Force

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In physics, a force is any influence that causes a free body to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape. Force can also be described by intuitive concepts such as a push or pull that can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e. , to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Force

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2020 IEEE 16th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (AMC)

AMC2020 is the 16th in a series of biennial international workshops on Advanced Motion Control which aims to bring together researchers from both academia and industry and to promote omnipresent motion control technologies and applications.


2020 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

The scope of the 2020 IEEE/ASME AIM includes the following topics: Actuators, Automotive Systems, Bioengineering, Data Storage Systems, Electronic Packaging, Fault Diagnosis, Human-Machine Interfaces, Industry Applications, Information Technology, Intelligent Systems, Machine Vision, Manufacturing, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, Micro/Nano Technology, Modeling and Design, System Identification and Adaptive Control, Motion Control, Vibration and Noise Control, Neural and Fuzzy Control, Opto-Electronic Systems, Optomechatronics, Prototyping, Real-Time and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation, Robotics, Sensors, System Integration, Transportation Systems, Smart Materials and Structures, Energy Harvesting and other frontier fields.


Oceans 2020 MTS/IEEE GULF COAST

To promote awareness, understanding, advancement and application of ocean engineering and marine technology. This includes all aspects of science, engineering, and technology that address research, development, and operations pertaining to all bodies of water. This includes the creation of new capabilities and technologies from concept design through prototypes, testing, and operational systems to sense, explore, understand, develop, use, and responsibly manage natural resources.

  • OCEANS 2018 MTS/IEEE Charleston

    Ocean, coastal, and atmospheric science and technology advances and applications

  • OCEANS 2017 - Anchorage

    Papers on ocean technology, exhibits from ocean equipment and service suppliers, student posters and student poster competition, tutorials on ocean technology, workshops and town meetings on policy and governmental process.

  • OCEANS 2016

    The Marine Technology Scociety and the Oceanic Engineering Society of the IEEE cosponor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, and policy. The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 500 technical papers and 150 -200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2015

    The Marine Technology Scociety and the Oceanic Engineering Society of the IEEE cosponor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, and policy. The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 450 technical papers and 150-200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2014

    The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 450 technical papers and 150-200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2013

    Three days of 8-10 tracks of technical sessions (400-450 papers) and concurent exhibition (150-250 exhibitors)

  • OCEANS 2012

    Ocean related technology. Tutorials and three days of technical sessions and exhibits. 8-12 parallel technical tracks.

  • OCEANS 2011

    The Marine Technology Society and the Oceanic Engineering Scociety of the IEEE cosponsor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science engineering, and policy.

  • OCEANS 2010

    The Marine Technology Society and the Oceanic Engineering Scociety of the IEEE cosponsor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science engineering, and policy.

  • OCEANS 2009

  • OCEANS 2008

    The Marine Technology Society (MTS) and the Oceanic Engineering Society (OES) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) cosponsor a joint conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, education, and policy. Held annually in the fall, it has become a focal point for the ocean and marine community to meet, learn, and exhibit products and services. The conference includes technical sessions, workshops, student poster sessions, job fairs, tutorials and a large exhibit.

  • OCEANS 2007

  • OCEANS 2006

  • OCEANS 2005

  • OCEANS 2004

  • OCEANS 2003

  • OCEANS 2002

  • OCEANS 2001

  • OCEANS 2000

  • OCEANS '99

  • OCEANS '98

  • OCEANS '97

  • OCEANS '96


2019 41st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)

The conference program will consist of plenary lectures, symposia, workshops andinvitedsessions of the latest significant findings and developments in all the major fields ofbiomedical engineering.Submitted papers will be peer reviewed. Accepted high quality paperswill be presented in oral and postersessions, will appear in the Conference Proceedings and willbe indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE & IEEE Xplore


2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)

Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology


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Periodicals related to Force

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


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Most published Xplore authors for Force

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Xplore Articles related to Force

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Study on model free adaptive control of steering force for vertical drilling system

2010 The 2nd International Conference on Computer and Automation Engineering (ICCAE), 2010

The method of model-free adaptive control has advantages in avoiding system identification, such as parameters of formations, and coupling, time-delay or non-linear process in drilling. This paper simulates the possible deviation of drilling by adjusting the sensor's posture, and analyzes the relationship contrastively, which is between sensor's inclination and the response of the steering force control law: When the inclination ...


A Soft Three-axis Force Sensor Based on Radially Symmetric Pneumatic Chambers

IEEE Sensors Journal, None

In physical human-machine interaction applications, accurate measurement of interactive forces between the human and the machine plays a significant role. Sensors for this purpose should not only be accurate and reliable, but also be soft enough to guarantee the safe and compliant interaction. In this aspect, pneumatic sensors with soft air chambers have often been utilized as a soft force ...


A piezoelectric force/force-derivative sensor for robotic applications

SICE '95. Proceedings of the 34th SICE Annual Conference. International Session Papers, 1995

A shear-type piezoelectric sensor is used for sensing both force and force derivative signals. Compared to a conventional multilayer-type piezoelectric cell, it has advantages of simple structure, low drive voltage and light weight. The proposed sensor is used for contact force control of an one-degree of freedom robot manipulator, and the effectiveness of force derivative feedback control is demonstrated through ...


Investigation on Surface Forces Measurement Using Force-Balanced MEMS Sensor

2006 1st IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, 2006

In order to avoid the displacement of the AFM cantilever in surface forces measurement, a force-balanced MEMS sensor is developed. The probe of the sensor is a pendulous micromachined sensing element, which can be considered as a pair of differential capacitors. When the sensor is designed as a closed- loop system, the electrostatic force feedback can balance the surface force ...


Observation of recorded tracks in Co-Cr media by magnetic force microscopy

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 1990

Tracks recorded on two Co-Cr layers having coercivities of 15 kA/m and 45 kA/m were investigated by magnetic force microscopy. Different wavelengths were recorded, corresponding to bit lengths between 0.125 and 0.5 mu m. In the case of the layer with the low coercivity, the bits in a track recorded with a wavelength of 0.5 mu m were obscured by ...


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Educational Resources on Force

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Study on model free adaptive control of steering force for vertical drilling system

    The method of model-free adaptive control has advantages in avoiding system identification, such as parameters of formations, and coupling, time-delay or non-linear process in drilling. This paper simulates the possible deviation of drilling by adjusting the sensor's posture, and analyzes the relationship contrastively, which is between sensor's inclination and the response of the steering force control law: When the inclination is out of the threshold (0.5°), the steering force responds quickly; when the inclination is large or increases or changes slowly, the steering force increases sustainably and rapidly; when inclination is small or decreases, the steering force reduces in response. This paper also discusses the existing defects in the experiments.

  • A Soft Three-axis Force Sensor Based on Radially Symmetric Pneumatic Chambers

    In physical human-machine interaction applications, accurate measurement of interactive forces between the human and the machine plays a significant role. Sensors for this purpose should not only be accurate and reliable, but also be soft enough to guarantee the safe and compliant interaction. In this aspect, pneumatic sensors with soft air chambers have often been utilized as a soft force sensor system. Although the pneumatic-based force sensor provides a good compliance and softness, however, it measures only a lumped force acting on the chamber, because the pneumatic sensor measures the overall pressure change in the air chamber. In this paper, a three-axis force sensor with three air chambers in a radially symmetric pattern is proposed for the measurement of multi-dimensional interaction forces with high softness and compliance. Each air chamber embeds a pneumatic sensor, and the pressure changes in the three air chambers are measured in order to distinguish the direction of the applied force. By decoupling the sensor signals from the three pneumatic sensors, the three-dimensional force components can be calculated accurately. Consequently, the proposed sensor is able to measure the three-dimensional forces while maintaining the great softness and compliance provided by the soft air chambers. The design, the fabrication method, and the verification of the proposed method are introduced in this paper.

  • A piezoelectric force/force-derivative sensor for robotic applications

    A shear-type piezoelectric sensor is used for sensing both force and force derivative signals. Compared to a conventional multilayer-type piezoelectric cell, it has advantages of simple structure, low drive voltage and light weight. The proposed sensor is used for contact force control of an one-degree of freedom robot manipulator, and the effectiveness of force derivative feedback control is demonstrated through experimental results. A comparison is made with results obtained using strain gauge force sensor.

  • Investigation on Surface Forces Measurement Using Force-Balanced MEMS Sensor

    In order to avoid the displacement of the AFM cantilever in surface forces measurement, a force-balanced MEMS sensor is developed. The probe of the sensor is a pendulous micromachined sensing element, which can be considered as a pair of differential capacitors. When the sensor is designed as a closed- loop system, the electrostatic force feedback can balance the surface force supplied on the sensing probe, and maintain the pendulum of the probe at the balance position. Consequently, when using the force-balanced MEMS sensor, the surface force between two surfaces can be measured with precisely controlled distance, and the displacement of the conventional cantilever is avoided. Experiment on surface force measurement between the pendulum surface of the probe and a ball's surface is performed, as the distance between the two surfaces is controlled by a nanopositioner.

  • Observation of recorded tracks in Co-Cr media by magnetic force microscopy

    Tracks recorded on two Co-Cr layers having coercivities of 15 kA/m and 45 kA/m were investigated by magnetic force microscopy. Different wavelengths were recorded, corresponding to bit lengths between 0.125 and 0.5 mu m. In the case of the layer with the low coercivity, the bits in a track recorded with a wavelength of 0.5 mu m were obscured by the meandering nature of the transitions, something which is not observed for the high coercivity layer. This is consistent with a higher noise level and a lower signal level for the low coercivity layer in recording experiments. A more detailed observation of the tracks in the high layer revealed the presence of subdomains in the recorded bits. The extent to which regular domain patterns (recorded bits) or more detailed magnetic structures can be observed depends on the size of the magnetic tip and the distance between tip and layer. The observed width of the intrinsic domains in these layers agrees well with calculated values.<<ETX>>

  • Fuzzy logic controller taning for a human-to-human force-reflecting teleoperation system

    None

  • Effects of force feedback on operator's skills in tele-operated systems

    The system studied consists of a human operator, a stick driven by the force generated by the human hand, and a plant (e.g., a robotic arm) whose input comes from the stick. The system output is the position which is to be placed on a specific location by the human operator. The force from the stick output can be fed back (as a reflected force) and combined with the force applied by the human. The goal here is to study the effects of the reflected force feedback on the skills of the human operator. The recently induced probabilistic skill index is used to evaluate the performance of the operator performing specified tasks. The tasks are quantified by means of difficulty index. Four cases of different reflected feedback loops are studied. For each case, experimental data were collected when a human operator was performing a task of a known difficulty index. The probabilistic skill index is then used to quantify the effects of the reflected force feedback loop. Thus, this study provides evidence for evaluating the relative effects of the reflected forces on operator's skills in the teleoperation.

  • Compliant Control of Robot Manipulators Incorporating Force Sensor and Constraint Models

    The paper proposes a new robot control system which simultaneously tracks position and force commands along a constrained surface. The model of the constraints is incorporated into the control algorithm. This leads to a more robust controller than those developed previously. The paper presents a general model for constrained surfaces and the architecture for the feedback controller. If the constraints are modeled exactly, the controller is capable of tracking with zero steady state error.

  • A Micromanipulation System for Automatic Batch Microinjection

    The microinjection is a common technique in genetic engineering for transferring genetic material into a cell. It is normally performed on a micromanipulation system that usually consists of an inverted microscope, a micromanipulator, a micropipette and an injector. Manual microinjection is a conventional and widespread practice. However, this approach suffers from low success rate, poor efficiency, and high probability of contamination. We have developed a micromanipulation system for automatic batch microinjection by automating the key process of penetration in a microinjection. The microinjection system automatically identifies and penetrates each embryo/cell with a constant and fast speed, and in doing so, eliminates the possibility of contamination caused by manual operations. The effectiveness of this force- controlled system has been experimentally demonstrated in the tasks of automatic identification and penetration zebrafish embryos, which are widely used as a model for studying vertebrate development and genetics.

  • Controlling the relative entropy evolution for classical and quantum systems

    We study the relative entropy of physical systems (classical, thermodynamical and quantum systems) with Markovian evolution and subject to an external controlling force. We derive some basic results on the relative entropy production rate that considerably extend known ones. Applications to macromolecular cooling and to modifying the evolution towards equilibrium are sketched.



Standards related to Force

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(Replaced) IEEE Standard VHDL Language Reference Manual

his standard revises and enhances the VHDL language reference manual (LRM) by including a standard C language interface specification; specifications from previously separate, but related, standards IEEE Std 1164 -1993,1 IEEE Std 1076.2 -1996, and IEEE Std 1076.3-1997; and general language enhancements in the areas of design and verification of electronic systems.


IEEE Guide for the Measurement of Quasi-Static Magnetic and Electric Fields

This project describes measurement goals associated with characterizing quasi-static magnetic and electric fields, e.g. power frequency and other extremely low frequency fields, and available methods for accomplishing them. The guide should be used in conjunction with IEEE Std 1308-1994 (IEEE Recommended Practice for Instrumentation: Specifications for Magnetic Flux Density Meters - 10 Hz to 3 kHz), which defines terminology and ...


IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation, Application, Operation, and Maintenance of Dry-Type General Purpose Distribution and Power Transformers