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2008 IEEE International Engineering Management Conference - EM 2008 (IEMC) (CONFERENCE CANCELLED)

All areas of engineering and technology management. This is the Engineering Management Society flagship conference series.



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Spectrum, IEEE

IEEE Spectrum Magazine, the flagship publication of the IEEE, explores the development, applications and implications of new technologies. It anticipates trends in engineering, science, and technology, and provides a forum for understanding, discussion and leadership in these areas. IEEE Spectrum is the world's leading engineering and scientific magazine. Read by over 300,000 engineers worldwide, Spectrum provides international coverage of all ...




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A Markov Model for Availability of a Packet-Switching Computer Network

D. F. Lazaroiu; E. Staicut IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 1983

A Markov model has been developed to provide a means of evaluating the availability of a computer network. An expression of network availability, considering both physical failures and congestion phenomena, is derived.


Reviews

Keith Smillie; Hunter Heyck IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 2008

Two books are reviewed in this issue: A Madman Dreams of Turing Machines (Levin, J.; 2006) and The Digital Hand, Vol. 3: How Computers Changed the Work of American Public Sector Industries (Cortada, J.W.; 2008).


Functional decomposition of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for CNS capabilities in NAS integration

Laurence H. Mutuel; Chris A. Wargo; John DiFelici 2015 IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2015

This paper presents the approach developed for the partial MASPS level document DO-344 "Operational and Functional Requirements and Safety Objectives" for the UAS standards. Previous RTCA1 work led to the production of an Operational Services Environment Description document, from which operational requirements were extracted and refined. Following the principles described in the Department of Defense Architecture Framework, the overall UAS ...


Deriving measurement strategies from science

G. J. Komar 2005 IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2005

Earth-Sun System activities within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are science-driven and technology-enabled. NASA has developed a process for matching science needs and technologies that includes a set of notional mission concepts. This document summarizes the most recent output of that process: a notional set of science objectives, technology requirements, and measurement/mission concepts stretching beyond the time horizon of ...


Comment on: Bad Answers Are Useful

Nozer Singpurwalla IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 1983

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/05221662.png)


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eLearning

A Markov Model for Availability of a Packet-Switching Computer Network

D. F. Lazaroiu; E. Staicut IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 1983

A Markov model has been developed to provide a means of evaluating the availability of a computer network. An expression of network availability, considering both physical failures and congestion phenomena, is derived.


Reviews

Keith Smillie; Hunter Heyck IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 2008

Two books are reviewed in this issue: A Madman Dreams of Turing Machines (Levin, J.; 2006) and The Digital Hand, Vol. 3: How Computers Changed the Work of American Public Sector Industries (Cortada, J.W.; 2008).


Functional decomposition of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for CNS capabilities in NAS integration

Laurence H. Mutuel; Chris A. Wargo; John DiFelici 2015 IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2015

This paper presents the approach developed for the partial MASPS level document DO-344 "Operational and Functional Requirements and Safety Objectives" for the UAS standards. Previous RTCA1 work led to the production of an Operational Services Environment Description document, from which operational requirements were extracted and refined. Following the principles described in the Department of Defense Architecture Framework, the overall UAS ...


Deriving measurement strategies from science

G. J. Komar 2005 IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2005

Earth-Sun System activities within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are science-driven and technology-enabled. NASA has developed a process for matching science needs and technologies that includes a set of notional mission concepts. This document summarizes the most recent output of that process: a notional set of science objectives, technology requirements, and measurement/mission concepts stretching beyond the time horizon of ...


Comment on: Bad Answers Are Useful

Nozer Singpurwalla IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 1983

First Page of the Article ![](/xploreAssets/images/absImages/05221662.png)


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  • No title

    The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrodinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is large enough, then the system remains close to its ground state. An AQC algorithm uses the adiabatic theorem to approximate the ground state of the final Hamiltonian that corresponds to the solution of the given optimization problem. In this book, we investigate the computational simulation of AQC algorithms applied to the MAX-SAT problem. A symbolic analysis of the AQC solution is given in rder to understand the involved computational complexity of AQC algorithms. This approach can be extended to other combinatorial optimization problems and can be used for the classical simulation of an AQC algorithm where a Hamiltonian problem is constructed. This construction requires the computation of a sparse matrix of dimension 2ⁿ × 2ⁿ, by means of tensor products, where n is the dimension of the quantum system. Also, a general scheme to design AQC algorithms is proposed, based on a natural correspondence between optimization Boolean variables and quantum bits. Combinatorial graph problems are in correspondence with pseudo-Boolean maps that are reduced in polynomial time to quadratic maps. Finally, the relation among NP-hard problems is investigated, as well as its logical representability, and is applied to the design of AQC algorithms. It is shown that every monadic second-order logic (MSOL) expression has associated pseudo- Boolean maps that can be obtained y expanding the given expression, and also can be reduced to quadratic forms. Table of Contents: Preface / Acknowledgments / Introduction / Approximability of NP-hard Problems / Adiabatic Quantum Computing / Efficient Hamiltonian Construction / AQC for Pseudo-Boolean Optimization / A General Strategy to Solve NP-Hard Problems / Conclusions / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

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    As Moore's Law and Dennard scaling trends have slowed, the challenges of building high-performance computer architectures while maintaining acceptable power efficiency levels have heightened. Over the past ten years, architecture techniques for power efficiency have shifted from primarily focusing on module-level efficiencies, toward more holistic design styles based on parallelism and heterogeneity. This work highlights and synthesizes recent techniques and trends in power-efficient computer architecture. Table of Contents: Introduction / Voltage and Frequency Management / Heterogeneity and Specialization / Communication and Memory Systems / Conclusions / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

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    With the explosive increase in the number of mobile devices and applications, it is anticipated that wireless traffic will increase exponentially in the coming years. Moreover, future wireless networks all carry a wide variety of flows, such as video streaming, online gaming, and VoIP, which have various quality of service (QoS) requirements. Therefore, a new mechanism that can provide satisfactory performance to the complete variety of all kinds of flows, in a coherent and unified framework, is needed. In this book, we introduce a framework for real-time wireless networks. This consists of a model that jointly addresses several practical concerns for real-time wireless networks, including per-packet delay bounds, throughput requirements, and heterogeneity of wireless channels. We detail how this framework can be employed to address a wide range of problems, including admission control, packet scheduling, and utility maximization. Table of Contents: Preface / Introduction / A Study of the Base Case / Admission Control / Scheduling Policies / Utility Maximization without Rate Adaptation / Utility Maximization with Rate Adaptation / Systems with Both Real-Time Flows and Non-Real-Time Flows / Broadcasting and Network Coding / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

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    Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the fog removal algorithms for images to videos can reduce the complexity to a great extent with no loss of perceptual quality. This paves the way for the real-life application of the video fog removal algorithm. In order to remove fog, an efficient fog removal algorithm using anisotropic diffusion is developed. The presented fog removal algorithm uses new dark channel assumption and anisotropic diff sion for the initialization and refinement of the airlight map, respectively. Use of anisotropic diffusion helps to estimate the better airlight map estimation. The said fog removal algorithm requires a single image captured by uncalibrated camera system. The anisotropic diffusion-based fog removal algorithm can be applied in both RGB and HSI color space. This book shows that the use of HSI color space reduces the complexity further. The said fog removal algorithm requires pre- and post-processing steps for the better restoration of the foggy image. These pre- and post-processing steps have either data-driven or constant parameters that avoid the user intervention. Presented fog removal algorithm is independent of the intensity of the fog, thus even in the case of the heavy fog presented algorithm performs well. Qualitative and quantitative results confirm that the presented fog removal algorithm outperformed previous algorithms in terms of perceptual quality, color fidelity and execu ion time. The work presented in this book can find wide application in entertainment industries, transportation, tracking and consumer electronics. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction / Analysis of Fog / Dataset and Performance Metrics / Important Fog Removal Algorithms / Single-Image Fog Removal Using an Anisotropic Diffusion / Video Fog Removal Framework Using an Uncalibrated Single Camera System / Conclusions and Future Directions / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

  • Frontmatter

    The prelims comprise: Half Title IEEE Press Board Page Title Copyright Dedication Contents Guest Introductions Editor and Contributor Biographies

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    The past ten years have seen a rapid growth in the numbers of people signing up to use Web-based social networks (hundreds of millions of new members are now joining the main services each year) with a large amount of content being shared on these networks (tens of billions of content items are shared each month). With this growth in usage and data being generated, there are many opportunities to discover the knowledge that is often inherent but somewhat hidden in these networks. Web mining techniques are being used to derive this hidden knowledge. In addition, the Semantic Web, including the Linked Data initiative to connect previously disconnected datasets, is making it possible to connect data from across various social spaces through common representations and agreed upon terms for people, content items, etc. In this book, we detail some current research being carried out to semantically represent the implicit and explicit structures on the Social Web, along with the techniques be ng used to elicit relevant knowledge from these structures, and we present the mechanisms that can be used to intelligently mesh these semantic representations with intelligent knowledge discovery processes. We begin this book with an overview of the origins of the Web, and then show how web intelligence can be derived from a combination of web and Social Web mining. We give an overview of the Social and Semantic Webs, followed by a description of the combined Social Semantic Web (along with some of the possibilities it affords), and the various semantic representation formats for the data created in social networks and on social media sites. Provenance and provenance mining is an important aspect here, especially when data is combined from multiple services. We will expand on the subject of provenance and especially its importance in relation to social data. We will describe extensions to social semantic vocabularies specifically designed for community mining purposes (SIOCM). In the last three chapters, we describe how the combination of web intelligence and social semantic data can be used to derive knowledge from the Social Web, starting at the community level (macro), and then moving through group mining (meso) to user profile mining (micro). Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Grant Aid / Introduction and the Web / Web Mining / The Social Web / The Semantic Web / The Social Semantic Web / Social Semantic Web Mining / Social Semantic Web Mining of Communities / Social Semantic Web Mining of Groups / Social Semantic Web Mining of Users / Conclusions / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

  • No title

    To understand the power of distributed systems, it is necessary to understand their inherent limitations: what problems cannot be solved in particular systems, or without sufficient resources (such as time or space). This book presents key techniques for proving such impossibility results and applies them to a variety of different problems in a variety of different system models. Insights gained from these results are highlighted, aspects of a problem that make it difficult are isolated, features of an architecture that make it inadequate for solving certain problems efficiently are identified, and different system models are compared. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction / Indistinguishability / Shifting and Scaling / Scenario Arguments / Information Theory Arguments / Covering Arguments / Valency Arguments / Combinatorial Arguments / Reductions and Simulations / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

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    In 1991, a group of researchers chose the term digital libraries to describe an emerging field of research, development, and practice. Since then, Virginia Tech has had funded research in this area, largely through its Digital Library Research Laboratory. This book is the first in a four book series that reports our key findings and current research investigations. Underlying this book series are six completed dissertations (Gon¿¿alves, Kozievitch, Leidig, Murthy, Shen, Torres), eight dissertations underway, and many masters theses. These reflect our experience with a long string of prototype or production systems developed in the lab, such as CITIDEL, CODER, CTRnet, Ensemble, ETANA, ETD-db, MARIAN, and Open Digital Libraries. There are hundreds of related publications, presentations, tutorials, and reports. We have built upon that work so this book, and the others in the series, will address digital library related needs in many computer science, information science, and library scien e (e.g., LIS) courses, as well as the requirements of researchers, developers, and practitioners. Much of the early work in the digital library field struck a balance between addressing real-world needs, integrating methods from related areas, and advancing an ever-expanding research agenda. Our work has fit in with these trends, but simultaneously has been driven by a desire to provide a firm conceptual and formal basis for the field.Our aim has been to move from engineering to science. We claim that our 5S (Societies, Scenarios, Spaces, Structures, Streams) framework, discussed in publications dating back to at least 1998, provides a suitable basis. This book introduces 5S, and the key theoretical and formal aspects of the 5S framework. While the 5S framework may be used to describe many types of information systems, and is likely to have even broader utility and appeal, we focus here on digital libraries. Our view of digital libraries is broad, so further generalization should be s raightforward. We have connected with related fields, including hypertext/hypermedia, information storage and retrieval, knowledge management, machine learning, multimedia, personal information management, and Web 2.0. Applications have included managing not only publications, but also archaeological information, educational resources, fish images, scientific datasets, and scientific experiments/ simulations. Table of Contents: Introduction / Exploration / Mathematical Preliminaries / Minimal Digital Library / Archaeological Digital Libraries / 5S Results: Lemmas, Proofs, and 5SSuite / Glossary / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies / Index

  • No title

    Large surface computing devices (wall-mounted or tabletop) with touch interfaces and their application to collaborative data analysis, an increasingly important and prevalent activity, is the primary topic of this book. Our goals are to outline the fundamentals of surface computing (a still maturing technology), review relevant work on collaborative data analysis, describe frameworks for understanding collaborative processes, and provide a better understanding of the opportunities for research and development. We describe surfaces as display technologies with which people can interact directly, and emphasize how interaction design changes when designing for large surfaces. We review efforts to use large displays, surfaces or mixed display environments to enable collaborative analytic activity. Collaborative analysis is important in many domains, but to provide concrete examples and a specific focus, we frequently consider analysis work in the security domain, and in particular the cha lenges security personnel face in securing networks from attackers, and intelligence analysts encounter when analyzing intelligence data. Both of these activities are becoming increasingly collaborative endeavors, and there are huge opportunities for improving collaboration by leveraging surface computing. This work highlights for interaction designers and software developers the particular challenges and opportunities presented by interaction with surfaces. We have reviewed hundreds of recent research papers, and report on advancements in the fields of surface-enabled collaborative analytic work, interactive techniques for surface technologies, and useful theory that can provide direction to interaction design work. We also offer insight into issues that arise when developing applications for multi-touch surfaces derived from our own experiences creating collaborative applications. We present these insights at a level appropriate for all members of the software design and development team. Table of Contents: List of Figures / Acknowledgments / Figure Credits / Purpose and Direction / Surface Technologies and Collaborative Analysis Systems / Interacting with Surface Technologies / Collaborative Work Enabled by Surfaces / The Theory and the Design of Surface Applications / The Development of Surface Applications / Concluding Comments / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies



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