Gallium

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Gallium is a chemical element that has the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Gallium

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2015 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition

The scope of ECCE 2015 includes all technical aspects of research, design, manufacture, application and marketing of devices, components, circuits and systems related to energy conversion, industrial power and power electronics.

  • 2014 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)

    Those companies who have an interest in selling to: research engineers, application engineers, strategists, policy makers, and innovators, anyone with an interest in energy conversion systems and components.

  • 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)

    The scope of the congress interests include all technical aspects of the design, manufacture, application and marketing of devices, components, circuits and systems related to energy conversion, industrial power conversion and power electronics.

  • 2012 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)

    The IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE) will be held in Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina. This will provide a forum for the exchange of information among practicing professionals in the energy conversion business. This conference will bring together users and researchers and will provide technical insight as well.

  • 2011 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)

    IEEE 3rd Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition follows the inagural event held in San Jose, CA in 2009 and 2nd meeting held in Atlanta, GA in 2010 as the premier conference dedicated to all aspects of energy processing in industrial, commercial, transportation and aerospace applications. ECCE2011 has a strong empahasis on renewable energy sources and power conditioning, grid interactions, power quality, storage and reliability.


2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)

The PVSC is a technical conference dedicated to the science and application of photovoltaics for solar electricity generation. Technical Program Areas: 1. Fundamentals and New Concepts for Future Technologies 2. Thin Film Polycrystalline Photovoltaics 3. III-V and Concentrator Technologies 4. Crystalline Silicon Technologies 5. Thin Film Silicon Based PV Technologies 6. Organic Photovoltaics 7. Space Technologies 8. Characterization and Measurement Methods 9. PV Modules and Manufacturing 10. PV Systems and Applications 11. PV Velocity Forum


2014 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series

The Topical Meetings of the Photonics Society are the premier conference series for exciting new areas in photonic science, technology, and applications, creating the opportunity to learn about emerging fields and to interact with the research and technology leaders in an intimate environment.


2013 8th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS)

2013 IEEE NEMS is the 8th annual International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems which started in 2006. It covers Nano science and technology, Micro/nanofluidics and Bio chip, Micro/nano fabrication & metrology, Micro/Nano sensors, actuators and systemd, Flexible MEMS and printed electronics, Carbon Nanotube and Graphene based devices, etc.


2013 IEEE International Conference of Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC)

Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits

  • 2012 IEEE International Conference of Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC)

    Photonics; Nanoelectronic, RF & Microwave Devices and Circuits, Device and Circuit Reliability, Power Electronics, Communication Circuits, Sensor and MEMS, Digital and Memory Circuits, Organic Devices, Novel Analog Circuits, Bioelectronics,Data Processing Circuits.

  • 2011 International Conference of Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC)

    EDSSC 2011 is the 7th in a series of very successful conferences initiated by IEEE ED/SSC Hong Kong joint Chapter.EDSSC 2011 is a two-day program comprising broad areas in electron devices and solid-state circuits. Over two days, papers and sessions will highlight the significant technological advances of this dynamic field, as well as provide a unique forum for the presentation of new ideas and candid exchange on the emerging challenges and opportunities.

  • 2010 IEEE International Conference of Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC)

    Nanoelectronics, Memory Device and Technology, Thin Gate Dielectrics, Photonic Devices, RF & Microwave Devices, Power Devices, Sensors, imagers and MEMS, Analog Circuits, Biomedical Circuits Data Conversion Circuits Digital and Memory Circuits, Power Management Circuits, RF & Microwave Circuits, and Wireless and Wireline Communication Circuits

  • 2009 IEEE International Conference of Electron Devices and Solid- State Circuits (EDSSC)

    The EDSSC 2009 will cover all aspects of devices and circuits, including memory devices, thin gate dielectrics, photonic devices, power devices, RF devices, analog circuits, digital circuits, and RF and microwave circuits

  • 2008 IEEE International Conference of Electron Devices and Solid- State Circuits (EDSSC)

    EDSSC 08 is a three-day program comprising broad areas in electron devices and solid-state circuits.

  • 2007 IEEE Conference on Electron Devices and Solid- State Circuits (EDSSC)

    Nanoelectronics ,Memory Device and Technology,Thin Gate Dielectrics ,Photonic Devices ,RF & Microwave Devices, Power Devices ,Sensors and MEMS ,Low-Power Circuits ,GHz Digital Circuits ,Analog Circuits ,Photonic Integrated Circuits RF & Microwave Circuits, Power Circuits ,IC Manufacturing and Packaging


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Periodicals related to Gallium

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Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronics devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on

Microwave theory, techniques, and applications as they relate to components, devices, circuits, and systems involving the generation, transmission, and detection of microwaves.


Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.


Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of

Generation, amplification, modulation, detection, waveguiding, or techniques and effects that can affect the propagation characteristics of coherent electromagnetic radiation having submillimeter and shorter wavelengths




Xplore Articles related to Gallium

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Monolithic tandem solar cell based on GaAlAs-GaAs system

L. Mayet; M. Gavand; B. Montegu; J. P. Boyeaux; A. Laugier IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

Low and medium concentrations (10 to 50 suns) are a suitable way to improve the efficiency of solar cells without the expensive two-axis concentrators. The open circuit voltage, Voc, rapidly increases for the lower concentrations, while a good value of the fill factor is achieved when a large ratio of the dark current at Voc is from the diffusion current, ...


Device scaling physics and channel velocities in AIGaN/GaN HFETs: velocities and effective gate length

Yuh-Renn Wu; M. Singh; J. Singh IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2006

This paper addresses scaling issues in AIGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) using ensemble Monte Carlo techniques. For gate lengths below 0.25 μm, fT values are known not to scale linearly with the inverse gate length. The authors' simulations show this to be due to an increasing difference between the lithographic gate length and the effective gate length as the devices ...


AlGaAs top solar cell for mechanical attachment in a multi-junction tandem concentrator solar cell stack

L. DiNetta; G. H. Negley; M. H. Hannon; J. R. Cummings; J. B. McNeely; A. M. Barnett IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

Free-standing, transparent, tunables bandgap AlxGa1-xAs top solar cells have been fabricated for mechanical attachment in a four-terminal tandem stack solar cell. The device has 1.8 eV top solar cells with efficiencies of 18% (100X, AM0), which would yield stack efficiencies of 31% (100X, AM0) with a silicon bottom cell. When fully developed, the AlxGa1-x As/Si mechanically stacked two-junction solar cell ...


High-efficiency GaAs/CuInSe<sub>2</sub> and AlGaAs/CuInSe<sub>2 </sub> thin-film tandem solar cells

R. P. Gale; R. W. McClelland; B. D. Dingle; J. V. Gormley; R. M. Burgess; N. P. Kim; R. A. Mickelsen; B. J. Stanbery IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

Tandem cell throughput has been increased, and quantities of cells that produce tens of watts of power in total were fabricated. An improved efficiency of 23.1% AM0/one sun at 28°C has been obtained for 4 cm2 tandem cells. The mechanically stacked tandem cells consist of an n+:AlGaAs/n:GaAs/p:GaAs/p+:A thin-film top cell and an n+:CdZnS/p:CuInSe2 thin-film bottom cell. In addition to being ...


Gamma ray irradiated LED's: Surface emission and significant wavelength tuning via surface states

N. Kopeika; S. Hava; I. Hirsh IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 1984

Wavelength tuning via shallow junction GaAs LED's as a result of gamma irradiation is increased significantly when the irradiated LED's are operated in vacuum. Vacuum operation is seen to be essentially equivalent to increased gamma ray dosage for low irradiation levels as a result of desorptive processes common to both phenomena. They give rise to decreased nonradiative and increased radiative ...


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Educational Resources on Gallium

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eLearning

Monolithic tandem solar cell based on GaAlAs-GaAs system

L. Mayet; M. Gavand; B. Montegu; J. P. Boyeaux; A. Laugier IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

Low and medium concentrations (10 to 50 suns) are a suitable way to improve the efficiency of solar cells without the expensive two-axis concentrators. The open circuit voltage, Voc, rapidly increases for the lower concentrations, while a good value of the fill factor is achieved when a large ratio of the dark current at Voc is from the diffusion current, ...


Device scaling physics and channel velocities in AIGaN/GaN HFETs: velocities and effective gate length

Yuh-Renn Wu; M. Singh; J. Singh IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 2006

This paper addresses scaling issues in AIGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) using ensemble Monte Carlo techniques. For gate lengths below 0.25 μm, fT values are known not to scale linearly with the inverse gate length. The authors' simulations show this to be due to an increasing difference between the lithographic gate length and the effective gate length as the devices ...


AlGaAs top solar cell for mechanical attachment in a multi-junction tandem concentrator solar cell stack

L. DiNetta; G. H. Negley; M. H. Hannon; J. R. Cummings; J. B. McNeely; A. M. Barnett IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

Free-standing, transparent, tunables bandgap AlxGa1-xAs top solar cells have been fabricated for mechanical attachment in a four-terminal tandem stack solar cell. The device has 1.8 eV top solar cells with efficiencies of 18% (100X, AM0), which would yield stack efficiencies of 31% (100X, AM0) with a silicon bottom cell. When fully developed, the AlxGa1-x As/Si mechanically stacked two-junction solar cell ...


High-efficiency GaAs/CuInSe<sub>2</sub> and AlGaAs/CuInSe<sub>2 </sub> thin-film tandem solar cells

R. P. Gale; R. W. McClelland; B. D. Dingle; J. V. Gormley; R. M. Burgess; N. P. Kim; R. A. Mickelsen; B. J. Stanbery IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

Tandem cell throughput has been increased, and quantities of cells that produce tens of watts of power in total were fabricated. An improved efficiency of 23.1% AM0/one sun at 28°C has been obtained for 4 cm2 tandem cells. The mechanically stacked tandem cells consist of an n+:AlGaAs/n:GaAs/p:GaAs/p+:A thin-film top cell and an n+:CdZnS/p:CuInSe2 thin-film bottom cell. In addition to being ...


Gamma ray irradiated LED's: Surface emission and significant wavelength tuning via surface states

N. Kopeika; S. Hava; I. Hirsh IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 1984

Wavelength tuning via shallow junction GaAs LED's as a result of gamma irradiation is increased significantly when the irradiated LED's are operated in vacuum. Vacuum operation is seen to be essentially equivalent to increased gamma ray dosage for low irradiation levels as a result of desorptive processes common to both phenomena. They give rise to decreased nonradiative and increased radiative ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • High Temperature Electronics for Geothermal EnergyWork performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Contract No. DEAC0476PD00789 for the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE).

    The worldwide production of electric power from geothermal energy sources at present is 1.2 GW. The largest facility is in the United States at The Geysers, in Northern California, where 605 MW is on-line. Recent estimates indicate that geothermal energy sources could produce over 10 GW of power in the USA by 1990; however, to achieve this goal there must be accelerated exploration and development. Developers and investors may be reluctant to make the necessary commitments if there is high risk or uncertainty in a geothermal reservoir's production potential. Also, once a system is in operation, engineers periodically need accurate and timely downhole information from each well in order to obtain optimum production. Instrumentation for geothermal borehole measurements is being expanded beyond today's limited capabilities. Prototypical logging tools have been successfully field-tested to 275° C; a highresolution quartz pressure transducer and a gallium phosphide diode have been successfully tested. Near-term goals of current programs are to develop instrumentation for use at 275° in pressures up to 48.3 MPa (7,000 psi).

  • Recent Advances in Gallium Phosphide Junction Devices for HighTemperature Electronic Applications

    Recent advances in gallium phosphide technology are reviewed as tbey relate to bigh-temperature (T < 300°C) device applications. The electronic properties and materials aspects of GaP are summarized and compared to silicon and gallium arsenide. Minoritycarrier junction devices are discussed as one area where this technology could have. wide application. In tbis light, the hightemperature operation of two junction devices, a diode and a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), are displayed. The GaP diode is observed to provide excellent rectification properties with very low leakage over the full temperature range from 20°C to 400°C >3 x 10-3 A/cm2 at VR = 3 V, T = 400°C) and has demonstrated stable operation under bias for over 1000 h at 300°C. The bipolar transistor has demonstrated constant current pin (6 < < 10) and very low collector-base leakage for temperatures up to 450°C (IC0 < 80 A at VCB = 3 V, T = 450°C). The contacting technology to GaP is identified as one area where additional work is necessary.

  • Recent Advances in Power Semiconductor Technology

    This chapter presents recent advances in power semiconductors technology with special attention on wide bandgap (WBG) transistors. A short introduction to the state???of???the???art Silicon power devices is given, and the characteristics of the various SiC power switches are also described. Design considerations of gate and base???drive circuits for various SiC power switches along with experimental results of their switching performance are presented in details. Moreover, a section on applications of SiC power devices is also included, where the three design directions (high???efficiency, high switching frequency and high???temperature) that might be followed using SiC technology are shown. Last but not least, a short overview of Gallium Nitride transistors is presented in the last section of this chapter.

  • Gallium Phosphide DevicesThis work was sponsored by Sandia Laboratory for the division of Geothermal Energy, U.S. Department of Energy.

    "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society.

  • The Characterization of High Temperature Electronics for Future Aircraft Engine Digital Electronic Control Systems

    The characterization of high temperature electronics is presented including high temperature effects, semiconductors and barrier metallizations. Design solutions and material selections for mitigation of high temperature effects are indicated. The following semiconductor materials are considered as future high temperature candidates: - Silicon (Si) - Gallium arsenide (GaAs) - Gallium phosphide (GaP) - Silicon carbide (SiC) - Diamond like carbon (C) This characterization was originally prepared in accordance with the USAF Future Advance Controls Technology Study (FACTS).

  • Modelling IIIDevices Operating at 300400C

    The need for electronic equipment capable of operation in a high temperature ambient environment (300°C and above) has been well reported in the literature. Bulk silicon (Si) devices are widely regarded as having, at best, a maximum operating temperature of 250°C. The two most likely technologies that have emerged as possible candidates for electronic devices which are capable of operation above the silicon ambient limit and are suitable for manufacture in the short term are Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) and Silicon on Insulator (SOI). Detailed simulations of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs devices have been performed which give a clear picture of their high temperature characteristics and failure mechanisms. A Back Wall Heterojunction (BWHFET) device has been designed which shows significant improvements over standard silicon and GaAs devices at 300°C. The stability of GaAs devices in 300 - 400°C ambient temperatures is also considered. Finally the performance of GaAs technology is compared to that of Sal, to determine which technology offers the highest potential for reliable high temperature electronics in the short term.

  • HighTemperature Gallium Phosphide Field Effect Transistors

    "HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS provides expert coverage of the applications, characteristics, design, selection, and operation of electronic devices and circuits at temperatures above the conventional limit of 125 degrees Celsius. This edited volume contains approximately 100 key reprinted papers covering a wide range of topics related to high-temperature electronics, eight invited papers, extensive references, and a comprehensive bibliography. Containing more than 200 pages of new material, it brings the reader a well-rounded review of high-temperature electronics from its beginnings decades ago through the present and beyond to possible future technologies. The scope of HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICS includes active components from standard and advanced semiconductor materials, passive components, as well as technologies for metallizations, interconnections, and the assembly and packaging of electronic components. This book will provide active researchers, technology developers, managers, materials scientists, and advanced students with a sound fundamental grounding in high-temperature electronics technology." Sponsored by: IEEE Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology Society.

  • Silicon and Gallium Arsenide in High Temperature Electronics Applications

    Electronic circuits and systems which can operate at temperatures up to 250°C or even higher become more and more important. It can be shown that Si as semiconductor material can be used up to this temperature provided that circuit structures are optimized to handle the parasitic effects rising with temperature. For even higher temperatures up to 350°C GaAs can be used. Other problems going along with high temperature applications arise from material characteristics as melting point, mechanical stability, insulating characteristics and migration problems. This paper reports on a German Joint Research project dealing with the problems mentioned above. Some of them could be solved satisfactory, some problems are still existing.

  • Gallium Nitride???Based Lateral and Vertical Nanowire Devices

    This chapter focuses on the first fabrication and characterization of GaN???based lateral and vertical nanowire (NW) field???effect transistors (FETs) by using top???down approach, where one combined conventional e???beam lithography and dry etching techniques with strong anisotropic tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) wet etching. Wet etching usually provides high etching selectivity that often offers an advantage in simplifying the fabrication process compared to the dry plasma etching. To fabricate the AlGaN/GaN O???shaped???gate nanowire FET, the GaN epitaxial layers were first grown on c???plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD. The epitaxial structure of Si???doped GaN/undoped???GaN/Si???doped GaN stack was grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrate. The AlGaN???/GaN???based omega???gate NW FETs have been fabricated using TMAH orientation???selective lateral wet etching of atomic layer???deposited (ALD)???deposited HfO2 sidewall spacer. The top???down approach provides a viable pathway toward gate???all???around (GAA) devices for III???nitride semiconductors, which are very promising candidates for steep???switching power device applications.

  • Scattering Theory

    This chapter contains sections titled: General Considerations-Drude Theory Scattering Probability from the Golden Rule Important Scattering Mechanisms in Silicon and Gallium Arsenide This chapter contains sections titled: Problems References



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