Conferences related to Degradation

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2016 Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS)

Tutorials and original papers on reliability, maintainability, safety, risk management, and logistics


2015 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS)

Sharing information related to cause, effects and solutions in the deign and manufacture of electronics and related components


2013 20th IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA)

Sample Preparation, Metrology and Material Characterization Advanced Failure Analysis Techniques Die-Level / Package-Level Failure Analysis Case Study & Failure Mechanisms Product Reliability Evaluation and ApproachesNovel Device Reliability and Failure MechanismsNovel Gate Stack/Dielectrics and FEOL Reliability and Failure MechanismsAdvanced Interconnects and BEOL Reliability and Failure Mechanisms


2013 IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IIRW)

We invite you to submit a presentation proposal that addresses any semiconductor related reliability issue, including the following topics: resistive memories, high-k and nitrided SiO2 gate dielectrics, reliability assessment of novel devices, III-V, SOI, emerging memory technologies, transistor reliability including hot carriers and NBTI/PBTI, root cause defects (physical mechanisms and simulations), Cu interconnects and low-k dielectrics, impact of transistor degradation on circuit reliability, designing-in reliability (products, circuits,systems, processes), customer product reliability requirements / manufacturer reliability tasks, waferlevel reliability tests (test approaches and reliability test structures), reliability modeling and simulation,optoelectronics, and single event upsets.

  • 2012 IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IIRW)

    The IRW focuses on ensuring electronic device reliability through fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and simulation, as well as identification of the defects and physical mechanisms responsible for reliability problems.

  • 2011 IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IIRW)

    The IRW focuses on ensuring electronic device reliability through fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and simulation, as well as identification of the defects and physical mechanisms responsible for reliability problems through tutorials, paper presentations, discussion groups and special interest groups.

  • 2010 IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IIRW)

    The Integrated Reliability Workshop focuses on ensuring electronic device reliability through fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and simulation, as well as identification of the defects and physical mechanisms responsible for reliability problems. Through tutorials, discussion groups, special interest groups, and the informal format of the technical program, a unique environment is provided for understanding, developing, and sharing reliability technology and test methodology for present and f

  • 2009 IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IRW)

    Semiconductor Reliability in general; and Wafer Level Reliability in specific. Covering areas like (but not limited to): Design-in Reliability, reliability characterization, deep sub-micron transistor and circuit reliability, customer reliability requirements, wafer level reliability tests, and reliability root cause analysis, etc.

  • 2008 IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IRW)

    The workshop focuses on ensuring device reliability through fabrication, design, testing, characterization and simulation as well as identification of the defects and mechanisms responsible for reliability problems. It provides a unique environment for understanding, developing and sharing reliability technology and test methodology.

  • 2007 IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IRW)

    The Workshop focuses on ensuring semiconductor reliability through fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and simulation, as well as identification of the defects and physical mechanisms responsible for reliabilty problems. Through tutorials, discussion groups, special interest groups, and the informal format of the technical program, a unique environment is provided for understanding and developing reliability technology and test methodology.

  • 2006 IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IRW)


2013 IEEE/AIAA 32nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC)

DASC is the premier annual conference providing authors an opportunity for publication and presentation to an international audience of papers encompassing the field of avionics systems for aircraft/rotorcraft/unmanned aircraft (commercial, military, general aviation) launch vehicles, missiles, spacecraft, and space transportation systems, navigation, guidance/control of flight, computers, communications, sensors (radar, infrared, visual bands), avionics architectures and data networking, communications networks, software, crew interface, space and ground components needed for the operation of military, commercial, and business aircraft, and avionics electrical power generation and control, Student papers are entered into a judged competition.


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Periodicals related to Degradation

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Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Automation Sciences and Engineering (T-ASE) publishes fundamental papers on Automation, emphasizing scientific results that advance efficiency, quality, productivity, and reliability. T-ASE encourages interdisciplinary approaches from computer science, control systems, electrical engineering, mathematics, mechanical engineering, operations research, and other fields. We welcome results relevant to industries such as agriculture, biotechnology, healthcare, home automation, maintenance, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, retail, ...


Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Provides leading edge information that is critical to the creation of reliable electronic devices and materials, and a focus for interdisciplinary communication in the state of the art of reliability of electronic devices, and the materials used in their manufacture. It focuses on the reliability of electronic, optical, and magnetic devices, and microsystems; the materials and processes used in the ...


Electron Device Letters, IEEE

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronic devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronics devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Principles and practices of reliability, maintainability, and product liability pertaining to electrical and electronic equipment.


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Xplore Articles related to Degradation

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Failure initiation of IGBT due to emitter contact degradation: A 2D finite elements electro-thermal multi-cell simulation approach under hard switching, short-circuit and avalanche operations

Kamal El Boubkari; Sté phane Azzopardi; Loic Thé olier; Raphael Roder; Eric Woirgard; Serge Bontemps Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2013 Twenty-Eighth Annual IEEE, 2013

This paper reports, for the first time, the internal physics of IGBT under severe switching conditions based on 2D finite elements multi-cell device simulation pointing out the advantages of such approach particularly in the case of a packaging degradation due to wire-bonding lift-off or top metallization ageing. The results show that the multi-cell simulation highlights intercellular electro-thermal phenomena which may ...


High field effects in MOSFETS

E. Takeda; Y. Ohji; H. Kume Electron Devices Meeting, 1985 International, 1985

"High field effects", such as hot-carrier effects and dielectric breakdown, which most significantly affect VLSI reliability are discussed. This paper describes: 1) the hot-carrier injection mechanism and modeling; 2) degradation characteristics: low voltage and low temperature hot-carrier effects, the influence of new processes and materials, degradation modeling, and the TDDB vs. hot-carrier phenomena; 3) hot-carrier resistant device structures and dielectrics, ...


Diffusion of moisture through power-transformer insulation

A. F. Howe Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the Institution of, 1978

Moisture in power-transformer insulation has long been recognised as a major cause for the deterioration of the dielectric and for shortening the `service- lives¿ of units. Engineers have, therefore, striven to find a method that will accurately predict the degradation of the insulation in service conditions. This must involve a knowledge of how the moisture concentration varies in the insulation ...


Performance Comparison of the STBC-OFDM Decoders in a Fast Fading Channel

Chi-Min Li; Jia-Chyi Wu; I-Tseng Tang; Guo-Wei Li Intelligent Information Technology Application, 2008. IITA '08. Second International Symposium on, 2008

In a fast fading channel, the orthogonality of the two consecutive STBC-OFDM symbols will be destroyed and the received signals can not be perfectly separated. As a result, the bit error rate (BER) performance will be degraded seriously. In this paper, we analyze several CCI cancellation decoders for the STBC-OFDM in a fast fading channel including the Alamouti method, SIC ...


Joint source/FEC rate selection for optimal MPEG-2 video delivery

P. Frossard; O. Verscheure Multimedia and Expo, 2000. ICME 2000. 2000 IEEE International Conference on, 2000

The paper deals with the optimal allocation of MPEG-2 encoding and media- independent FEC rates under a total given bandwidth. The optimality is defined in terms of minimum perceptual end-to-end distortion given a set of video and network parameters. We first derive the set of equations leading to the residual loss process parameters. That is, the packet loss ratio and ...


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Educational Resources on Degradation

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eLearning

Failure initiation of IGBT due to emitter contact degradation: A 2D finite elements electro-thermal multi-cell simulation approach under hard switching, short-circuit and avalanche operations

Kamal El Boubkari; Sté phane Azzopardi; Loic Thé olier; Raphael Roder; Eric Woirgard; Serge Bontemps Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2013 Twenty-Eighth Annual IEEE, 2013

This paper reports, for the first time, the internal physics of IGBT under severe switching conditions based on 2D finite elements multi-cell device simulation pointing out the advantages of such approach particularly in the case of a packaging degradation due to wire-bonding lift-off or top metallization ageing. The results show that the multi-cell simulation highlights intercellular electro-thermal phenomena which may ...


High field effects in MOSFETS

E. Takeda; Y. Ohji; H. Kume Electron Devices Meeting, 1985 International, 1985

"High field effects", such as hot-carrier effects and dielectric breakdown, which most significantly affect VLSI reliability are discussed. This paper describes: 1) the hot-carrier injection mechanism and modeling; 2) degradation characteristics: low voltage and low temperature hot-carrier effects, the influence of new processes and materials, degradation modeling, and the TDDB vs. hot-carrier phenomena; 3) hot-carrier resistant device structures and dielectrics, ...


Diffusion of moisture through power-transformer insulation

A. F. Howe Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the Institution of, 1978

Moisture in power-transformer insulation has long been recognised as a major cause for the deterioration of the dielectric and for shortening the `service- lives¿ of units. Engineers have, therefore, striven to find a method that will accurately predict the degradation of the insulation in service conditions. This must involve a knowledge of how the moisture concentration varies in the insulation ...


Performance Comparison of the STBC-OFDM Decoders in a Fast Fading Channel

Chi-Min Li; Jia-Chyi Wu; I-Tseng Tang; Guo-Wei Li Intelligent Information Technology Application, 2008. IITA '08. Second International Symposium on, 2008

In a fast fading channel, the orthogonality of the two consecutive STBC-OFDM symbols will be destroyed and the received signals can not be perfectly separated. As a result, the bit error rate (BER) performance will be degraded seriously. In this paper, we analyze several CCI cancellation decoders for the STBC-OFDM in a fast fading channel including the Alamouti method, SIC ...


Joint source/FEC rate selection for optimal MPEG-2 video delivery

P. Frossard; O. Verscheure Multimedia and Expo, 2000. ICME 2000. 2000 IEEE International Conference on, 2000

The paper deals with the optimal allocation of MPEG-2 encoding and media- independent FEC rates under a total given bandwidth. The optimality is defined in terms of minimum perceptual end-to-end distortion given a set of video and network parameters. We first derive the set of equations leading to the residual loss process parameters. That is, the packet loss ratio and ...


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Biomaterials are used to provide structural support during the tissue and organ fabrication process and are designed to simulate properties of the mammalian extracellular matrix. In this chapter, we provide a broad overview of biomaterials as they apply to tissue engineering. We provide a working definition of biomaterials and discuss biomaterial classification schemes and biomaterial platforms. During the course of this chapter, we also study biomaterial properties, including tensile properties, degradation kinetics, biocompatibility and biomimetic properties.

  • Co-Firing Issues

    In order to find a suitable solution to biomass energy technical and engineering issues, while at the same time reducing costs and creating better efficiency, particularly concerning the technical aspects, biomass properties to be analyzed objectively and adjusted accordingly. Problems that should be considered concerning biomass materials used as a viable fuel can range from hardware engineering issues (biomass milling, fuels mixing, combustion, and by-products) to access to unwanted chemicals in the fuels themselves. Hardware degradation is a major problem when using biomass materials for co-firing with coal. When the biomass materials selected for usage have been already examined and tested thoroughly, an environmentally friendly and economically sound co- firing method can be achieved from both a scientific/technical and commercial standpoint.

  • Viterbi Decoding for Satellite and Space Communication

    Convolutional coding and Viterbi decoding, along with binary phase-shift keyed modulation, is presented as an efficient system for reliable communication on power limited satellite and space channels. Performance results, obtained theoretically and through computer simulation, are given for optimum short constraint length codes for a range of code constraint lengths and code rates. System efficiency is compared for hard receiver quantization and 4 and 8 level soft quantization. The effects on performance of varying of certain parameters relevant to decoder complexity and cost is examined. Quantitative performance degradation due to imperfect carrier phase coherence is evaluated and compared to that of an uncoded system. As an example of decoder performance versus complexity, a recently implemented 2-Mbit/s constraint length 7 Viterbi decoder is discussed. Finally a comparison is made between Viterbi and sequential decoding in terms of suitability to various system requirements.

  • Index

    In this book Peter Lindert evaluates environmental concerns about soil degradation in two very large countries--China and Indonesia--where anecdotal evidence has suggested serious problems. Lindert does what no scholar before him has done: using new archival data sets, he measures changes in soil productivity over long enough periods of time to reveal the influence of human activity.China and Indonesia are good test cases because of their geography and history. China has been at the center of global concerns about desertification and water erosion, which it may have accelerated with intense agriculture. Most of Indonesia¹s lands were created by volcanoes and erosion, and its rapid deforestation and shifting slash-burn agriculture have been singled out for international censure.Lindert's investigation suggests that human mismanagement is not on average worsening the soil quality in China and Indonesia. Human cultivation lowers soil nitrogen and organic matter, but has offsetting positive effects. Economic development and rising incomes may even lead to better soil. Beyond the importance of Lindert's immediate findings, this book opens a new area of study--quantitative soil history--and raises the standard for debating soil trends.

  • Standardization of Scalable Coding Schemes

    Scalable coding schemes ar being considered in particular for HDTV in order to provide for compatibility with lower resolution scanning formats and to provide for graceful degradation of the picture quality in the presence of transmission errors.. This chapter describes some of the scalable coding schemes considered within the Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the different schemes which may be classified as frequency scalable, spatial scalable and SNR scalable. The reasons for selecting particular scalable schemes for inclusion in the MPEG-2 standard are described.

  • Physics of Flash Memories

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Basic Operating Principles and Memory Characteristics Physics of Programming and Erase Mechanisms Physics of Degradation and Disturb Mechanisms Conclusion References

  • No title

    Current vision systems are designed to perform in normal weather condition. However, no one can escape from severe weather conditions. Bad weather reduces scene contrast and visibility, which results in degradation in the performance of various computer vision algorithms such as object tracking, segmentation and recognition. Thus, current vision systems must include some mechanisms that enable them to perform up to the mark in bad weather conditions such as rain and fog. Rain causes the spatial and temporal intensity variations in images or video frames. These intensity changes are due to the random distribution and high velocities of the raindrops. Fog causes low contrast and whiteness in the image and leads to a shift in the color. This book has studied rain and fog from the perspective of vision. The book has two main goals: 1) removal of rain from videos captured by a moving and static camera, 2) removal of the fog from images and videos captured by a moving single uncalibrated ca era system. The book begins with a literature survey. Pros and cons of the selected prior art algorithms are described, and a general framework for the development of an efficient rain removal algorithm is explored. Temporal and spatiotemporal properties of rain pixels are analyzed and using these properties, two rain removal algorithms for the videos captured by a static camera are developed. For the removal of rain, temporal and spatiotemporal algorithms require fewer numbers of consecutive frames which reduces buffer size and delay. These algorithms do not assume the shape, size and velocity of raindrops which make it robust to different rain conditions (i.e., heavy rain, light rain and moderate rain). In a practical situation, there is no ground truth available for rain video. Thus, no reference quality metric is very useful in measuring the efficacy of the rain removal algorithms. Temporal variance and spatiotemporal variance are presented in this book as no reference quality met ics. An efficient rain removal algorithm using meteorological properties of rain is developed. The relation among the orientation of the raindrops, wind velocity and terminal velocity is established. This relation is used in the estimation of shape- based features of the raindrop. Meteorological property-based features helped to discriminate the rain and non-rain pixels. Most of the prior art algorithms are designed for the videos captured by a static camera. The use of global motion compensation with all rain removal algorithms designed for videos captured by static camera results in better accuracy for videos captured by moving camera. Qualitative and quantitative results confirm that probabilistic temporal, spatiotemporal and meteorological algorithms outperformed other prior art algorithms in terms of the perceptual quality, buffer size, execution delay and system cost. The work presented in this book can find wide application in entertainment industries, transportation, tracking a d consumer electronics. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction / Analysis of Rain / Dataset and Performance Metrics / Important Rain Detection Algorithms / Probabilistic Approach for Detection and Removal of Rain / Impact of Camera Motion on Detection of Rain / Meteorological Approach for Detection and Removal of Rain from Videos / Conclusion and Scope of Future Work / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

  • Thermal Degradation and Termination Behavior of Thick Film Resistors

    Thermal stability was measured for Du Pont 1420 (102 ohims/square), Du Pont 1440 (104 ohms/square), Cermalloy 540 (104 ohms/square), and Cermalloy 550 (105 ohms/square) thick film resistor materials. Samples were aged at 200, 300 and 400°c. In addition, effects of resistor-conductor termination area, laser trimming, and applied bias voltage on thermal stability were evaluated. For 200 and 300°C exposure, the sheet resistivity increased for all materials. Maximum increase after 5000 hours exposure as +8%. For 400°C exposure, sheet resistivity decreased for all materials. Maximum decrease was -20% for 5000 hours exposure. The termination region had no significant effect on either asfired resistance or thermal degradation behavior. Laser trimming tended to stabilize resistors slightly and applied bias voltage had no significant effect.

  • Towards Persistent Localization and Mapping with a Continuous Appearance-Based Topology

    Appearance-based localization can provide loop closure detection at vast scales regardless of accumulated metric error. However, the computation time and memory requirements of current appearance-based methods scale not only with the size of the environment but also with the operation time of the platform. Additionally, repeated visits to locations will develop multiple competing representations, which will reduce recall performance over time. These properties impose severe restrictions on long-term autonomy for mobile robots, as loop closure performance will inevitably degrade with increased operation time. In this paper we present a graphical extension to CAT-SLAM, a particle filter-based algorithm for appearancebased localization and mapping, to provide constant computation and memory requirements over time and minimal degradation of recall performance during repeated visits to locations. We demonstrate loop closure detection in a large urban environment with capped computation time and memory requirements and performance exceeding previous appearance-based methods by a factor of 2. We discuss the limitations of the algorithm with respect to environment size, appearance change over time and applications in topological planning and navigation for long-term robot operation.

  • MetalGaAs Interaction and Contact Degradation in Microwave MESFETs

    This work reports and critically reviews failure mechanisms induced by metal- GaAs interaction and contact degradation in low and medium power GaAs MESFETs in the framework of a comprehensive reliability evaluation test plan, performed mainly on commercially purchased devices manufactured by different technologies. The results show that, at least as regards contact degradation phenomena, these technologies have reached sufficient maturity, and significant reliability levels have been achieved even for the most severe applications and environments. Devices coming from some suppliers still suffer from reliability problems, such as sinking of Au-based gate metallization into the active channel, Al electromigration, Al/GaAs interdiffusion enhanced by high contact current density, source and drain ohmic contact resistance increase, ohmic contacts electromigration, surface metal migration and short circuiting of closely spaced electrodes on GaAs with a non-suitable surface preparation and/or passivation. All these failure mechanisms have been identified by means of suitable microanalytical techniques, correlated with device electrical degradation and thoroughly discussed in this paper by comparison with results previously reported in the technical literature.



Standards related to Degradation

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IEEE Guide for Assessing, Monitoring, and Mitigating Aging Effects on Class 1E Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Generating Stations

This document provides the guidelines for assessing, monitoring, and mitigating aging degradation effects on class 1E equipment used in nuclear power generating stations.