, Shanghai University of International Business and Economics, 200335, China', u'full_name': u'Xiao-dan Weng'}] 2014 International Conference on Management Science & Engineering 21th Annual Conference Proceedings, None

Leadership mechanism is a key factor underlying the performance of collective actions. This study for the first time examines the effect of voluntary leadership on collective actions in the context of environmental problems. Two experiments differing in leadership mechanism were designed. 96 subjects joined the experiments and formed into 32 groups in every of the five rounds. Analyses show that ...


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Educational Resources on Green products

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eLearning

No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Green products"

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Energy‐Efficiency Metrics and Performance Trade‐Offs of GREEN Wireless Networks

    A key challenge of future mobile communications research is to strike an attractive compromise between wireless network's area spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. This necessitates a clean-slate approach to wireless system design. This trend is irreversible and will have a profound impact on both the theory and practice of future green heterogeneous networks, which will no longer be purely optimized for approaching the attainable capacity, but will explicitly include the energy efficiency during the design and optimization of the entire protocol stack. This implies that new performance metrics quantifying the energy efficiency of mobile networks are necessary. This will inevitably introduce new fundamental trade‐offs that have to be accurately investigated. The objective of this chapter is to summarize the main efforts of the research community in the definition of these energy‐efficiency metrics as well as to describe the most important and fundamental trade‐offs that emerge with these new performance metrics at hand.

  • Fundamental Green Networking Technologies

    This chapter provides a timely overview of the research challenges and existing solutions for green energy enabled mobile networks and lays the foundations for powering mobile networks with green energy. First, it introduces green power generation and prediction models and mobile network energy consumption models. Understanding the characteristics of green power generation and the dynamics of energy consumption of mobile networks are essential for designing and optimizing green energy enabled mobile networks. In order to maximize green power utilization, green energy powered BSs should be properly designed and optimized to cope with the dynamics of green power and mobile data traffic. The process of green energy provisioning involves three basic models: the load model, the battery model, and the green power generation model. The chapter also discusses network optimization for off¿¿¿grid green mobile networks, on¿¿¿grid green mobile networks, and mobile networks consisting of both green BSs and grid powered BSs.

  • Introduction

    This chapter provides an introduction on the green communications and energy efficiency in telecommunication systems considering the origins of the problem and indicating the main motivations. It additionally provides an overview of energy efficiency in telecommunication systems highlighting past and present innovations and demonstrating the evolution of the green communications field. An overview of the system model is followed by an examination of the different parts of a telecommunication network where energy conservation mechanisms and practices can be applied, as further detailed throughout the book. The fundamental energy efficiency concepts and principles in telecommunication systems are then analyzed, reviewing also the elementary energy quantification and qualification measures.

  • Optimizing Green Energy Utilization for Mobile Networks with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    This chapter presents green energy optimization (GEO) schemes, which optimize energy utilization in cellular networks with hybrid energy supplies. The GEO scheme decomposes the problem into two sub¿¿¿problems: the multi¿¿¿stage energy allocation problem and the multi¿¿¿BSs energy balancing problem. The chapter proposes algorithms to solve these sub¿¿¿problems, and hence solve the green energy optimization problem. It introduces and investigates the green energy provisioning (GEP) problem, which aims to minimize the CAPEX of deploying green energy systems in BSs while satisfying the QoS requirements of cellular networks. The GEP problem is decomposed into the weighted energy minimization problem and the green energy system sizing problem. The chapter proposes a green energy provisioning solution consisting of a provision¿¿¿cost aware traffic load balancing algorithm and a binary energy system sizing algorithm to solve the sub¿¿¿problems and hence solve the GEP problem.

  • Enhancing Energy Efficiency via Device¿¿¿to¿¿¿Device Proximity Services

    This chapter presents three device¿¿¿to¿¿¿device (D2D) proximity services¿¿¿based energy efficient communications schemes, namely, energy efficient cooperative wireless multicasting, green relay assisted D2D communications and green content brokerage. In green relay assisted D2D communications, the chapter introduces green relay nodes to increase the link data rate of D2D communications by leveraging cooperative communications. It proposes a novel green relay assisted D2D communications architecture, in which relay nodes powered by green energy are deployed to increase the data rates of D2D communications. In designing green relay assisted D2D communications, the chapter considers a wireless network consisting of 2N UEs and M green relay nodes, with the UEs forming N SD pairs. By leveraging D2D communications, he/she designs a novel mobile traffic offloading scheme, content brokerage. In designing the green content brokerage scheme, the he/she considers a cellular network consisting of one MBS, N UEs and one GCB.

  • Green GSM

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Energy Optimized Network Design Coverage Improvement Techniques Capacity Improvement Techniques Energy Savings through Software Solutions Energy‐Efficient BTS Site Renewable Energy Sources Energy Savings for Controllers and Transcoders References

  • Introduction

  • Fundamental Green Networking Technologies

    This chapter gives an overview of the fundamental green networking technologies. Mobile traffic offloading, which is referred to as utilizing complementary network communications techniques to deliver mobile traffic, is a promising technique to alleviate congestion and reduce the energy consumption of mobile networks. Based on the network access mode, mobile traffic offloading schemes can be divided into two categories. The first category is infrastructure based mobile traffic offloading, which refers to deploying small cell base stations (BSs) to offload mobile traffic from macro BSs (MBSs). The second category is ad¿¿¿hoc based mobile traffic offloading, which refers to applying device¿¿¿to¿¿¿device (D2D) communications as an underlay to offload mobile traffic from MBSs. To understand the performance of mobile networks, many measurement studies have been presented. These studies unveil the obstacles that delay content delivery in mobile networks, and shed light on the research directions for enhancing the performance of mobile networks.

  • Embodied Energy of Communication Devices

    Due to the extensive and continuously rising energy consumption in modern telecommunications networks, several approaches have been suggested to improve their energy efficiencies, that is network re‐engineering, dynamic adaptation of network or device resources, sleeping/standby approaches. But there are some limitations in these approaches. For example, in mobile networks, some approaches suggest cutting down the operating energy with the reduction of the transmission power of BSs (and consequently the reduction of cell sizes), which results in a larger number of cells (and equipment) required to preserve the systems coverage and capacity. Some further researches suggest the power‐off or sleep‐mode strategies for additional energy savings. Although these researches proved to save up to one third of operating energy, their main issue is the negligence of the embodied energy. This chapter investigates the embodied energy of network equipment. First, we propose an extension of the existing energy consumption model with embodied energy. Further, since there are not many studies dealing the embodied energy of the network equipment, we try to estimate the embodied energy of a general BS in contrast to its operating energy. The results of case study show, that due to the complex process of semiconductor manufacturing, the embodied energy of mobile operators' equipment is obviously far from being neglected, since it can be as high as half of operating energy in the equipment's lifetime. Consequently, there is a strong need to rethink the past approaches suggesting an increase in the number of BSs in order to save operating energy. Using a simple simulation, we have shown that there is a tradeoff between the reduction of transmission power (saving the operating energy) and the number of cells (saving the embodied ener gy) that requires an optimization procedure in order to find a satisfactory solution from the perspective of total energy, used for the equipment manufacturing and its operation (Life Cycle Assesment of Energy). The results of energy efficiency for two scenarios, excluding and including power‐off strategy, are provided.

  • Green MTC, M2M, Internet of Things

    The capability of having any type of object interconnected and Internet‐connected creates an unprecedented access and exchange of information that has been baptized as the Internet of Things (IoT). With the advancement of integrated technologies, improved batteries, and electronic miniaturization, everyday things will be equipped with sensors and microprocessors to collect information around them and execute smart applications. In addition, they will be able to communicate with each other. The IoT has the potential to revolutionize innovations; create new products, services, business; and reshape consumer's behavior. IoT represents a major player for the future of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT).The development of the IoT must be environment friendly. ICT have shown to be a key contributor to global warming and environmental pollution; it is predicted that the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ICT will account for 12% of all emissions by 2020 at a growth rate of 6% per year. Therefore, it is mandatory to develop environmentally friendly ‐ or "green" ‐ technologies for the IoT, and ICT in general.Machine‐to‐Machine (M2M) communications constitute a fundamental part of the IoT. The term M2M refers to the exchange of data between two or more entities, objects, or machines that do not necessarily need human interaction. The envisioned market for such kind of communications is broader than the one traditional human‐based communications in terms of number of users and variety of applications. Some forecasts predict figures up to 50 billion machines that will be connecting to communication networks by 2020. This is a very big number compared to the entire world p opulation of around 7 billion people. Therefore, there are some challenges that need to be addressed in order to fully supportM2Mservices in current communication networks. From the technical point of view, M2M communications are substantially different from Human‐to‐Human (H2H) communications. For example, network operators should provide communication services at low cost in order to face the low Average Revenue Per User (ARPU). Despite the large number of expected M2M connections, most of them will generate very little and infrequent data traffic. Communication networks shall also provide suitable congestion and overload control solutions in order to handle a huge number of simultaneous connections. Features such as low mobility, time‐controlled data delivery, group‐based policing and addressing, low connection delays, and a wide variety of Quality of Service requirements are among other challenges that need to be addressed. All of them must have the "green" concept embedded. In order to ensure that devices can operate autonomously for years or even decades without human intervention, it is necessary to provide networks with highly efficient communication protocols. This is the main focus of this chapter.The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) created in 2009 a dedicated technical committee to identify key M2M use cases, understand the service requirements, and promote standards for the complete end‐to‐end M2M functional architecture. Later, in 2012, the global One M2M project was also established by ETSI, with other international standardization bodies, in order to define M2M standards that can accelerate the deployment and success of M2M applications.



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