Gallium

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Gallium is a chemical element that has the symbol Ga and atomic number 31. (Wikipedia.org)






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2019 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops andinvitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields ofbiomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality paperswill be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and willbe indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE & IEEE Xplore


2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)

Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology


2019 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM)

the IEEE/IEDM has been the world's main forum for reporting breakthroughs in technology, design, manufacturing, physics and the modeling of semiconductors and other electronic devices. Topics range from deep submicron CMOS transistors and memories to novel displays and imagers, from compound semiconductor materials to nanotechnology devices and architectures, from micromachined devices to smart -power technologies, etc.


2019 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC)

The IEEE Photonics Conference, previously known as the IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting, offers technical presentations by the world’s leading scientists and engineers in the areas of lasers, optoelectronics, optical fiber networks, and associated lightwave technologies and applications. It also features compelling plenary talks on the industry’s most important issues, weekend events aimed at students and young photonics professionals, and a manufacturer’s exhibition.


2019 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM)

The Topical Meetings of the IEEE Photonics Society are the premier conference series for exciting, new areas in photonic science, technology, and applications; creating the opportunity to learn about emerging fields and to interact with the research and technology leaders in an intimate environment.


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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Communications, IEEE Transactions on

Telephone, telegraphy, facsimile, and point-to-point television, by electromagnetic propagation, including radio; wire; aerial, underground, coaxial, and submarine cables; waveguides, communication satellites, and lasers; in marine, aeronautical, space and fixed station services; repeaters, radio relaying, signal storage, and regeneration; telecommunication error detection and correction; multiplexing and carrier techniques; communication switching systems; data communications; and communication theory. In addition to the above, ...


Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


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Xplore Articles related to Gallium

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Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Heterostructures on the Basis of III-V Materials for UHF Transistors

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 13, Lavrentiva av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, Ph.: 383-3304475, e-mail: zhur@thermo.isp.nsc.ru', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37449382200', u'full_name': u'K. S. Zhuravlev', u'id': 37449382200}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 13, Lavrentiva av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, Ph.: 383-3304475', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37282270000', u'full_name': u'A. I. Toropov', u'id': 37282270000}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 13, Lavrentiva av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, Ph.: 383-3304475', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37567281100', u'full_name': u'V. G. Mansurov', u'id': 37567281100}] 2006 16th International Crimean Microwave and Telecommunication Technology, 2006

Described is MBE technology, whose essence is the growth of heterostructures for UHF transistors including nitride technology. We demonstrate that buffer layer optimization allows improving GaAs FETs parameters. Procedures of AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures growth for PHEMT, as well as the heterostructures themselves, have been also optimized. Presented in this paper is the data on MBE technology development, especially as regards GaN/AlGaN ...


Low-Frequency Noise Characteristics of GaN Nanowire Gate-All-Around Transistors With/Without 2-DEG Channel

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Advanced Material Research Center, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi 39177, South Korea.', u'full_name': u'Ki-Sik Im'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'School of Electronics Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea.', u'full_name': u'M. Siva Pratap Reddy'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'SOITEC, 38190 Bernin, France.', u'full_name': u'Rapha\xebl Caulmilone'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Microelectronics, Electromagnetism, and Photonics, Grenoble Institute of Technology, 38016 Grenoble, France.', u'full_name': u'Christoforos G. Theodorou'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'University Grenoble Alpes, IMEP-LAHC, Minatec/INPG, 38000 Grenoble, France.', u'full_name': u'G\xe9rard Ghibaudo'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'University Grenoble Alpes, IMEP-LAHC, Minatec/INPG, 38000 Grenoble, France.', u'full_name': u'Sorin Cristoloveanu'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'School of Electronics Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, South Korea (e-mail: jlee@ee.knu.ac.kr).', u'full_name': u'Jung-Hee Lee'}] IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, None

Two different lateral GaN-based nanowire gate-all-around transistors with and without 2-D electron gas (2-DEG) channel were fabricated using top-down approach, and their noise characteristics were investigated. The nanowire transistor with 2-DEG channel had a relatively larger channel cross section, which consists of regrown AlGaN/GaN plateau on the trapezoidal GaN layer, and exhibited negative threshold voltages (Vth). The transistor without 2-DEG ...


Growth and properties III–V films and multilayered structures on fianite substrates and buffer layers

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37394387700', u'full_name': u'Yu.N. Buzynin', u'id': 37394387700}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37394386600', u'full_name': u'A.N. Buzynin', u'id': 37394386600}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37270120100', u'full_name': u'V.V. Osiko', u'id': 37270120100}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37409817300', u'full_name': u'M.N. Drozdov', u'id': 37409817300}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38181726800', u'full_name': u'E.E. Lomonova', u'id': 38181726800}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37399958100', u'full_name': u'O.I. Khrykin', u'id': 37399958100}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Physicotechnical Research Institute, Nizhni Novgorod State University, Russia', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37265177200', u'full_name': u'B.N. Zvonkov', u'id': 37265177200}] 2010 3rd International Nanoelectronics Conference (INEC), 2010

The opportunity of the use Si and GaAs with single and double buffer layers and YSZ substrates for III-V(GaAs, InAs, GaSb, InGaAs, AlGaAs, GaN, AlN) epitaxy by a MOCVD method is investigated. The technology of single YSZ and double (YSZ on porous material) buffer layers preparation on Si and GaAs substrates is developed. By using porous substrate, we improved structure ...


Generation and detection of THz waves using InGaAs photoconductive antenna with 1.55 μm excitation

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, 739-8530, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37688347400', u'full_name': u'M. Kamakura', u'id': 37688347400}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, 739-8530, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37689320300', u'full_name': u'A. Takasato', u'id': 37689320300}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, 739-8530, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37426398900', u'full_name': u'J. Kitagawa', u'id': 37426398900}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, 739-8530, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37318797800', u'full_name': u'Y. Kadoya', u'id': 37318797800}] 2006 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics and 2006 Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2006

Photoconductive antennas made on low-temperature-grown InGaAs were tested as THz generators and detectors with 1550 nm excitation. The antennas work quite well as detectors, but optimizations are necessary to realize efficient emitters.


Spatially resolved, polarized photoluminescence from wurtzite InGaAs/GaAs nanoneedles

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, 94720, USA', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38278124900', u'full_name': u'Roger Chen', u'id': 38278124900}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, 94720, USA', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38275704300', u'full_name': u'Linus C. Chuang', u'id': 38275704300}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, 94720, USA', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38273939500', u'full_name': u'Thai Tran', u'id': 38273939500}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, 94720, USA', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38270582900', u'full_name': u'Michael Moewe', u'id': 38270582900}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, 94720, USA', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38272832600', u'full_name': u'Connie Chang-Hasnain', u'id': 38272832600}] CLEO/QELS: 2010 Laser Science to Photonic Applications, 2010

We spatially resolve photoluminescence from wurtzite InGaAs/GaAs core-shell nanoneedles and characterize their nonuniform quantum well emission. Polarization measurements reveal anisotropy behavior that is reminiscent of GaN and other wurtzite materials.


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Active Electronically Scanned Array Technology

    An active electronically scanned array (AESA) amplifies and phase shifts the transmit and receive signals by placing the active components at the elements. The low-noise amplifier (LNA) establishes a low-noise figure while amplifying the receive signal. Power amplifiers (PAs) in the transmit channel compensate the losses in the feed network. This chapter introduces T/R modules and associated technology, performance terms, and characteristics. The non-linear effects of power amplifiers are discussed in terms of their impact on array performance. Since switches play an important role in many timed array designs, they are presented in some detail. The chapter also discusses about the presentation of phase shifters and attenuators. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) T/R modules technology sprang to life in 1960s. MMICs have passive components fabricated on a semiconductor wafer along with the active devices.

  • Gallium Nitride‐Based Lateral and Vertical Nanowire Devices

    This chapter focuses on the first fabrication and characterization of GaN‐based lateral and vertical nanowire (NW) field‐effect transistors (FETs) by using top‐down approach, where one combined conventional e‐beam lithography and dry etching techniques with strong anisotropic tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) wet etching. Wet etching usually provides high etching selectivity that often offers an advantage in simplifying the fabrication process compared to the dry plasma etching. To fabricate the AlGaN/GaN O‐shaped‐gate nanowire FET, the GaN epitaxial layers were first grown on c‐plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD. The epitaxial structure of Si‐doped GaN/undoped‐GaN/Si‐doped GaN stack was grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrate. The AlGaN‐/GaN‐based omega‐gate NW FETs have been fabricated using TMAH orientation‐selective lateral wet etching of atomic layer‐deposited (ALD)‐deposited HfO2sidewall spacer. The top‐down approach provides a viable pathway toward gate‐all‐around (GAA) devices for III‐nitride semiconductors, which are very promising candidates for steep‐switching power device applications.

  • Introduction

    This chapter contains sections titled:Authenticated Key AgreementThe Challenge in Authenticated Key AgreementHow to Read this Book?Reference

  • Service Configuration in the IMS

    This chapter contains sections titled:XDM architectureDownloading an XML Document, Attribute, or ElementDirectory RetrievalData Search with XDMSubscribing to Changes in XML Documents

  • Luttinger Liquid Behavior of Long GaAs Quantum Wires

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * Theory of Conductivity in 1D Wires * Fabrication of Quantum Wires in V-Grooves * Experimental Results and Analysis for Short V-Groove Quantum Wires * Resistance Dependence on_T_and Length of Longer V-Groove Quantum Wires * Conclusions ]]>

  • Physical Layer Techniques for 5G Wireless Security

    Wireless communications and cellular networks are vulnerable to various security threats due to several reasons. Physical layer techniques and technologies, such as massive multiple‐input multiple‐output (MIMO), millimeter communications, cognitive radio, and full‐duplex wireless, can be easily integrated to implement comprehensive 5G wireless security solutions. This chapter discusses physical layer security techniques for 5G wireless communications. It introduces full‐duplex communications and transceiver architecture, and discusses prior art on full‐duplex physical layer security schemes reported for the bidirectional, base station, and relay topologies. The chapter considers the optimum beamforming designs for full duplex wireless security solutions for multiantenna bidirectional and relay communication systems. It emphasizes future challenges and open issues for the implementation of full duplex secure transmissions in 5G systems. Due to simultaneous transmissions, full‐duplex operation in cellular networks can introduce increased levels of co‐channel interference.

  • Generic Access Network Toward Fixed–Mobile Convergence

    This chapter contains sections titled:Trends in the IndustryStandardizationGan OverviewBenefits with the GAN TechnologyPractical ExperiencesImpact on Networks and ProcessesDiscussionEvolution of GANConclusions

  • Linearly Polarized Rhombic Grid Array Antenna

    A conventional grid array antenna (GAA) composes of wire radiation elements and wire feed elements, both backed by a conducting plate. This chapter presents a novel GAA from the perspective of realizing a beam‐scanning antenna. The radiation elements for this GAA are bent with angle 2α forming a structure with numerous rhombic cells. This GAA is referred to as a rhombic grid array antenna (R‐GAA). The chapter shows that the gain for the R‐GAA has less variation with frequency than the gain for the conventional GAA over the band of interest. It considers the analysis that is performed using the method of moments, where the ground plane (GP) is assumed to be of infinite extent. The chapter shows the frequency response of the gain in the beam direction. Across a frequency range, the gain for the R‐GAA with bent radiation elements has less variation than that for a conventional GAA with straight radiation elements.

  • Reconfigurable Infrared Photodetector Based on Asymmetrically Doped Double Quantum Wells for Multicolor and Remote Temperature Sensing

    Multicolor Infrared (IR) detectors provide new solutions in physical, chemical, and biological sensing and imaging. Multispectral sensing makes it possible to increase detection sensitivity, to improve object identification and discrimination capabilities, and to measure the absolute temperature of the object regardless of its emissivity and geometry. Numerous practical applications of such detectors include defense and commercial technologies, such as night vision, low visibility navigation, monitoring of industrial high‐temperature processes, noncontact temperature imaging, target detection and tracking, and remote earth observations. Nanostructures with double quantum wells (DQWs) are very promising for multicolor sensing. They demonstrate strong double‐peak photoresponse, where the peak positions and their magnitudes may be controlled by the bias voltage via the charge redistribution between DQWs. This chapter presents the effects of DQW asymmetric doping on the parameters of IR detector, its spectral selectivity, and bias tunability. High bias‐tunable spectral selectivity of asymmetrically doped DQWs makes nanomaterials very attractive for precise thermometric measurements.

  • Impact of Local High‐κ Insulator on Drivability and Standby Power of Gate‐All‐Around SOI MOSFET

    In this chapter we study the impact of a local high‐k gate insulator on the drivability and off‐current of a gate‐all‐around (GAA) silicon‐on‐insulator (SOI) metal oxide semiconductor field‐effect transistor (MOSFET). The replacement of part of the gate SiO2film with a thick high‐k insulator (for example, HfO2) results in the high drivability of the GAA MOSFET, which stems from the lateral extension of high gate‐induced potential. A simulation was performed to determine the optimal width of the high‐k insulator in order to realize the best performance. In addition, simulation results reveal that the parasitic resistance of the low‐doped source and drain diffusion region is markedly reduced by the lateral extension of gate‐induced potential because the cross section of the silicon wire is very small.



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