Attenuation

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In physics, attenuation (in some contexts also called extinction) is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Attenuation

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2016 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and Room-Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop (NSS/MIC/RTSD)

The NSS/MIC offers an outstanding opportunity for scientists and engineers interested in the fields of nuclear science, radiation detection, accelerators, high energy physics and astrophysics, and related software to present their latest developments and ideas. The scientific program provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in technology and covers a wide range of applications from radiation and accelerator instrumentation, new detector materials, to complex detector systems for physical sciences, and advanced imaging systems for biological and medical research.


2013 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT 2013)

The aim of ICIT 2013 is to provide an environment for presentation and discussion of emerging industrial technologies, while promoting academic and industrial interaction. It brings together worldwide leading researchers, from industry and academia, to divulge and analyze state of the art developments, open problems and future trends.


2012 34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)

The annual conference of EMBS averages 2000 attendees from over 50 countries. The scope of the conference is general in nature to focus on the interdisciplinary fields of biomedical engineering. Themes included but not limited to are: Imaging, Biosignals, Biorobotics, Bioinstrumentation, Neural, Rehabilitation, Bioinformatics, Healthcare IT, Medical Devices, etc


2012 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)

EuCAP2012 provides an ideal and unique place in Europe for the exchange of scientific and technical information, at academic and industrial levels, on the latest results and developments in antenna theory and technology, in electromagnetic wave propagation on antenna measurement techniques.

  • 2011 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)

    EuCAP2011 provides an ideal and unique place in Europe for the exchange of scientific and technical information, at academic and industrial levels, on the latest results and developments in antenna theory and technology, in electromagnetic wave propagation ona antenna measurement techniques

  • 2009 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)

    Advances in the field of antennas and propagation and related measurement techniques


2012 70th Annual Device Research Conference (DRC)

For more than sixty years, the Device Research Conference has brought together leading scientists, researchers, and graduate students from varied disciplines in academia and industry to share their latest research and discoveries in the field of electronic devices. The technical program will be a mix of invited, oral, and poster presentations. In addition, the conference will hold three evening rump sessions aimed at engaging the audience in a vigorous and charged discussion on the future directions of competing device technologies.


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Periodicals related to Attenuation

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on

Broadcast technology, including devices, equipment, techniques, and systems related to broadcast technology, including the production, distribution, transmission, and propagation aspects.


Communications Letters, IEEE

Covers topics in the scope of IEEE Transactions on Communications but in the form of very brief publication (maximum of 6column lengths, including all diagrams and tables.)


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Xplore Articles related to Attenuation

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An investigation on analytical methods for correction of distance-dependent resolution variation in 3D SPECT imaging

Jian Li; Zhengrong Liang; Jinghan Ye; Guoping Han 1998 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. 1998 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (Cat. No.98CH36255), 1998

Spatial resolution variation as a function of distance from collimator surface in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a major obstacle for quantitative imaging. This work investigated two analytical inversion methods for correcting the distance-dependent resolution variation. The first one derives accurately an inversion formula, but approximates the resolution variation kernel. The second one considers accurately the resolution variation ...


FIR filter compensator for CIC filter suitable for software defined radio

Devarpita Sinha; Sanjay Kumar 2016 World Conference on Futuristic Trends in Research and Innovation for Social Welfare (Startup Conclave), 2016

Software Defined Radio (SDR) supports different wireless standards in a single radio device. This can be done by digital signal processing. In digitized form different wireless standards requires different sample rates for baseband processing. Sample rate conversion (SRC) is required for this purpose. In SRC, Comb-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filter plays an important role. Multistage CIC filter provides better stopband characteristics but ...


A novel beam model based on ultra-sparse arbitrary spatial array

Xiaogang Xie; Zuping Qian; Ying Liu 2011 Second International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, 2011

In deep space exploration, the communication signal between the deep space detector and command-control center will experience a very large attenuation; the domain of this attenuation can be divided into two parts. One is caused by the spread of spherical wave; the other is due to the scattering and absorption of atmosphere and ionosphere, which value can reach to 40~50dB. ...


A millimeter-wave 6-bit GaAs monolithic digital attenuator with low insertion phase shift

Na Chen 2013 International Workshop on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Circuits and System Technology, 2013

A millimeter-wave 6-bit GaAs monolithic digital attenuator with low insertion phase shift is presented. This attenuator is fabricated with E.D process, the six main attenuation bits are 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16dB. From the measurement results of this MMIC chip in the 19-23GHz band show that the 6-bit GaAs monolithic digital attenuator has 0.5dB resolution and 35.5dB dynamic attenuation ...


Monitoring of atmosphere attenuation in W-band

Yosef Pinhasi; Boris Kapilevich; Asher Yahalom; Michael Anisimov; Boris Litvak; Danny Hardon 2012 IEEE 27th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, 2012

The paper describes a system aimed at monitoring variations of the atmospheric attenuation in W-band. It consists of an Rx - Tx module designed and assembled to be used for operating at 95 GHz frequency. The transmitting part of this module includes W-band sources generating 1 W pulse of duration 100 ns. The receiving part consists of the input LNA ...


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Educational Resources on Attenuation

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eLearning

An investigation on analytical methods for correction of distance-dependent resolution variation in 3D SPECT imaging

Jian Li; Zhengrong Liang; Jinghan Ye; Guoping Han 1998 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. 1998 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (Cat. No.98CH36255), 1998

Spatial resolution variation as a function of distance from collimator surface in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a major obstacle for quantitative imaging. This work investigated two analytical inversion methods for correcting the distance-dependent resolution variation. The first one derives accurately an inversion formula, but approximates the resolution variation kernel. The second one considers accurately the resolution variation ...


FIR filter compensator for CIC filter suitable for software defined radio

Devarpita Sinha; Sanjay Kumar 2016 World Conference on Futuristic Trends in Research and Innovation for Social Welfare (Startup Conclave), 2016

Software Defined Radio (SDR) supports different wireless standards in a single radio device. This can be done by digital signal processing. In digitized form different wireless standards requires different sample rates for baseband processing. Sample rate conversion (SRC) is required for this purpose. In SRC, Comb-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filter plays an important role. Multistage CIC filter provides better stopband characteristics but ...


A novel beam model based on ultra-sparse arbitrary spatial array

Xiaogang Xie; Zuping Qian; Ying Liu 2011 Second International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, 2011

In deep space exploration, the communication signal between the deep space detector and command-control center will experience a very large attenuation; the domain of this attenuation can be divided into two parts. One is caused by the spread of spherical wave; the other is due to the scattering and absorption of atmosphere and ionosphere, which value can reach to 40~50dB. ...


A millimeter-wave 6-bit GaAs monolithic digital attenuator with low insertion phase shift

Na Chen 2013 International Workshop on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Circuits and System Technology, 2013

A millimeter-wave 6-bit GaAs monolithic digital attenuator with low insertion phase shift is presented. This attenuator is fabricated with E.D process, the six main attenuation bits are 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16dB. From the measurement results of this MMIC chip in the 19-23GHz band show that the 6-bit GaAs monolithic digital attenuator has 0.5dB resolution and 35.5dB dynamic attenuation ...


Monitoring of atmosphere attenuation in W-band

Yosef Pinhasi; Boris Kapilevich; Asher Yahalom; Michael Anisimov; Boris Litvak; Danny Hardon 2012 IEEE 27th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, 2012

The paper describes a system aimed at monitoring variations of the atmospheric attenuation in W-band. It consists of an Rx - Tx module designed and assembled to be used for operating at 95 GHz frequency. The transmitting part of this module includes W-band sources generating 1 W pulse of duration 100 ns. The receiving part consists of the input LNA ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Nine Digital Filters for Decimation and Interpolation

    Filtering is necessary in decimation (decreasing the sampling rate of) or interpolation (increasing the sampling rate of) a digital signal. If the rate change is substantial, the process is mote efficient when the decimation or interpolation occurs in stages rather than in one step. Half-band filters are particularly efficient for effecting octave changes in sampling rate and nine digital filters are presented, eight of them half-band filters, to be used as components of multistage interpolators and decimators. Also presented is a procedure for combining the filters to produce multistage designs that meet a very wide range of accuracy requirements (stopband attenuation to 77 dB, passband ripple as low as 0.00014). The nine filters admit changes between sampling rates above 4 _W_, where _W_ is the nominal bandwidth of the signal. Established design techniques may be used to obtain efficient filters for conversion between 4_W_ Hz sampling and 2_W_ Hz, the ?>baseband sampling rate.?> With these multistage filters, the possible interpolation and decimation ratios are all integer multiples of powers of two. To overcome this restriction we present a simple resampling technique that extends the range of designs to conversions between any two rates. The interpolation or decimation ratio need not be an integer or even rational. In fact, it can vary slightly as in a practical situation where the input signal and output signal are under the control of autonomous clocks. We demonstrate the approach by means of several design examples and compare its results with those obtained from the optimization scheme of Crochiere and Rabiner.

  • Relations Between Attenuation and Phase in Feedback Amplifier Design

    This chapter contains sections titled: References Introduction Relations Between Attenuation and Phase in Physical Networks Overall Feedback Loop Characteristics Maximum Obtainable Feedback Relative Importance of Tubes and Circuit in Limiting Feedback Amplifiers of Other Types Example

  • A Novel Architecture Design for VLSI Implementation of an FIR Decimation Filter

    A novel architecture design of a one stage FIR filter for decimation is described. It performs the decimation of a 1-bit code at 1024KHz of double integration Sigma Delta modulation output to PCM at 16KHz. This architecture is designed in such a way that it needs only a simple control structure suitable for VLSI implementation. We devised an algorithm for generating the coefficients of the filter with a minimum of required hardware. It does not require storing the coefficients in a ROM and continuously reading it to calculate the convolution. The accumulators needed to perform the direct convolution are arranged in a way that simplifies and minimizes the hardware required for the filter implementation. The filter response is Sinc3(f) which provides sufficient attenuation for modulation generated by means of double integration. The implementation of this filter requires the generation of the coefficients and the performance of the convolution. Three coefficients are needed with every input to obtain the output sequence. The major feature of this architecture is the use of an efficient algorithm to obtain the coefficients thereby reducing the area and power consumption. It is very suitable for VLSI implementation in CMOS technology.

  • Attenuation Characteristics of Conventional, Micromachined, and Superconducting Coplanar Waveguides

    In this chapter the attenuation characteristics of conventional, micromachined, and superconducting coplanar waveguides are presented. Closed form equations based on the conformal mapping technique, the mode-matching method, and the modified matched asymptotic expansion technique are presented in order to compute the attenuation constant of a coplanar waveguide. Recently silicon (Si) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) based integrated circuits have emerged for RF/microwave applications, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based switches and actuators are being explored for potential phased array antenna applications. This chapter examines the attenuation characteristics of coplanar waveguides on CMOS grade low- and high-resistivity silicon wafers, and on micromachined silicon wafers. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the attenuation characteristics of high-temperature superconducting coplanar waveguides.

  • Traditional Methods for Stabilization of Electroacoustic Loops

    This chapter includes the following topics: Adaptive Line Enhancement Frequency Shift Controlled Attenuation

  • No title

    Segmentation and landmarking of computed tomographic (CT) images of pediatric patients are important and useful in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), treatment planning, and objective analysis of normal as well as pathological regions. Identification and segmentation of organs and tissues in the presence of tumors are difficult. Automatic segmentation of the primary tumor mass in neuroblastoma could facilitate reproducible and objective analysis of the tumor's tissue composition, shape, and size. However, due to the heterogeneous tissue composition of the neuroblastic tumor, ranging from low-attenuation necrosis to high-attenuation calcification, segmentation of the tumor mass is a challenging problem. In this context, methods are described in this book for identification and segmentation of several abdominal and thoracic landmarks to assist in the segmentation of neuroblastic tumors in pediatric CT images. Methods to identify and segment automatically the peripheral artifacts and tissu s, the rib structure, the vertebral column, the spinal canal, the diaphragm, and the pelvic surface are described. Techniques are also presented to evaluate quantitatively the results of segmentation of the vertebral column, the spinal canal, the diaphragm, and the pelvic girdle by comparing with the results of independent manual segmentation performed by a radiologist. The use of the landmarks and removal of several tissues and organs are shown to assist in limiting the scope of the tumor segmentation process to the abdomen, to lead to the reduction of the false-positive error, and to improve the result of segmentation of neuroblastic tumors. Table of Contents: Introduction to Medical Image Analysis / Image Segmentation / Experimental Design and Database / Ribs, Vertebral Column, and Spinal Canal / Delineation of the Diaphragm / Delineation of the Pelvic Girdle / Application of Landmarking / Concluding Remarks

  • Boundary-Value Problems

    This chapter explains the boundary-value problems of the plane and the cylinder concerning infinite surfaces which serve as guides to traveling waves. The sphere is an example of a body bounded by a closed surface within which there can be set up a system of standing waves. The chapter shows that the field of the principal wave within the conductor tends to concentrate in a thin skin near the surface. The field and current distribution within the cylinder in the case of complementary waves is nearly uniform. The "skin effect" is then external, and the conversion into heat correspondingly large. As the conductivity of the cylinder is decreased, the attenuation of the principal wave increases, while that of the complementary waves is diminished until finally, in the limit of a perfect dielectric cylinder, the authors find the principal wave to have vanished and the complementary waves propagated without attenuation.

  • Transmission Line for Digital TelevisionThis chapter was originally written for Harris Corporation for use in the 1998 DTV Express Handbook, Transmission Line for Digital Television, and is used here with permission.

    In this chapter the essential criteria for transmission line selection for a digital television system are presented. The relationship between transmission line attenuation, dissipation, and power-handling capability is examined. These relationships are applied to the transmission line options available to the broadcaster, including rigid coax, corrugated cables, and waveguides. The purpose of this discussion is to show the effect of line selection on the ability to achieve a specified system output and the effect of selection decisions on other system performance parameters. The importance of maintaining low-voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) on system performance, the extent of linear distortions for the various line types, frequency and bandwidth limitations, wind loading, and the benefits of pressurization are also reviewed. A transmission line figure of merit that should be useful as an aid to transmission line selection is also described.

  • Very Small Aperture Terminals

    This chapter contains sections titled: Definitions of VSAT VSAT Network Applications Technical Description of VSAT Networks and Their Operations Access Techniques A Modest VSAT Network in Support of Short Transaction Communications Interference Issues with VSATs Excess Attenuation Due to Rainfall

  • Analysis and Design of Speed and Dynamic Range in Switched Current Cells

    This part contains sections titled: Introduction Fundamental characteristics of switehed-current memory cells Designing for a specific speed and dynamic range-example Speed-dynamic range trade-off by feedback amplification or attenuation Using amplification or attenuation in connection with the S2I cell A two-step feedback voltage attenuation technique Design example Conclusion This part contains sections titled: References This part contains sections titled: Alternative definition for intrinsic dynamic range Speedand dynamicrangefor memorycells with bias Speed and dynamic range for S2I cells with amplifying or attenuating feedback



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