Delta modulation

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Delta modulation (DM or Δ-modulation)is an analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog signal conversion technique used for transmission of voice information where quality is not of primary importance. DM is the simplest form of differential pulse-code modulation where the difference between successive samples is encoded into n-bit data streams. (Wikipedia.org)






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2013 9th International Conference on Information, Communications & Signal Processing (ICICS)

The conference provides an opportunity for researchers around the world to exchange ideas and latest research results in areas such as multimedia systems, information systems, signal processing, communications, networking and related fields.


2008 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference - PESC 2008

  • 2007 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference - PESC 2007



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Consumer Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

The design and manufacture of consumer electronics products, components, and related activities, particularly those used for entertainment, leisure, and educational purposes


Display Technology, Journal of

This publication covers the theory, design, fabrication, manufacturing and application of information displays and aspects of display technology that emphasize the progress in device engineering, device design, materials, electronics, physics and reliabilityaspects of displays and the application of displays.


Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronics devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on

Theory and applications of industrial electronics and control instrumentation science and engineering, including microprocessor control systems, high-power controls, process control, programmable controllers, numerical and program control systems, flow meters, and identification systems.


Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on

The development and application of electric systems, apparatus, devices, and controls to the processes and equipment of industry and commerce; the promotion of safe, reliable, and economic installations; the encouragement of energy conservation; the creation of voluntary engineering standards and recommended practices.




Xplore Articles related to Delta modulation

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Class D series resonant converter controlled with FPGA-based delta-sigma modulator

Hirotaka Koizumi 2009 International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2009

A 1st order 1-bit delta-sigma modulator to control a Class D series resonant converter is built with an FPGA. The target reference and the feedback gain are freely chosen. A Class D series resonant converter designed at an operating frequency of 200 [kHz] was built and driven by the FPGA-based delta- sigma modulator. Maintaining zero-current switching (ZCS) operation, the output ...


Modal control using a deformable mirror for adaptive optics

P. J. Hampton; C. Bradley; P. Agathoklis PACRIM. 2005 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications, Computers and signal Processing, 2005., 2005

This paper presents the control of a deformable mirror for an adaptive optics system that is implemented at the University of Victoria. A discussion of sample point lay out to detect a 2D polynomial is provided. This includes the generating functions for this polynomial and a coherent representation as a matrix of functions. The controlled system and sensor are both ...


Input DM EMI filter design of interleaved CRM Boost PFC converter with coupled inductor

Fei Yang; Xinbo Ruan; Qing Ji; Zhihong Ye 2011 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2011

The interleaved Boost power factor correction (PFC) converter operating in critical current mode (CRM) features high input power factor, high efficiency and small magnetic components. If the inductors are coupled, the turns number can be reduced, but the input current ripple is increased. This paper discusses the two-phase interleaved CRM Boost converter with an inversely coupled inductor. The coupling effect ...


A Modular All-Digital PLL Architecture Enabling Both 1-to-2GHz and 24-to-32GHz Operation in 65nm CMOS

A. V. Rylyakov; J. A. Tierno; D. Z. Turker; J. -O. Plouchart; H. A. Ainspan; D. Friedman 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers, 2008

We report two DPLLs fabricated in a standard 65 nm bulk CMOS process. One PLL, targeting 1-to-2 GHz clock generation for the ASIC consumer market, is realized using a 5-stage static CMOS-ring digitally-controlled oscillator (ring-DCO). The second PLL, an exploratory design for 20-to-30 GHz applications, is realized using an LC-tank DCO. Both PLLs use the same proportional-integral (PI) loop filter, ...


A 1V second order delta sigma ADC in 130nm CMOS

K. Lokesh Krishna; T. Ramashri; D. Reena International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES2014), 2014

Sigma-Delta modulators are commonly used in applications that require high resolution. In this paper a IV second order sigma delta ADC is presented. In this paper over sampling concept is used to address the problem of power dissipation and noise in ADCs. A second order sigma delta modulator is implemented using CMOS 130nm technology. Oversampling ratio is 128 and total ...


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eLearning

Class D series resonant converter controlled with FPGA-based delta-sigma modulator

Hirotaka Koizumi 2009 International Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), 2009

A 1st order 1-bit delta-sigma modulator to control a Class D series resonant converter is built with an FPGA. The target reference and the feedback gain are freely chosen. A Class D series resonant converter designed at an operating frequency of 200 [kHz] was built and driven by the FPGA-based delta- sigma modulator. Maintaining zero-current switching (ZCS) operation, the output ...


Modal control using a deformable mirror for adaptive optics

P. J. Hampton; C. Bradley; P. Agathoklis PACRIM. 2005 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications, Computers and signal Processing, 2005., 2005

This paper presents the control of a deformable mirror for an adaptive optics system that is implemented at the University of Victoria. A discussion of sample point lay out to detect a 2D polynomial is provided. This includes the generating functions for this polynomial and a coherent representation as a matrix of functions. The controlled system and sensor are both ...


Input DM EMI filter design of interleaved CRM Boost PFC converter with coupled inductor

Fei Yang; Xinbo Ruan; Qing Ji; Zhihong Ye 2011 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2011

The interleaved Boost power factor correction (PFC) converter operating in critical current mode (CRM) features high input power factor, high efficiency and small magnetic components. If the inductors are coupled, the turns number can be reduced, but the input current ripple is increased. This paper discusses the two-phase interleaved CRM Boost converter with an inversely coupled inductor. The coupling effect ...


A Modular All-Digital PLL Architecture Enabling Both 1-to-2GHz and 24-to-32GHz Operation in 65nm CMOS

A. V. Rylyakov; J. A. Tierno; D. Z. Turker; J. -O. Plouchart; H. A. Ainspan; D. Friedman 2008 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - Digest of Technical Papers, 2008

We report two DPLLs fabricated in a standard 65 nm bulk CMOS process. One PLL, targeting 1-to-2 GHz clock generation for the ASIC consumer market, is realized using a 5-stage static CMOS-ring digitally-controlled oscillator (ring-DCO). The second PLL, an exploratory design for 20-to-30 GHz applications, is realized using an LC-tank DCO. Both PLLs use the same proportional-integral (PI) loop filter, ...


A 1V second order delta sigma ADC in 130nm CMOS

K. Lokesh Krishna; T. Ramashri; D. Reena International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES2014), 2014

Sigma-Delta modulators are commonly used in applications that require high resolution. In this paper a IV second order sigma delta ADC is presented. In this paper over sampling concept is used to address the problem of power dissipation and noise in ADCs. A second order sigma delta modulator is implemented using CMOS 130nm technology. Oversampling ratio is 128 and total ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • A SecondOrder HighResolution Incremental A/D Converter with Offset and Charge Injection Compensation

    Sigma-delta modulation, associated with oversampling and noise shaping, is a well-known technique used in high-accuracy A/D converters. Such converters, required in telecommunications applications, are characterized by ac perfonnance such as signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, they are mainly dedicated to applications which can tolerate offset and gain errors. On the other hand, measurement and instrumentation applications require absolute accuracy, e.g., offset and gain errors cannot be tolerated. These applications are characterized by dc perfonnance such as differential and integral nonlinearides, offset and gain errors, and they often require high resolution. The second-order incremental A/D converter, which makes use of sigma-delta modulation associated with a simple digital filter, is capable of achieving such requirements. Experimental results, obtained of circuits fabricated in a SACMOS 3-¿m technology, indicate that 15-bit absolute accuracy is easily achievable, even with a low reference voltage.

  • An Approach to the Implementation of Digital Filters

    An approach to the implementation of digital filters is presented that employs a small set of relatively simple digital circuits in a highly regular and modular configuration, well suited to LSI construction. Using parallel processing and serial, two's-complement arithmetic, the required arithmetic circuits (adders and multipliers ) are quite simple, as are the remaining circuits, which consist of shift registers for delay and small read-only memories for coefficient storage. The arithmetic circuits are readily multiplexed to process multiple data inputs or to effect multiple, but different, filters (or both), thus providing for efficient hardware utilization. Up to 100 filter sections can be multiplexed in audio-frequency applications using presently available digital circuits in the medium-speed range. The filters are also easily modified to realize a wide range of filter forms, transfer functions, multiplexing schemes, and round-off noise levels by changing only the contents of the read-only memory and/or the timing signals and the length of the shift-register delays. A simple analog-to-digital converter, which uses delta modulation as an intermediate encoding process is also presented for audio-frequency applications.

  • Multirate Filter Designs Using Comb Filters

    Decimation is an important component of oversampled analog-to-dlgital conversion. It transforms the digitally modulated signal from short words occurring at high sampling rate to longer words at the Nyquist rate. Here we are concerned with the initial stage of decimation, where the word rate decreases to about four times the Nyquist rate. We show that digital filters comprising cascades of integrate-and-dump functions can match the structure of the noise from sigma delta modulation to provide decimation with negligible loss of signal-to-noise ratio. Explicit formulas evaluate particular tradeoffs between modulation rate, signal-to-noise ratio, length of digital words, and complexity of the modulating and decimating functions.

  • Fully Controlled Three-Phase Bridge Converters

    This chapter discusses the operation of a three‐phase fully controlled bridge converter. It is shown that by suitable control, this device can be used to achieve either a three‐phase controllable voltage source or a three‐phase controllable current source. The chapter presents a refinement of six‐step operation. In particular, one of several pulse‐width modulation (PWM) control strategies that allows the amplitude of the fundamental component of the voltage to be readily controlled is discussed. Six‐step modulation, extended sine‐triangle modulation, and space‐vector modulation are all voltage‐source modulation schemes. The chapter explains usage of these schemes to develop an open‐loop voltage‐regulated converter. Hysteresis modulation and delta modulation are both current source‐based schemes. These are used as the basis of developing an open‐loop current‐regulated converter. Finally, the chapter focuses on closed‐loop methods of regulating q‐ and d‐axis voltages and currents.

  • Oversampled SigmaDelta Modulation

    Oversampled sigma-delta modulation has been proposed as a practical implementation for high rate analog-to-digital conversion because of its simplicity and its robustness against circuit imperfections. To date, mathematical developments of the basic properties of such systems have been based either on simplified continuous-time approximate models or on linearized discrete-time models where the quantizer is replaced by an additive white uniform noise source. In this paper. we rigorously derive several basic properties of a simple discrete-time single integrator loop sigma-delta modulator with an accumulate-and-dump demodulator. The derivation does not require any assumptions on the correlation or distribution of the quantizer error, and hence involves no linearization of the nonlinear system, but it does show that when the input is constant, the state sequence of the integrator in the encoder loop can be modeled exactly as a linear system in an appropriate space. Two basic properties are developed: 1) the behavior of the sigma-delta quantizer when driven by a constant input and its relation to uniform quantization, and 2) the rate-distortion tradeoffs between the oversampling ratio and the average mean-squared quantization error.

  • Fully Controlled 3Phase Bridge Converters

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction The 3-Phase Bridge Converter 180° Voltage Source Operation Pulse-Width Modulation Sine-Triangle Modulation Third-Harmonic Injection Space-Vector Modulation Hysteresis Modulation Delta Modulation Open-Loop Voltage and Current Control Closed-Loop Voltage and Current Controls References Problems

  • AnalogDigital Conversion

    This chapter contains sections titled: A Self-Calibrating 15 Bit CMOS A/D Converter A Ratio-Independent Algorithmic Analog-to-Digital Conversion Technique A Per-Channel A/D Converter Having 15-Segment µ-255 Companding A Use of Double Integration in Sigma Delta Modulation MOS ADC-Filter Combination That Does Not Require Precision Analog Components A Voiceband 15b Interpolative Converter Chip Set A 12-bit Sigma-Delta Analog-to-Digital Converter with a 15-MHz Clock Rate An 8-bit High-Speed CMOS A/D Converter An 8-MHz CMOS Subranging 8-Bit A/D Converter A Pipelined 5-Msample/s 9-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter

  • Multistage SigmaDelta Modulation

    We provide a theoretical basis for multistage sigma-delta modulation (MSM), which is a cascade realization of several single-loop sigma-delta modulators with a linear combinatorial network. Equations are derived describing the output and the quantization noise of MSM for an arbitrary input signal and the noise shaping characteristic of MSM is investigated. The spectral characteristics of an _m_-stage sigma-delta modulator with both dc and sinusoidal inputs are developed. For both types of inputs the binary quantizer noise of the _m_th (_m_ ¿ 3) sigma-delta quantizer, which appears at the output as an _m_th order difference, is asymptotically white, uniformly distributed, and uncorrelated with the input level. It is also found that for an _m_-stage sigma-delta quantizer with either an ideal low-pass filter or a sinc _m_ + 1 filter decoder, the average quantization noise of the system is inversely proportional to the (2_m_, + 1)th power of the oversampling ratio _R_. This implies that high-order systems are favorable in terms of the trade- off between the quantization noise and the oversampling ratio. Simulation results are presented to support the theoretical analysis.

  • Constraints Analysis for Oversampling AtoD Converter Structures on VLSl Implementation

    Requirements, applied to analog components and characteristics for oversampling A-to-D converter structures with second order loop transfer function, were analyzed through numerical and mathematical analyses. The results suggest that a first order predictive encoder, with first order noise shaping, is best suited to high resolution future VLSl implementation. It is most difficult to achieve a theoretical second order ¿-¿ modulation signal- to-noise ratio, because of the amplifier performance requirements. The operational amplifier gain should only be greater than kR/n, as long as the amplifier response is linear, where R is the oversampling ratio, ¿ is the angular stop band frequency and k is a. parameter depending on structures and integrator circuit configuration, if a switched capacitor integrator is employed in a noise shaping technology. A second order delta modulation coder does not seem to be applicable to a precision converter, but to a high speed converter instead.

  • Quantization Noise Spectra

    Uniform qunntizers play a fundamental role in digital communication systems and have been the subject of extensive study for many decades, The inherent nonlinearity of quantizers makes their analysis hoth difficult and Interesting, It usually has been accomplished either by assuming the quantizer noise to be a signal-independent, uniform white random process or by replacing the quantizer by a deterministic linear device, or by combining the two assumptions. Such linearizing approximations simplify the analysis and permit the use of linear systems techniques, but few results exist quantifying how good such approximations are for specific systems, These complications are magnified when the quantizer is inside a feedback loop, as for Sigma-Delta modulators. Exact descriptions of the moments and spectra of quantizer noise have been developed recently for the special case of single-loop, multistage and multiloop Signul-Delta modulators. These results demonstrate. that the white noise and linearization assumptions can be quite poor approximations in some systems and quite good in others. It turns out that many of the techniques used in the analysis were first applied to the analysis of quantizers by Clavier, Panter, and Grieg (1947) in pioneering (but often overlooked) work that preceded Bennett's (1948) classic study of quantization noise spectra. We take advantage of the benefit of hindsight to develop several results describing the behavior of quantization noise in a unified and simplified manner. Exact formulas for quantizer noise spectra are developed and applied to a variety of systems and inputs, including scalar quantization (PCM), dithered PCM, Sigma-Delta modulation, dithered Sigma-Delta modulation, two-stage Sigma-Delta modulation, and second-order Sigma-Delta modulation.



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