Attenuation

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In physics, attenuation (in some contexts also called extinction) is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Attenuation

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2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD)

The NSS/MIC offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested in the fields of nuclear science, radiation detection, accelerators, high energy physics and astrophysics, and related software to present their latest developments and ideas. The scientific program provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in technology and covers a wide range of applications from radiation and accelerator instrumentation, new detector materials, to complex detector systems for physical sciences, and advanced imaging systems for biological and medical research.



Periodicals related to Attenuation

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on

Imaging methods applied to living organisms with emphasis on innovative approaches that use emerging technologies supported by rigorous physical and mathematical analysis and quantitative evaluation of performance.


Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.


Oceanic Engineering, IEEE Journal of

Bayes procedures; buried-object detection; dielectric measurements; Doppler measurements; geomagnetism; sea floor; sea ice; sea measurements; sea surface electromagnetic scattering; seismology; sonar; acoustic tomography; underwater acoustics; and underwater radio communication.


Selected Topics in Signal Processing, IEEE Journal of

The Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing (J-STSP) solicits special issues on topics that cover the entire scope of the IEEE Signal Processing Society, as outlined in the SPS Constitution, Article II. J-STSP only publishes papers that are submitted in response to a specific Call-for-Papers. These calls are listed on the J-STSP website, and instructions for submitting papers to ...




Xplore Articles related to Attenuation

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An active millimeter load-pull measurement system using two six-port reflectometers operating in the W-frequency band

S. A. Chahine; B. Huyart; E. Bergeault; L. P. Jallet IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2002

An active load-pull measurement system using two six-port reflectometers operating in the W-frequency band is demonstrated. Ninety loads over the whole Smith chart have been synthesized and measured by both reflectometers. The maximum deviation between both measurement data is 0.02 for the magnitude and 3° for the phase of the reflection coefficient of the 90 loads. The constant power gain ...


High Intensity Stopped K-Meson Beam at the Bevatron

R. C. Sah; K. H. Lou; R. C. Wolgast; E. H. Hoyer; R. A. Kilpatrick IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1973

A high intensity stopped K-meson beam with a design goal of 105 stopped K+ per pulse is being constructed for the Bevatron. The facility is a large acceptance, 33-ft long beam line, which selects and transports 500 MeV/c K's to a stopper. The beam consists of a symmetrical arrangement of two large 900 bending magnets, three quadrupoles, and two electrostatic ...


Production of a High Energy, High Power Polarized Photon Beam at SLAC

R. L. Eisele; D. J. Sherden; R. H. Siemann; C. K. Sinclair; D. J. Quinn; J. P. Rutherfoord; M. A. Shupe IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1973

Attenuation by coherent pair production in highly oriented compression annealed pyrolytic graphite has been used to polarize a 16 GeV bremsstrahlung beam. Graphite pieces of total volume 0.95 × 0.95 × 5.1 cm3 were assembled in water-cooled precision holders. Eighteen of these units were mounted in two independent coaxial assemblies. Each assembly provided precision angular orientation with respect to the ...


Ultrasonic attenuation imaging in a rodent thyroid cancer model

Omar Zenteno; William Ridgway; Sandhya Sarwate; Michael Oelze; Roberto Lavarello 2013 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2013

The incidence of diagnosed thyroid cancer has increased significantly over the last decades. Although advances in ultrasonic imaging have increased the malignancy detection rate, current ultrasonic imaging markers do not provide a sufficient level of diagnostic accuracy to replace biopsy. Recent studies suggest that ultrasound parameters derived from backscatter coefficients may allow differentiating among different types of thyroid tumors and ...


On the Relation between Mobility and Rainfall Effects in Ku/Ka-band Line-of-Sight Land Mobile Satellite Channels: An Analytical Statistical Approach

Konstantinos P. Liolis; Ana Bolea-Alamanac; Roberto Prieto-Cerdeira; Athanasios D. Panagopoulos; Antonio Martellucci 2007 International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications, 2007

The candidate frequency bands for the extension of the DVB-S2/RCS broadband satellite systems to fully support mobility are the Ku (12/14 GHz) and Ka (20/30 GHz). At these frequencies, rainfall is a significant propagation impairment which has to be taken into account together with other propagation effects due to mobility, such as multipath, shadowing and blockage. Experimental measurement campaigns conducted ...


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Educational Resources on Attenuation

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eLearning

An active millimeter load-pull measurement system using two six-port reflectometers operating in the W-frequency band

S. A. Chahine; B. Huyart; E. Bergeault; L. P. Jallet IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 2002

An active load-pull measurement system using two six-port reflectometers operating in the W-frequency band is demonstrated. Ninety loads over the whole Smith chart have been synthesized and measured by both reflectometers. The maximum deviation between both measurement data is 0.02 for the magnitude and 3° for the phase of the reflection coefficient of the 90 loads. The constant power gain ...


High Intensity Stopped K-Meson Beam at the Bevatron

R. C. Sah; K. H. Lou; R. C. Wolgast; E. H. Hoyer; R. A. Kilpatrick IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1973

A high intensity stopped K-meson beam with a design goal of 105 stopped K+ per pulse is being constructed for the Bevatron. The facility is a large acceptance, 33-ft long beam line, which selects and transports 500 MeV/c K's to a stopper. The beam consists of a symmetrical arrangement of two large 900 bending magnets, three quadrupoles, and two electrostatic ...


Production of a High Energy, High Power Polarized Photon Beam at SLAC

R. L. Eisele; D. J. Sherden; R. H. Siemann; C. K. Sinclair; D. J. Quinn; J. P. Rutherfoord; M. A. Shupe IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1973

Attenuation by coherent pair production in highly oriented compression annealed pyrolytic graphite has been used to polarize a 16 GeV bremsstrahlung beam. Graphite pieces of total volume 0.95 × 0.95 × 5.1 cm3 were assembled in water-cooled precision holders. Eighteen of these units were mounted in two independent coaxial assemblies. Each assembly provided precision angular orientation with respect to the ...


Ultrasonic attenuation imaging in a rodent thyroid cancer model

Omar Zenteno; William Ridgway; Sandhya Sarwate; Michael Oelze; Roberto Lavarello 2013 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2013

The incidence of diagnosed thyroid cancer has increased significantly over the last decades. Although advances in ultrasonic imaging have increased the malignancy detection rate, current ultrasonic imaging markers do not provide a sufficient level of diagnostic accuracy to replace biopsy. Recent studies suggest that ultrasound parameters derived from backscatter coefficients may allow differentiating among different types of thyroid tumors and ...


On the Relation between Mobility and Rainfall Effects in Ku/Ka-band Line-of-Sight Land Mobile Satellite Channels: An Analytical Statistical Approach

Konstantinos P. Liolis; Ana Bolea-Alamanac; Roberto Prieto-Cerdeira; Athanasios D. Panagopoulos; Antonio Martellucci 2007 International Workshop on Satellite and Space Communications, 2007

The candidate frequency bands for the extension of the DVB-S2/RCS broadband satellite systems to fully support mobility are the Ku (12/14 GHz) and Ka (20/30 GHz). At these frequencies, rainfall is a significant propagation impairment which has to be taken into account together with other propagation effects due to mobility, such as multipath, shadowing and blockage. Experimental measurement campaigns conducted ...


More eLearning Resources

IEEE.tv Videos

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • OpenArea Test Sites

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Open-Area Test Site Measurements Measurement Precautions Open-Area Test Site Terrain Roughness Normalized Site Attenuation Measurement of Test Site Imperfections Antenna Factor Measurement Measurement Errors Summary Illustrative Examples References Assignments

  • Analysis and Design of Speed and Dynamic Range in Switched Current Cells

    This part contains sections titled: Introduction Fundamental characteristics of switehed-current memory cells Designing for a specific speed and dynamic range-example Speed-dynamic range trade-off by feedback amplification or attenuation Using amplification or attenuation in connection with the S2I cell A two-step feedback voltage attenuation technique Design example Conclusion This part contains sections titled: References This part contains sections titled: Alternative definition for intrinsic dynamic range Speedand dynamicrangefor memorycells with bias Speed and dynamic range for S2I cells with amplifying or attenuating feedback

  • Very Small Aperture Terminals

    This chapter contains sections titled: Definitions of VSAT VSAT Network Applications Technical Description of VSAT Networks and Their Operations Access Techniques A Modest VSAT Network in Support of Short Transaction Communications Interference Issues with VSATs Excess Attenuation Due to Rainfall

  • Propagation

    This chapter contains sections titled: Free Space Propagation Ground-Wave Propagation over Plane Earth Propagation over a Perfectly Conducting Plane Attenuation of Electromagnetic Fields by Buildings Edge Diffraction Rayleigh Roughness Criterion This chapter contains sections titled: References

  • Weighted Median Filtering StrikingAnalogies to FIR Filters

    Weighted Median (WM) filters have attracted a growing interest in the nonlinear signal processing community. They inherit the robustness and edge preserving capability of the classical median filter and resemble linear FIR filters in certain properties. Furthermore, WM filters belong to the broad class of nonlinear filters called stack filters. This enables the use of the tools developed for the latter class in characterizing and analyzing the behaviour and properties of WM filters, e.g. noise attenuation capability. The fact that WM filters are threshold functions allows the use of neural networks training methods to obtain adaptive WM filters. In this chapter we briefly review WM filters, their deterministic and statistical properties. We point out the striking analogies existing between WM and FIR filters and summarize two important applications of WM filters in signal and image processing.

  • No title

    Segmentation and landmarking of computed tomographic (CT) images of pediatric patients are important and useful in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), treatment planning, and objective analysis of normal as well as pathological regions. Identification and segmentation of organs and tissues in the presence of tumors are difficult. Automatic segmentation of the primary tumor mass in neuroblastoma could facilitate reproducible and objective analysis of the tumor's tissue composition, shape, and size. However, due to the heterogeneous tissue composition of the neuroblastic tumor, ranging from low-attenuation necrosis to high-attenuation calcification, segmentation of the tumor mass is a challenging problem. In this context, methods are described in this book for identification and segmentation of several abdominal and thoracic landmarks to assist in the segmentation of neuroblastic tumors in pediatric CT images. Methods to identify and segment automatically the peripheral artifacts and tissu s, the rib structure, the vertebral column, the spinal canal, the diaphragm, and the pelvic surface are described. Techniques are also presented to evaluate quantitatively the results of segmentation of the vertebral column, the spinal canal, the diaphragm, and the pelvic girdle by comparing with the results of independent manual segmentation performed by a radiologist. The use of the landmarks and removal of several tissues and organs are shown to assist in limiting the scope of the tumor segmentation process to the abdomen, to lead to the reduction of the false-positive error, and to improve the result of segmentation of neuroblastic tumors. Table of Contents: Introduction to Medical Image Analysis / Image Segmentation / Experimental Design and Database / Ribs, Vertebral Column, and Spinal Canal / Delineation of the Diaphragm / Delineation of the Pelvic Girdle / Application of Landmarking / Concluding Remarks

  • Radio System Design Above 10 GHz

    This chapter contains sections titled: The Problem - An Introduction The General Propagation Problem Above 10 GHz Excess Attenuation Due to Rainfall Calculation of Excess Attenuation Due to Rainfall for Satellite Paths Excess Attenuation Due to Atmospheric Gases on Satellite Links Attenuation Due to Clouds and Fog Calculation of Sky Noise Temperature as a Function of Attenuation The Sun as a Noise Generator Propagation Effects with a Low Elevation Angle Depolarization on Satellite Links Scintillation Fading on Satellite Links Trade-off Between Free-Space Loss and Antenna Gain

  • Electromagnetic Wave Propagation and Scattering

    The electromagnetic field of a dipole decays rapidly with distance to exhibit clear distinctive structures of the far field form the near field. The wave reflection feature is exemplified by the radar cross section (RCS) of a reflected wave from electric scatterers. This chapter focuses on all these behaviors of propagating electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic energy transmission is a very important subject in microwaves for telecommunication and plasma diagnostic applications. The measured phase shift depends only upon the electron density, but the attenuation of wave amplitude depends on both the electron density and the collision frequency for momentum transfer. In the plasma domain, the microwave magnetic component exhibits a significant distortion and remerges at the exit interface to show attenuation in wave amplitude. The concurrent computational capability and the general curvilinear coordinate transformation open the possibility for CEM of complex electrical scattering.

  • Properties of Light and Matter

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Nature of Light Reflection, Refraction, and Diffraction Polarization of Light Propagation of Light Fiber Birefringence and Polarization Dispersion Fiber Attenuation and Loss Fiber Spectrum Utilization Nonlinear Phenomena Spectral Broadening Self-Phase Modulation Self-Modulation or Modulation Instability Effects of Temperature on Matter and Light Light Attributes Material Attributes Measurable Parameters References Standards

  • An Adaptive PLL Tuning System Architecture Combining High Spectral Purity and Fast Settling Time

    An adaptive phase-locked loop (PLL) architecture for high-performance tuning systems is described. The architecture combines contradictory requirements posed by different performance aspects. Adaptation of loop parameters occurs continuously, without switching or loop tilter components, and without interaction from outside of the tuning system. The relationship of performance aspects (settling time, phase noise, and spurious signals) to design variables (loop bandwidth, phase margin, and loop filter attenuation at the reference frequency) are presented, and the basic tradeoffs of the new concept are discussed. A circuit implementation of the adaptive PLL, optimized for use in a multiband (global) car-radio tuner IC, is described in detail. The realized tuning system achieved state-of-the-art settling time and spectral purity performance in its class (integer-_N_ PLL's): a signal-tonoise ratio of 65 dB, a 100-kHz spurious reference breakthrough signal under -81 dBc, and a residual settling error of 3 kHz after 1 ms, for a 20-MHz frequency step. It simultaneously fulfills the speed requirements for inaudible frequency hopping and the heavy signal-to-noise ratio specification of 64 dB.



Standards related to Attenuation

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No standards are currently tagged "Attenuation"