Atmosphere

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An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, created in the 17th century from Greek ἀτμός "vapor" and σφαῖρα "sphere") is a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass,and that is held in place by the gravity of the body. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Atmosphere

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IGARSS 2015 - 2015 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium

The Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (GRSS) seeks to advance science and technology in geoscience, remote sensing and related fields using conferences, education and other resources. Its fields of interest are the theory, concepts and techniques of science and engineering as they apply to the remote sensing of the earth, oceans, atmosphere, and space, as well as the processing, interpretation and dissemination of this information.


2013 14th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT)

ICEPT 2013 is a four-day event, featuring technical sessions, invited talks, professional development courses/forums, exhibition, and social networking activities. It aims to cover the latest technological developments in electronic packaging, manufacturing and packaging equipment, and provide opportunities to explore the trends of research and development, as well as business in China.


2013 Fifth International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA)

hardware, control structure and microprogramming, i/o and data communication, integrated circuits, computer system organization, communication/networking and information technology, computing methodologies, artificial intelligence, computer graphics, image processing and computer vision, simulation modeling and visualization, computer application, physical science and engineering, computer aided engineering, computers in other system, information technology and system, modal and principles, information te


2013 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV)

The IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV) is the premier annual forum sponsored by the IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society. Researchers, academicians, practitioners, and students from universities, industry, and government agencies are invited to discuss research and applications for Intelligent Vehicles and Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperation. The technical presentations are characterized by a single session format so that all attendees remain in a single room for multilateral communications in an informal atmosphere. Tutorials will be offered on the first day followed by three days of presentations. An exhibition area will be available for the presentation of products.

  • 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV)

    The INTELLIGENT VEHICLES SYMPOSIUM (IV 2012) is the premier annual forum sponsored by the IEEE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS SOCIETY (ITSS). Researchers, academicians, practitioners, and students from universities, industry, and government agencies are invited to discuss research and applications for Intelligent Vehicles and Vehicle-Infrastructure Cooperation. The technical presentations are characterized by a single session format so that all attendees remain in a single room for multilateral communications in an informal atmosphere.

  • 2011 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV)

    THE INTELLIGENT VEHICLES SYMPOSIUM (IV'11) is the premier annual forum sponsored by the IEEE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS SOCIETY (ITSS). Researchers, academicians, practitioners, and students from universities, industry, and government agencies are invited to discuss research and applications for Intelligent Vehicles and Intelligent Infrastructures. The technical presentations are characterized by a single session format so that all attendees remain in a single room for multilateral communications in

  • 2010 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV)

    THE INTELLIGENT VEHICLES SYMPOSIUM (IV'10) is the premier annual forum sponsored by the IEEE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS SOCITY (ITSS). Researchers, academicians, practitioners and students from universities, industry, and government agencies are invited to discuss research and applications for Intelligent Vehicles and Intelligent Infrastructures.

  • 2009 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV)

    It gathers researchers from industry and universities to discuss research and applications for Intelligent Vehicles and Intelligent Infrastructures. The technical presentations are characterized by a single session format so that all attendees remain in a single room for multilateral communications in an informal atmosphere. Most of the papers will be poster presentations. Papers dealing with all aspects of vehicle-related intelligent systems and cooperation between vehicles and infrastructures are solicite


2012 13th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm)

The scientific and engineering exploration of thermal, thermomechanical and emerging technology issues associated with electronic devices, packages and systems.


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Periodicals related to Atmosphere

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Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on

EMC standards; measurement technology; undesired sources; cable/grounding; filters/shielding; equipment EMC; systems EMC; antennas and propagation; spectrum utilization; electromagnetic pulses; lightning; radiation hazards; and Walsh functions


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Xplore Articles related to Atmosphere

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On the molecular-aerosol scattering coupling in remote sensing of aerosol from space

V. V. Rozanov; A. A. Kokhanovsky IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2005

This work is devoted to studies of the influence of the molecular-aerosol coupling on the scalar approximation-based aerosol satellite remote sensing procedures in the ultraviolet-near-infrared spectral range. It was found that the coupling error must be accounted in the aerosol remote sensing problems based on the analysis of the backscattered ultraviolet light.


A novel beam model based on ultra-sparse arbitrary spatial array

Xiaogang Xie; Zuping Qian; Ying Liu 2011 Second International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, 2011

In deep space exploration, the communication signal between the deep space detector and command-control center will experience a very large attenuation; the domain of this attenuation can be divided into two parts. One is caused by the spread of spherical wave; the other is due to the scattering and absorption of atmosphere and ionosphere, which value can reach to 40~50dB. ...


Civilizations and Sea Level Change: Present and Past

A. Butt; B. Brown OCEANS '86, 1986

Climate and sea level changes have been relatively stable for the last few centuries. The delicate balance between global and oceanic systems, however, may be altered due to the increased warming of the earth's average surface temperature. A few degrees increase could cause a 15-17 cm sea level rise by the year 2000, resulting in wide spread flooding of low ...


Electron transmission through a metal target from vacuum to air

R. C. Blosser IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1971

An investigation, in connection with work on a direct electron printing tube, has been made on electron beam transmission through a thin nickel target into atmosphere. Comparison with vacuum-to-vacuum transmission measurements indicates that electron multiplication occurs and that such a system can provide a tool for studying ionization processes, as well as act as an ion source.


SUNFEST-research experience for undergraduates

J. van der Spiegel; J. Santiago-Aviles; J. N. Zemel Proceedings Frontiers in Education 1997 27th Annual Conference. Teaching and Learning in an Era of Change, 1997

This paper describes our experience over ten years with a Summer Research Program for Undergraduates (SUNFEST-Summer Undergraduate Fellowship in Sensor Technologies). The program provides the students with a comprehensive experience that is centered around-but not limited to-doing research and includes several enhancement programs. This paper describes the overall organization of the program, the nature of the projects, activities and programs, ...


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Educational Resources on Atmosphere

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eLearning

On the molecular-aerosol scattering coupling in remote sensing of aerosol from space

V. V. Rozanov; A. A. Kokhanovsky IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2005

This work is devoted to studies of the influence of the molecular-aerosol coupling on the scalar approximation-based aerosol satellite remote sensing procedures in the ultraviolet-near-infrared spectral range. It was found that the coupling error must be accounted in the aerosol remote sensing problems based on the analysis of the backscattered ultraviolet light.


A novel beam model based on ultra-sparse arbitrary spatial array

Xiaogang Xie; Zuping Qian; Ying Liu 2011 Second International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, 2011

In deep space exploration, the communication signal between the deep space detector and command-control center will experience a very large attenuation; the domain of this attenuation can be divided into two parts. One is caused by the spread of spherical wave; the other is due to the scattering and absorption of atmosphere and ionosphere, which value can reach to 40~50dB. ...


Civilizations and Sea Level Change: Present and Past

A. Butt; B. Brown OCEANS '86, 1986

Climate and sea level changes have been relatively stable for the last few centuries. The delicate balance between global and oceanic systems, however, may be altered due to the increased warming of the earth's average surface temperature. A few degrees increase could cause a 15-17 cm sea level rise by the year 2000, resulting in wide spread flooding of low ...


Electron transmission through a metal target from vacuum to air

R. C. Blosser IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 1971

An investigation, in connection with work on a direct electron printing tube, has been made on electron beam transmission through a thin nickel target into atmosphere. Comparison with vacuum-to-vacuum transmission measurements indicates that electron multiplication occurs and that such a system can provide a tool for studying ionization processes, as well as act as an ion source.


SUNFEST-research experience for undergraduates

J. van der Spiegel; J. Santiago-Aviles; J. N. Zemel Proceedings Frontiers in Education 1997 27th Annual Conference. Teaching and Learning in an Era of Change, 1997

This paper describes our experience over ten years with a Summer Research Program for Undergraduates (SUNFEST-Summer Undergraduate Fellowship in Sensor Technologies). The program provides the students with a comprehensive experience that is centered around-but not limited to-doing research and includes several enhancement programs. This paper describes the overall organization of the program, the nature of the projects, activities and programs, ...


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Biomass Burning and Climate

    The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications.

  • Environmental Consequences: Metabolism of Fossil-Fueled Civilization

    This chapter contains sections titled: Power Densities: Energy and Land, Energy Conversions and Heat Rejection, Energy and Water, Energy and the Atmosphere, Interference in Grand Biospheric Cycles

  • Biomass Burning: Laboratory Studies

    The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications.

  • References

    Emerging biotechnologies that manipulate human genetic material have drawn a chorus of objections from politicians, pundits, and scholars. In Humanity Enhanced, Russell Blackford eschews the heated rhetoric that surrounds genetic enhancement technologies to examine them in the context of liberal thought, discussing the public policy issues they raise from legal and political perspectives. Some see the possibility of genetic choice as challenging the values of liberal democracy. Blackford argues that the challenge is not, as commonly supposed, the urgent need for a strict regulatory action. Rather, the challenge is that fear of these technologies has created an atmosphere in which liberal tolerance itself is threatened. Focusing on reproductive cloning, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis of embryos, and genetic engineering, Blackford takes on objections to enhancement technologies (raised by Jürgen Habermas and others) based on such concerns as individual autonomy and distributive justice. He argues that some enhancements would be genuinely beneficial, and that it would be justified in some circumstances even to exert pressure on parents to undertake genetic modification of embryos. Blackford argues against draconian suppression of human enhancement, although he acknowledges that some specific and limited regulation may be required in the future. More generally, he argues, liberal democracies would demonstrate liberal values by tolerating and accepting the emerging technologies of genetic choice.

  • Multiple Scattering Theory

    Electrical Engineering Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media A volume in the IEEE/OUP Series on Electromagnetic Wave Theory Donald G. Dudley, Series Editor This IEEE Classic Reissue presents a unified introduction to the fundamental theories and applications of wave propagation and scattering in random media. Now for the first time, the two volumes of Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media previously published by Academic Press in 1978 are combined into one comprehensive volume. This book presents a clear picture of how waves interact with the atmosphere, terrain, ocean, turbulence, aerosols, rain, snow, biological tissues, composite material, and other media. The theories presented will enable you to solve a variety of problems relating to clutter, interference, imaging, object detection, and communication theory for various media. This book is expressly designed for engineers and scientists who have an interest in optical, microwave, or acoustic wave propagation and scattering. Topics covered include: * Wave characteristics in aerosols and hydrometeors * Optical and acoustic scattering in sea water * Scattering from biological materials * Pulse scattering and beam wave propagation in such media * Optical diffusion in tissues and blood * Transport and radiative transfer theory * Kubelka--Munk flux theory and plane-parallel problem * Multiple scattering theory * Wave fluctuations in turbulence * Strong fluctuation theory * Rough surface scattering * Remote sensing and inversion techniques * Imaging through various media About the IEEE/OUP Series on Electromagnetic Wave Theory Formerly the IEEE Press Series on Electromagnetic Waves, this joint series between IEEE Press and Oxford University Press offers outstanding coverage of the field with new titles as well as reprintings and revisions of recognized classics that maintain long-term archival significance in electromagnetic waves and applications. Designed specifically for graduate students, practicing engineers, and researchers, this series provides affordable volumes that explore electromagnetic waves and applications beyond the undergraduate level. See page il of the front matter for a listing of books in this series.

  • LeadFree Reflow and Rework

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Printability of Lead-Free Solder Pastes Soak Versus Ramp Temperature Profiles Effect of Peak Temperature Versus Reflow Performance Effect of Reflow Atmosphere on Solderability of Lead-Free Solder Convection Versus IR Reflow Ovens Reflow Temperature Delta on Boards and Components Visual Inspection of Lead-Free Soldered Joints Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) X-ray Inspection of Lead-Free Soldered Joints Acoustic Microscopy Inspection of Components Before and After Lead-Free Reflow Lead-Free Rework of BGA/CSP Soldered Joints Lead-Free Hand-Soldering Rework In-Circuit Testing and Functional Testing (ICT/FT) of Soldered Joints Yield Data Surface-Mount Fillet Lifting and Reliability of Reflowed Soldered Joints Conclusions Future Work Acknowledgments References

  • Author Index

    Tectonic faults are sites of localized motion, both at the Earth's surface and within its dynamic interior. Faulting is directly linked to a wide range of global phenomena, including long-term climate change and the evolution of hominids, the opening and closure of oceans, and the rise and fall of mountain ranges. In Tectonic Faults, scientists from a variety of disciplines explore the connections between faulting and the processes of the Earth's atmosphere, surface, and interior. They consider faults and faulting from many different vantage points--including those of surface analysts, geochemists, material scientists, and physicists--and in all scales, from seismic fault slip to moving tectonic plates. They address basic issues, including the imaging of faults from Earth's surface to the base of the lithosphere and deeper, the structure and rheology of fault rocks, and the role of fluids and melt on the physical properties of deforming rock. They suggest strategies for understanding the interaction of faulting with topography and climate, predicting fault behavior, and interpreting the impacts on the rock record and the human environment. Using an Earth Systems approach, Tectonic Faults provides a new understanding of feedback between faulting and Earth's atmospheric, surface, and interior processes, and recommends new approaches for advancing knowledge of tectonic faults as an integral part of our dynamic planet.

  • Biomass Burning: Historic and Prehistoric Perspectives

    The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications.

  • Introduction

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the structure and contents of the book. It focuses on energy utilization and discusses the need for effective biomass utilization. The chapter also discusses why the need for a new energy system exists, and explains several barriers to the adoption of renewable energy technologies. The aim of the book is to apply a systematic approach to biomass materials for the purpose of finding the most economical and efficient type, capable of producing sufficient energy on a commercial scale. This should help in reducing harmful gasses and stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere. The book investigates various biomass samples for long-term commercial use. When environmental issues, long-term supply/availability, and economic reasons are taken into account, the design and implementation of a new biomass energy system can provide benefits in many ways.

  • Index

    Emerging biotechnologies that manipulate human genetic material have drawn a chorus of objections from politicians, pundits, and scholars. In Humanity Enhanced, Russell Blackford eschews the heated rhetoric that surrounds genetic enhancement technologies to examine them in the context of liberal thought, discussing the public policy issues they raise from legal and political perspectives. Some see the possibility of genetic choice as challenging the values of liberal democracy. Blackford argues that the challenge is not, as commonly supposed, the urgent need for a strict regulatory action. Rather, the challenge is that fear of these technologies has created an atmosphere in which liberal tolerance itself is threatened. Focusing on reproductive cloning, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis of embryos, and genetic engineering, Blackford takes on objections to enhancement technologies (raised by Jürgen Habermas and others) based on such concerns as individual autonomy and distributive justice. He argues that some enhancements would be genuinely beneficial, and that it would be justified in some circumstances even to exert pressure on parents to undertake genetic modification of embryos. Blackford argues against draconian suppression of human enhancement, although he acknowledges that some specific and limited regulation may be required in the future. More generally, he argues, liberal democracies would demonstrate liberal values by tolerating and accepting the emerging technologies of genetic choice.



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