Conferences related to Electrodes

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2017 IEEE 67th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

premier components, packaging and technology conference

  • 2019 IEEE 69th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

    premier components, packaging and technology conference

  • 2016 IEEE 66th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

    premier components, packaging and technology conference

  • 2014 IEEE 64th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

    Premier components, packaging and technology

  • 2013 IEEE 63rd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

    premier components, packaging and technology conference

  • 2012 IEEE 62nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

    ECTC is the premier international electronics symposium that brings together the best in packaging, components and microelectronic systems science, technology and education in an environment of cooperation and technical exchange.

  • 2011 IEEE 61st Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

    ECTC is the premier international electronics symposium that brings together the best in packaging, components and microelectronic systems science, technology and education in an environment of cooperation and technical exchange.

  • 2010 IEEE 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC 2010)

    ECTC is the premier international electronics symposium that brings together the best in packaging, components and microelectronic systems science, technology and education in an environment of cooperation and technical exchange.

  • 2009 IEEE 59th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC 2009)

    Advanced packaging, electronic components & RF, emerging technologies, materials & processing, manufacturing technology, interconnections, quality & reliability, modeling & simulation, optoelectronics.


2011 International Workshop on Dielectric Thin Films for Future ULSI Devices: Science and Technology (IWDTF)

The IWDTF2011 will focus on the science and technologies of gate dielectric films for MOS and memory devices, such as ultrathin SiO2, SiON, high-k gate dielectrics, and ferroelectric films. The topics on other technologies involved in the advanced gate stacks, including metal gate electrodes and high-mobility channel materials, will also be discussed.


2010 XIVth International Conference on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 11th Conference on Biomedical Applications of EIT (ICEBI)

Bioimpedance Theory and Modeling Electrical Impedance Tomography Clinical Applications Tissue and Organ Impedance Skin and Epithelial Impedance Electrodes and Instrumentation Body Composition and Tissue Fluid Content Magnetic Induction Tomography Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography Advanced Bioimpedance Technologies Bioimpedance Analysis Cells, Cell Cultures and Suspensions Plant Tissue Impedance


2009 6th International Symposium on Advanced Gate Stack Technology (ISAGST)

This year s Symposium provides a forum for semiconductor industry professionals, researchers, and academia to discuss strategies for implementing high-k and metal gate stack technology into memory (flash, DRAM) and logic (high performance, low standby power) for 22nm node and beyond. Stacks for advanced high-mobility channels will also be discussed including InGaAs, Graphene and Ge. The Symposium will include developments in functional stacks including stacks for mechanical (MEMS)


2007 International Symposium on Advanced Gate Stack Technology (ISAGST) (Formerly IWGST)

This conference will provide a forum for researchers from semiconductor industry and universities to discuss advanced gate stack related topics through invited and contributed presentations. The program will include speakers from all areas of science and technology in advanced gate stack.



Periodicals related to Electrodes

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Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on

Science and technology related to the basic physics and engineering of magnetism, magnetic materials, applied magnetics, magnetic devices, and magnetic data storage. The Transactions publishes scholarly articles of archival value as well as tutorial expositions and critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest.



Most published Xplore authors for Electrodes

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Xplore Articles related to Electrodes

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Partial discharges in a cavity at variable applied frequency part 2: measurements and modeling

Cecilia Forssen; Hans Edin IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 2008

In this paper partial discharges (PD) in a disc-shaped cavity are measured at variable frequency (0.01 - 100 Hz) of the applied voltage. The measured PD phase and magnitude distributions, as well as the number of PDs per voltage cycle, changed with the varying frequency. A charge consistent model is presented and used to dynamically simulate the sequence of PDs ...


High-linearity and small-chip AlGaAs/GaAs power HBTs for L-band personal digital cellular applications

Chang-Woo Kim; N. Hayama; N. Goto; K. Honjo IEEE Electron Device Letters, 1997

A high-linearity AlGaAs/GaAs power heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is developed for personal digital cellular phones. For compact chip layout, thermal design was considered. To improve power performance, proton implantation, optimum alloy condition for collector electrodes, and multiple via holes were used. A 2400-μm2-emitter-area HBT fabricated on a 0.5×0.67 mm2 substrate exhibits adjacent channel leakage powers below -53 dBc for 0.95- ...


Life curves for new and thermally aged oil-impregnated paper insulation

Lukasz Chmura; D. V. D. Boorn; P. H. F. Morshuis; J. J. Smit 2013 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC), 2013

The life-time of oil-impregnated (OI) insulation is mainly governed by two aging mechanism, i.e. electrical and thermal. The electrical-life law takes the form of inverse power law. In this case the life is inversely proportional to the applied electrical stress. Due to continuous voltage application, the insulation loses the dielectric strength. The process of thermal aging of OI insulation is ...


Microdischarge devices on the 10 /spl sim/ 30 /spl mu/m scale: fabrication and applications

Sung-Jin Park; J. Chen; Chang Liu; J. G. Eden Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2002. CLEO '02. Technical Digest. Summaries of Papers Presented at the, 2002

Summary form only given. We have designed several device structures to obtain cavity dimensions down to 10 /spl mu/m. For the first set of devices, we microdrilled through a metal/polymer/metal thin-layered structure which has a total thickness of /spl sim/30 /spl mu/m. We also have designed and fabricated by MEMS techniques microdischarge devices that have cavity width in 10 /spl ...


Partial discharges in a cavity at variable applied frequency part 1: measurements

Cecilia Forssen; Hans Edin IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 2008

In this paper partial discharges (PD) in disc-shaped cavities in polycarbonate are measured at variable frequency (0.01-100 Hz) of the applied voltage. The advantage of PD measurements at variable frequency is that more information about the insulation system may be extracted than from traditional PD measurements at a single frequency (usually 50/60 Hz). The PD activity in the cavity is ...


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Educational Resources on Electrodes

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eLearning

Partial discharges in a cavity at variable applied frequency part 2: measurements and modeling

Cecilia Forssen; Hans Edin IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 2008

In this paper partial discharges (PD) in a disc-shaped cavity are measured at variable frequency (0.01 - 100 Hz) of the applied voltage. The measured PD phase and magnitude distributions, as well as the number of PDs per voltage cycle, changed with the varying frequency. A charge consistent model is presented and used to dynamically simulate the sequence of PDs ...


High-linearity and small-chip AlGaAs/GaAs power HBTs for L-band personal digital cellular applications

Chang-Woo Kim; N. Hayama; N. Goto; K. Honjo IEEE Electron Device Letters, 1997

A high-linearity AlGaAs/GaAs power heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is developed for personal digital cellular phones. For compact chip layout, thermal design was considered. To improve power performance, proton implantation, optimum alloy condition for collector electrodes, and multiple via holes were used. A 2400-μm2-emitter-area HBT fabricated on a 0.5×0.67 mm2 substrate exhibits adjacent channel leakage powers below -53 dBc for 0.95- ...


Life curves for new and thermally aged oil-impregnated paper insulation

Lukasz Chmura; D. V. D. Boorn; P. H. F. Morshuis; J. J. Smit 2013 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC), 2013

The life-time of oil-impregnated (OI) insulation is mainly governed by two aging mechanism, i.e. electrical and thermal. The electrical-life law takes the form of inverse power law. In this case the life is inversely proportional to the applied electrical stress. Due to continuous voltage application, the insulation loses the dielectric strength. The process of thermal aging of OI insulation is ...


Microdischarge devices on the 10 /spl sim/ 30 /spl mu/m scale: fabrication and applications

Sung-Jin Park; J. Chen; Chang Liu; J. G. Eden Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2002. CLEO '02. Technical Digest. Summaries of Papers Presented at the, 2002

Summary form only given. We have designed several device structures to obtain cavity dimensions down to 10 /spl mu/m. For the first set of devices, we microdrilled through a metal/polymer/metal thin-layered structure which has a total thickness of /spl sim/30 /spl mu/m. We also have designed and fabricated by MEMS techniques microdischarge devices that have cavity width in 10 /spl ...


Partial discharges in a cavity at variable applied frequency part 1: measurements

Cecilia Forssen; Hans Edin IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, 2008

In this paper partial discharges (PD) in disc-shaped cavities in polycarbonate are measured at variable frequency (0.01-100 Hz) of the applied voltage. The advantage of PD measurements at variable frequency is that more information about the insulation system may be extracted than from traditional PD measurements at a single frequency (usually 50/60 Hz). The PD activity in the cavity is ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Selectivity of Peripheral Neural Interfaces

    The peripheral nerve interface provides a connection between the peripheral nerve cells in our bodies and neuroprosthetic devices. It is important to consider and assess how well different types of neural interfaces selectively access specific nerve fibers. This chapter first provides a background for understanding the importance of selectivity by introducing two examples of neural prosthesis applications, and reviews the state of the art of methods for quantitatively assessing selectivity. Second, it defines four success criteria for evaluating selectivity, and provides specific results from an experimental study for comparing the selectivity performance of two intraneural peripheral electrodes (thin-film longitudinal intrafascicular electrodes (tfLIFE) and the transverse, intrafascicular multichannel electrode (TIME) interfaces) placed in the median nerve in the forelimb of pigs. It is shown that the design and placement of the electrode must be carefully considered before choosing a neural interface for a specific neural prosthesis application.

  • About the Brain

    A typical human brain is 17 cm from front to back and contains between 50 and 100 compartments. It is topologically organized. The cerebellum is involved with the coordination of simultaneous muscle movements. It cannot initiate any activity by itself, but acts as a helper to the motor cortex. There are five different types of neurons in the cerebellar cortex: Purkinje, granule, Golgi, basket, and stellate cells. They are arranged with stereotyped precision. Granule cell axons are called parallel fibers; their junctions with Purkinje cell dendrites may be modifiable as the cerebellum learns a particular skill. Brain signals (EEGs) can be picked up by electrodes making contact with the scalp. Only activity in the immediate vicinity of the electrode is detected. In an awake person the EEG is due to slowly propagating graded potentials. If the person's eyes are closed, _alpha_ oscillations are picked up, especially from an electrode at the back of the head. It is conjectured that the alpha rhythm is due to a visual feedback loop that goes into oscillations because gain is increased. During deep sleep the EEG displays slow waves of large amplitude, probably as neurons are rejuvenated. Any change in the brain that represents memory is called an _engram_. The modern view is that the basis for memory is synaptic junction modification, and that engrams are stored in the same part of the brain that recognizes that particular type of pattern. A block diagram attempt to summarize the mechanisms of memory is presented. As far as time is concerned, there is extremely-short-term, shortterm, and long- term memory. There are two categories of stored information: procedural and declarative. Damage to certain central structures in the brain can result in _anterograde_ or _retrograde_ declarative amnesia, or various degrees of both. The block diagram of a hypothetical simple brain is presented. A ?>central station?> box is the ?>seat of consciousness.?> Each sensory receptor leads to a ?>feature extraction?> box. Important patterns are stored in ?>pattern memory stacks,?> with association fibers running between the various stacks. A ?>thought pattern memory stack?> circulates association fiber signals over and over again. Because of a random noise generator, the robot is somewhat unpredictable, and sometimes comes up with a new idea. The determinism versus free-will controversy is reviewed. Laplacian determinism should be modified because it is impossible for us to predict the future of a single neuron, let alone 1012 of them. Besides, prediction requires precise measurements that violate quantum mechanics. Consciousness is defined as an awareness of one's own existence, sensations, thoughts, and environment. It is a mysterious attribute of the brain that is undoubtedly shared by all mammals. Since honey bees are capable of a great deal of learning, perhaps they (and insects in general) also have an awareness of being.

  • Needle and Wire Detection Techniques

    This chapter contains sections titled: Anatomical and Physiological Background of Intramuscular Recording Recording Characteristics of Needle Electrodes Conventional Needle EMG Special Needle Recording Techniques Physical Characteristics of Needle EMG Signals Recording Equipment References

  • Surface EMG Decomposition

    This chapter provides an overview of surface EMG decomposition techniques, along with their basic assumptions, properties, and limitations. Surface electrodes measure the electrical activity of several nearby muscle fibers that are active during a muscle contraction. The electrical activity of each fiber can be described by a single fiber action potential (SFAP) that propagates from the neuromuscular junction towards the tendons. There is large diversity of decomposition techniques that can roughly be categorized either as template matching or latent component analysis (blind source separation) approaches. Decomposition of surface EMG is a powerful tool enabling noninvasive insight not only into muscle control strategies, but also into peripheral muscle properties. It provides unambiguous information on physiological parameters of individual motor units that can easily be interpreted. The identification of motor units (MUs) discharge patterns from surface EMG signals, acquired during dynamic muscle contractions, needs to be addressed.

  • Detection and Conditioning of Surface EMG Signals

    This chapter presents the detection and conditioning of surface electromyographic (EMG) signals. More advanced techniques are now widely used in research laboratories and are being adopted in clinical settings. Such techniques are based on multichannel detection by means of one dimensional (1-D) or two dimensional (2-D) electrode arrays. The chapter describes the electrode-skin interface and the front-end amplifier stage. The impedance between two electrodes is the sum of two electrode-skin impedances plus the interposed tissue impedance. Conventional electrodes, either wet or dry, behave like transducers converting ionic current (in tissue and gel) into flow of electrons in the metal. These electrical sensors require a careful skin preparation to reduce the impedance and noise associated to this interface. The biomedical sector offers small-sized, high-cost application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) devices for biopotential measurements. Applications are expected to range from physiopathological investigations, to rehabilitation games, biofeedback applications, and sport training.

  • Triangles

    MATLAB program mom_tri_1.m is a simple demonstration script for setting up and solving a method of moments (MoM) problem using triangular cells. This program includes two input electrodes, each composed of two triangles. This chapter provides a description of the desired electrode geometry to arrive at a completed calculation of the charge distribution on the electrodes. Manual generation of triangular meshings very quickly becomes an overwhelming task when the electrode geometries and desired resolutions are not trivial. MATLAB has built-in capabilities that perform this task very well. The chapter discusses the issue of finding the voltage and the electric field at arbitrary points in space, before proceeding to discuss some more interesting geometries. When electrodes are rectangular and consists of square cells, it is easy to examine a charge profile.

  • MetalGaAs Interaction and Contact Degradation in Microwave MESFETs

    This work reports and critically reviews failure mechanisms induced by metal- GaAs interaction and contact degradation in low and medium power GaAs MESFETs in the framework of a comprehensive reliability evaluation test plan, performed mainly on commercially purchased devices manufactured by different technologies. The results show that, at least as regards contact degradation phenomena, these technologies have reached sufficient maturity, and significant reliability levels have been achieved even for the most severe applications and environments. Devices coming from some suppliers still suffer from reliability problems, such as sinking of Au-based gate metallization into the active channel, Al electromigration, Al/GaAs interdiffusion enhanced by high contact current density, source and drain ohmic contact resistance increase, ohmic contacts electromigration, surface metal migration and short circuiting of closely spaced electrodes on GaAs with a non-suitable surface preparation and/or passivation. All these failure mechanisms have been identified by means of suitable microanalytical techniques, correlated with device electrical degradation and thoroughly discussed in this paper by comparison with results previously reported in the technical literature.

  • Grounding for Power Distribution and Lightning Protection Systems

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Power System Earthing Earthing for Low-Voltage Distribution System Lightning Protection The Earth Connection Types of Earth Electrodes Design of Earth Electrodes and their Layout Measurement of Soil Resistivity, Earth Electrode Resistance and Earthing System Impedance Reducing Earth Resistance Bonding to Building Structures Bibliography

  • Brain-Computer Interfaces for Communication in Paralysis: A Clinical Experimental Approach

    An overview of different approaches to brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) developed in our laboratory is given. An important clinical application of BCIs is to enable communication or environmental control in severely paralyzed patients. The BCI "Thought-Translation Device (TTD)" allows verbal communication through the voluntary self-regulation of brain signals (e.g., slow cortical potentials (SCPs)), which is achieved by operant feedback training. Humans' ability to self-regulate their SCPs is used to move a cursor toward a target that contains a selectable letter set. Two different approaches were followed to developWeb browsers that could be controlled with binary brain responses. Implementing more powerful classification methods including different signal parameters such as oscillatory features improved our BCI considerably. It was also tested on signals with implanted electrodes. Most BCIs provide the user with a visual feedback interface. Visually impaired patients require an auditory feedback mode. A procedure using auditory (sonified) feedback of multiple EEG parameters was evaluated. Properties of the auditory systems are reported and the results of two experiments with auditory feedback are presented. Clinical data of eight ALS patients demonstrated that all patients were able to acquire efficient brain control of one of the three available BCI systems (SCP, µ-rhythm, and P300), most of them used the SCP-BCI. A controlled comparison of the three systems in a group of ALS patients, however, showed that P300-BCI and the µ-BCI are faster and more easily acquired than SCP-BCI, at least in patients with some rudimentary motor control left. Six patients who started BCI training after entering the completely locked-in state did not achieve reliable communication skills with any BCI system. One completely locked-in patient was able t o communicate shortly with a ph-meter, but lost control afterward.

  • Noninvasive Estimates of Local Field Potentials for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Recent experiments have shown the possibility of using the brain electrical activity to directly control the movement of robots or prosthetic devices in real time. Such neuroprostheses can be invasive or noninvasive, depending on how the brain signals are recorded. In principle, invasive approaches will provide a more natural and flexible control of neuroprostheses, but their use in humans is debatable given the inherent medical risks. Noninvasive approaches mainly use scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and their main disadvantage is that these signals represent the noisy spatiotemporal overlapping of activity arising from very diverse brain regions, that is, a single scalp electrode picks up and mixes the temporal activity of myriad neurons at very different brain areas. To combine the benefits of both approaches, we propose to rely on the noninvasive estimation of local field potentials (eLFP) in the whole human brain from the scalp-measured EEG data using a recently developed inverse solution (ELECTRA) to the EEG inverse problem. The goal of a linear inverse procedure is to deconvolve or unmix the scalp signals attributing to each brain area its own temporal activity. To illustrate the advantage of this approach, we compare, using identical sets of spectral features, classification of rapid voluntary finger self-tapping with left and right hands based on scalp EEG and eLFP on three subjects using different numbers of electrodes. It is shown that the eLFP-based Gaussian classifier outperforms the EEG-based Gaussian classifier for the three subjects.



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