Atmosphere

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An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, created in the 17th century from Greek ἀτμός "vapor" and σφαῖρα "sphere") is a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass,and that is held in place by the gravity of the body. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Atmosphere

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2018 International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT)

ICMMT2018 is intended to provide a broad international forum and nice opportunity for the scientists and engineers to present their new ideas and exchange information on research.


2017 12th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)

Industrial Informatics, Computational Intelligence, Control and Systems, Cyber-physical Systems, Energy and Environment, Mechatronics, Power Electronics, Signal and Information Processing, Network and Communication Technologies


2017 16th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)

ITherm 2017 is the leading international conference for scientific and engineering exploration of thermal, thermomechanicaland emerging technology issues associated with electronic devices, packages, and systems.


2017 18th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT)

The conference will exchange the latest developments in the field of electronic packaging technology through exhibitions, special lectures, special reports, thematic forums, club reports, posters and other forms of experience


2017 19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology. The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems, Fabrication and Packaging, Mechanical and Physical Sensors, Materials and Characterization, Design, Simulation and Theory, Actuators, Optical MEMS, RF MEMS, Nanotechnology, Energy and Power


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Periodicals related to Atmosphere

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Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWP Letters) will be devoted to the rapid electronic publication of short manuscripts in the technical areas of Antennas and Wireless Propagation.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


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Xplore Articles related to Atmosphere

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Capturing climate change

T. S. Perry IEEE Spectrum, 2002

Though for decades arguments have raged over whether human activities cause changes in climate, these battles may be nearing an end. It is hard to dispute that the earths climate is getting warmer. The apparent reason is a measurable increase in greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, but also methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone. Some do disagree. And ...


Air Mass Factor Calculations Based on Support Vector Regression Machine

Dong Han; Liangfu Chen; Guojiang Chen; Zifeng Wang; Shenshen Li 2009 Second International Conference on Environmental and Computer Science, 2009

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) plays a key role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Based on the space borne measurements, the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method determines the NO2 slant column density (SCD) along the light path through the atmosphere in a given spectral window between 405 and 465 nm. Based on radiative transfer model, a Look-Up-Table (LUT) of Air ...


Lens-Effect Loss for Distributed Targets

William W. Shrader; Thomas A. Weil IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1987

The atmosphere, acting like a lens, causes a small loss in radarsignal strength [1]. Unlike atmospheric absorption [2], the lenseffect loss is different for distributed targets versus point targets.For a distributed target uniformly filling the radar beam, the lens effect loss (in decibels) is one-half the lens-effect loss for point targets.


Radiobrightness contrast variations of dry and moisture ground with air-ground boundary chaotic roughness

G. A. Andreyev Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Grounds Penetrating Radar, 2004. GPR 2004., 2004

mathematical model of brightness contrasts of ground covers with chaotic irregularities and local permittivity analmalies is proposed that takes into account scattered atmospheric thermal radiation. The brightness contrasts at the moist-dry ground and metal disk-ground interfaces are meiasured at a 8x10 velength is analyzed. Methods for estimating variations of the radio brightness temperatures of the cloudy atmosphere, water surface, and ...


A 60-GHz Multifrequency Radiometric Sensor for Detecting Clear Air Turbulence in the Troposphere

George G. Haroules; Wilfred E. Brown IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1969

The temperature profile in a horizontal path forward of an aircraft canbe sensed with a multichannel 5-mm passive radiometric receivingsystem. The characteristic signature of the multichannel radiometricoutput as a function of time would provide a measure of the range tothe region of temperature discontinuity forward of the aircraft.Applicability to clear air turbulence (CAT) detection is predicatedon the assumption that temperature ...


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Educational Resources on Atmosphere

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eLearning

Capturing climate change

T. S. Perry IEEE Spectrum, 2002

Though for decades arguments have raged over whether human activities cause changes in climate, these battles may be nearing an end. It is hard to dispute that the earths climate is getting warmer. The apparent reason is a measurable increase in greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, but also methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone. Some do disagree. And ...


Air Mass Factor Calculations Based on Support Vector Regression Machine

Dong Han; Liangfu Chen; Guojiang Chen; Zifeng Wang; Shenshen Li 2009 Second International Conference on Environmental and Computer Science, 2009

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) plays a key role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Based on the space borne measurements, the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method determines the NO2 slant column density (SCD) along the light path through the atmosphere in a given spectral window between 405 and 465 nm. Based on radiative transfer model, a Look-Up-Table (LUT) of Air ...


Lens-Effect Loss for Distributed Targets

William W. Shrader; Thomas A. Weil IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1987

The atmosphere, acting like a lens, causes a small loss in radarsignal strength [1]. Unlike atmospheric absorption [2], the lenseffect loss is different for distributed targets versus point targets.For a distributed target uniformly filling the radar beam, the lens effect loss (in decibels) is one-half the lens-effect loss for point targets.


Radiobrightness contrast variations of dry and moisture ground with air-ground boundary chaotic roughness

G. A. Andreyev Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Grounds Penetrating Radar, 2004. GPR 2004., 2004

mathematical model of brightness contrasts of ground covers with chaotic irregularities and local permittivity analmalies is proposed that takes into account scattered atmospheric thermal radiation. The brightness contrasts at the moist-dry ground and metal disk-ground interfaces are meiasured at a 8x10 velength is analyzed. Methods for estimating variations of the radio brightness temperatures of the cloudy atmosphere, water surface, and ...


A 60-GHz Multifrequency Radiometric Sensor for Detecting Clear Air Turbulence in the Troposphere

George G. Haroules; Wilfred E. Brown IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 1969

The temperature profile in a horizontal path forward of an aircraft canbe sensed with a multichannel 5-mm passive radiometric receivingsystem. The characteristic signature of the multichannel radiometricoutput as a function of time would provide a measure of the range tothe region of temperature discontinuity forward of the aircraft.Applicability to clear air turbulence (CAT) detection is predicatedon the assumption that temperature ...


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • FSO in HAP‐Based Communication Systems

    In this book, the authors provide a thorough overview of the state of the art in high-altitude platform (HAP) enabling technologies, addressing recent research activities and results. In addition, the book explores the enabling technologies and economics of HAP-based communication systems, including issues related to aeronautics, applications and business modelling, as well as future trends. Furthermore, the authors discuss broadband wireless communications from HAPs, the operating environment, and advanced communication techniques for efficient radio link resource management. Similarly, the authors complement radio frequency (RF) dominated issues with free space optical communications in the HAP operating environment, focusing on physical and networking layers. Finally, the book addresses the multiple HAP constellations planning procedure and discusses the networking implications of using multiple HAPs. **Key Features:** * Focuses on placing HAPs in the perspective o current and future broadband wireless communication systems * Offers an overview of the constraints affecting HAP-based broadband communications * Provides a thorough overview and state of the art of the HAP enabling technologies, including recent research activities and future directions * Examines the operating environment, advanced communication techniques for efficient radio link resource management, and suitable antennas * Addresses multiplatform constellations, presenting the multiple HAP constellation planning procedure and discussing the networking implications of using multiple HAPs This book will be of valuable interest to researchers and practitioners in the areas of wireless communications, satellite communications and high-altitude platforms, and development engineers involved in the design and development of HAP systems.

  • Parabolic Equation Method

    Parabolic equation method (PEM) represents one-way propagation and is widely used in two-dimensional (2D) radio wave/ground wave propagation modeling. It takes the earth's curvature, atmospheric refractivity variations, nonflat terrain scattering, and boundary losses into account. This chapter reviews both split-step PE (SSPE)- and finite element method (FEM)-based numerical solution approaches and introduces MATLAB-based simple routines. Canonical test cases are presented and systematic comparisons between the SSPE and FEMPE methods are made, followed by calibration of both the SSPE and FEMPE tools against analytical exact (reference) solutions. Finally, the chapter introduces several simple MATLAB scripts in 2D propagation modeling.

  • ATMOSPHERIC PROPAGATION

    Communication links that propagate through the atmosphere encounter a number of effects that distort the received signal making detection and parameter estimation difficult and prone to errors. This chapter examines the impact of multipath reflections from a smooth Earth followed by a case study and discusses signal refraction in the troposphere and ionosphere and diffraction from irregular surfaces with examples of irregular terrain and urban propagation losses. The geometry for determining the propagation paths for line of sight (LOS) and multipath rays has been modeled under various simplifying assumptions involving a flat‐Earth approximation and a spherical Earth with receivers at sufficiently long ranges. The propagation loss through the troposphere and over terrain modeled by Longley and Rice and the irregular terrain model (ITM) simulation program is used to evaluate the losses under a variety of user specified conditions. Land mobile communications through a satellite must consider the loss from the terrain surrounding the mobile location.

  • Aeronautics and Energetics

    In this book, the authors provide a thorough overview of the state of the art in high-altitude platform (HAP) enabling technologies, addressing recent research activities and results. In addition, the book explores the enabling technologies and economics of HAP-based communication systems, including issues related to aeronautics, applications and business modelling, as well as future trends. Furthermore, the authors discuss broadband wireless communications from HAPs, the operating environment, and advanced communication techniques for efficient radio link resource management. Similarly, the authors complement radio frequency (RF) dominated issues with free space optical communications in the HAP operating environment, focusing on physical and networking layers. Finally, the book addresses the multiple HAP constellations planning procedure and discusses the networking implications of using multiple HAPs. **Key Features:** * Focuses on placing HAPs in the perspective o current and future broadband wireless communication systems * Offers an overview of the constraints affecting HAP-based broadband communications * Provides a thorough overview and state of the art of the HAP enabling technologies, including recent research activities and future directions * Examines the operating environment, advanced communication techniques for efficient radio link resource management, and suitable antennas * Addresses multiplatform constellations, presenting the multiple HAP constellation planning procedure and discussing the networking implications of using multiple HAPs This book will be of valuable interest to researchers and practitioners in the areas of wireless communications, satellite communications and high-altitude platforms, and development engineers involved in the design and development of HAP systems.

  • Spectrum and Propagation

    **Presents the concepts, technology, and role of satellite systems in support of personal applications, such as mobile and broadband communications, navigation, television, radio and multimedia broadcasting, safety of life services, etc.** This book presents a novel perspective on satellite systems, reflecting the modern personal technology context, and hence a focus on the individual as end-user. The book begins by outlining key generic concepts before discussing techniques adopted in particular application areas; next, it exemplifies these techniques through discussion of state-of-art current and emerging satellite systems. The book concludes by contemplating the likely evolution of these systems, taking into consideration influences and trends in technology, in conjunction with growing user expectations. In addition to addressing satellite systems that directly interact with personal devices, the book additionally considers those indirect applications where there is an increasing interest by individuals - notably, in remote sensing. As such, the book uniquely encompasses the entire gamut of satellite- enabled personal / end-user applications. _Key Features:_ * Broad scope - views satellite systems generically with regards to their applicability across a wide range of personal application areas * Strong foundation in underlying concepts * State-of-the-art system examples * Review of trends in relevant areas of satellite technology * Revision questions at the end of each chapter The book is suited to individuals, engineers, scientists, service providers, system operators, application developers and managers interested or involved in the use of satellite technology for personal applications. It should also hold interest for use in research institutes interested in promoting inter- disciplinary cross-fertilization of ideas, as well as by financiers, policy makers, and strategists interested n gaining a better understanding of this technology.

  • Overview on HAPS

    This chapter contains sections titled: HAPS System Concepts Radio Regulations for HAPS Applications and Services HAPS Networks Terrestrial, Satellite and Stratospheric Communication Systems: A Comparison Survey of the Evolution and State‐of‐the‐Art of HAPS in the World References

  • Femix Virtual Propagation Package

    This chapter discusses how the groundwave propagation problem over a non‐smooth spherical Earth with an impedance BC and a radially dependent atmosphere, excited by a vertical electric dipole located near the Earth's surface, requires the solution of a 3D EM wave equation in spherical coordinate. A novel FEMPE‐based software tool (FEMIX) is introduced for the analysis and visualization of surface‐wave propagation over the irregular Earth's surface through a homogeneous and an inhomogeneous atmosphere. The FEMIX propagator uses the FEM‐based standard PE, with the accuracy of the numerical computations depending on the discretization. Several parameters, such as the frequency, source beam‐ width, source tilt, source height, terrain profile, refractivity variations, need to be considered. The LOAD and SAVE buttons are used to load and record the irregular terrain data. New irregular terrain data are defined for each path on the bottom figure of the right part by using the number of points, range, and height values by pressing the Locate Points button.

  • Loss and Fading Associated with Troposphere Propagation Phenomena

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Influence of Refraction on Propagation in the Troposphere Terrain Diffraction Losses: Fresnel Zones Vegetation Attenuation Atmospheric Gas and Vapor Absorption Hydrometeors Reflection Distortion due to Propagation Effects Bibliography

  • VHF to SHF Radio Prediction

    **A practical guide to the principles of radio communications for both civilian and military applications** In this book, the author covers both the civilian and military uses of technology, focusing particularly on the applications of radio propagation and prediction. Divided into two parts, the author introduces the basic theory of radio prediction before providing a step-by-step explanation of how this theory can be translated into real-life applications. In addition, the book presents up-to-date systems and methods to illustrate how these applications work in practice. This includes systems working in the HF bands and SHF. Furthermore, the author examines the performance of these systems, and also the effects of noise, interference and deliberate jamming, as well as the performance of jamming, detection and intercept systems. Particular attention is paid to the problems caused by Radio Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices (RCIEDs). **Key Features:** * * Written by an expert in both the civilian and military applications of the technology * Focuses on methods such as radio and radar jamming, and radio-controlled improvised explosive devices (IEDs) * Contains problems and solutions to clarify key topics



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