Biosphere

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Our biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Biosphere

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2007 7th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Ecology

  • 2005 6th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Ecology



Periodicals related to Biosphere

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on

Theory, concepts, and techniques of science and engineering as applied to sensing the earth, oceans, atmosphere, and space; and the processing, interpretation, and dissemination of this information.


Spectrum, IEEE

IEEE Spectrum Magazine, the flagship publication of the IEEE, explores the development, applications and implications of new technologies. It anticipates trends in engineering, science, and technology, and provides a forum for understanding, discussion and leadership in these areas. IEEE Spectrum is the world's leading engineering and scientific magazine. Read by over 300,000 engineers worldwide, Spectrum provides international coverage of all ...




Xplore Articles related to Biosphere

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The future global Earth observing system: system requirements and architecture

Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2003. IGARSS '03. Proceedings. 2003 IEEE International, 2003

This paper summarizes the observational requirements for a future Earth System Observational and Modelling capability, in terms of the observed variables, the needed precision, and the spatial-temporal resolution. Architectural approaches are discussed, including an open-systems, evolutionary, sensor-Web approach.


A volume emission model for the radiobrightness of prairie grass

Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1994. IGARSS '94. Surface and Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Technologies, Data Analysis and Interpretation., International, 1994

The radiobrightness of snow-free northern prairie at the SSM/I frequencies of 19.35, 37.0, and 85.5 GHz is dominated by absorption and emission by the grass canopy. The authors measured the radiobrightness at SSM/I frequencies of grassland near Sioux Falls, South Dakota, every 15 minutes from October, 1992, through early April, 1993. The apparent H-polarized emissivities for snow-free periods were generally ...


Relating forest parameters to interferometric data

Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1996. IGARSS '96. 'Remote Sensing for a Sustainable Future.', International, 1996

This paper presents the use of ERS-1 repeat-pass interferometric data for forest environment study. The overall objective is to assess the potentialities of interferometric information-degree of coherence and phase difference-to retrieve forest parameters. Coherence is shown to be a good discriminator between forest stands and bare soil surfaces. The resulting map using coherence for different interferometric couples is in good ...


Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Silicate Rock

Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on, 1972

A method for disposing of nuclear-reactor wastes by in-situ incorporation in molten silicate rock is presented. In this method, liquid wastes are injected into a deep underground chimney and allowed to self-boil. The resulting steam is processed at the ground surface and recycled into a closed system. When waste addition is terminated, the chimney is allowed to boil dry, thereby ...


The Interaction of Static and Alternating Electric Fields with Biological Systems

Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE Transactions on, 1976

A discussion is presented regarding the presence of natural and man-made electric fields in our environment. It is seen that biological objects readily come into contact with such fields. The interaction of some biological objects with electric fields is presented as well as original experimentation in this area. One experiment discussed deals with the influence of a 245 V/in (96.5 ...


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eLearning

Self-Sealing Behavior of High Level Waste Repository in Rock Salt Formation

Guijun Wang; Chunming Wang; Kangmei Guo 2009 International Conference on Engineering Computation, 2009

Numerical creep analyses on rock salt surrounding repository for high level waste (HLW) are carried out using the software FLAC3D. The results show that the cavity tends to be self-sealed. After near 600 years, the repository space is nearly fully closed and HLW can be kept tightly sealed. Therefore, it is very favorable to build safe repositories for nuclear waste ...


The Interaction of Static and Alternating Electric Fields with Biological Systems

Michael A. Epstein; Gordon W. Ondra IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 1976

A discussion is presented regarding the presence of natural and man-made electric fields in our environment. It is seen that biological objects readily come into contact with such fields. The interaction of some biological objects with electric fields is presented as well as original experimentation in this area. One experiment discussed deals with the influence of a 245 V/in (96.5 ...


Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Silicate Rock

J. J. Cohen; A. E. Lewis; R. L. Braun IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1972

A method for disposing of nuclear-reactor wastes by in-situ incorporation in molten silicate rock is presented. In this method, liquid wastes are injected into a deep underground chimney and allowed to self-boil. The resulting steam is processed at the ground surface and recycled into a closed system. When waste addition is terminated, the chimney is allowed to boil dry, thereby ...


An efficient water concept for monitoring vegetation in West Africa

O. Amram; G. Flouzat; S. Cherchali Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1994. IGARSS '94. Surface and Atmospheric Remote Sensing: Technologies, Data Analysis and Interpretation., International, 1994

The aim of this paper is to propose an approach which describes and explains the phenology of vegetation at the scale of West Africa. The method presented is based upon the estimation of water balance. The latter is done by the computation of radiation budget which allows the authors to evaluate the actual evapotranspiration (AET). The method also enabled the ...


The effect of averaging time on predictions of a soil-canopy-atmosphere model

O. Amram; S. Cherchali; K. Finkele; M. R. Raupach Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proceedings, 1998. IGARSS '98. 1998 IEEE International, 1998

A method has been developed to use the Soil-Canopy-Atmosphere Model (SCAM) Raupach et al. (1997) with daily data and predicting energy fluxes which are similar to the results obtained with high temporal resolution input data (15' or 30')


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IEEE.tv Videos

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Biomass Burning: Historic and Prehistoric Perspectives

    The burning of biomass - forests, grasslands, and agricultural fields after the harvest - is much more widespread and extensive than previously believed; most biomass burning is thought to be initiated by humans and is on the increase. This comprehensive volume is the first to consider biomass burning as a global phenomenon and to assess its impact on the atmosphere, on climate, and on the biosphere itself. The 63 chapters by 158 scientists - including leading biomass burn researchers from third-world countries, such as Brazil, Nigeria, Zaire, India, and China, where biomass burning is so prevalent - point to biomass burning as a significant driver of global change on our planet.Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions.Also included are contributions on the importance of biomass burning from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program: A Study of Global Change and from the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project, as well as policy options prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for managing biomass burning to mitigate global climate change.Joel S. Levine is Senior Research Scientist in the Atmospheric Sciences Division, NASA Langley Research Center and is the Principal Investigator of NASA's research program on global biomass burning, Biospheric Research Program, Office of Space Sciences and Applications.

  • An Ecolab Perspective on the Bedau Evolutionary Statistics

    At Alife VI, Mark Bedau proposed some evolutionary statistics as a means of classifying different evolutionary systems. Ecolab, whilst not an artificial life system, is a model of an evolving ecology that has advantages of mathematical tractability and computational simplicity. The Bedau statistics are well defined for Ecolab, and this paper reports statistics measured for typical Ecolab runs, as a function of mutation rate. The behaviour ranges from class 1 (when mutation is switched off), through class 3 at intermediate mutation rates (corresponding to scale free dynamics) to class 2 at high mutation rates. The class 3/class 2 transition corresponds to an error threshold. Class 4 behaviour, which is typified by the Biosphere, is characterised by unbounded growth in diversity. It turns out that Ecolab is governed by an inverse relationship between diversity and connectivity, which also seems likely of the Biosphere. In Ecolab, the mutation operator is conservative with respect to connectivity, which explains the boundedness of diversity. The only way to get class 4 behaviour in Ecolab is to develop an evolutionary dynamics that reduces connectivity of time

  • Possible Futures

    This chapter contains sections titled: Efficient Use of Energy, Beyond Higher Efficiency, Energy and the Future of the Biosphere, What Really Matters, What Does, and Does Not, Help, Realities and a Wish List

  • Power, Man, and Environment

    Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity.

  • References

    In Energy at the Crossroads, Vaclav Smil considers the twenty-first century's crucial question: how to reconcile the modern world's unceasing demand for energy with the absolute necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere. With this book he offers a comprehensive, accessible guide to today's complex energy issues -- how to think clearly and logically about what is possible and what is desirable in our energy future.After a century of unprecedented production growth, technical innovation, and expanded consumption, the world faces a number of critical energy challenges arising from unequal resource distribution, changing demand patterns, and environmental limitations. The fundamental message of Energy at the Crossroads is that our dependence on fossil fuels must be reduced not because of any imminent resource shortages but because the widespread burning of oil, coal, and natural gas damages the biosphere and presents increasing economic and security problems as the world relies on more expensive supplies and Middle Eastern crude oil.Smil begins with an overview of the twentieth century's long-term trends and achievements in energy production. He then discusses energy prices, the real cost of energy, and "energy linkages" -- the effect energy issues have on the economy, on quality of life, on the environment, and in wartime. He discusses the pitfalls of forecasting, giving many examples of failed predictions and showing that unexpected events can disprove complex models. And he examines the pros and cons not only of fossil fuels but also of alternative fuels such as hydroenergy, biomass energy, wind power, and solar power. Finally, he considers the future, focusing on what really matters, what works, what is realistic, and which outcomes are most d esirable.

  • Group Report: Long-term Geosphere-Biosphere Coevolution and Astrobiology

    This discussion group attempted a qualitatively new synthesis of long-term geosphere--biosphere coevolution, with the aim of understanding and presenting to the other groups the broadest possible context in which to consider Earth system analysis for sustainability. This included the prospects for detecting life and intelligence elsewhere in the Universe, as debated by astrobiology. The chemoton model of life comprising three autocatalytic subsystems (boundary, metabolic, genetic) was adopted. The topology of evolution was characterized as a network in the prokaryote realm and as a tree (or bush) in the eukaryote realm. It was agreed that prokaryotic life is common in the Universe but that eukaryotic life is rare and intelligent life is extremely rare. The appearance of intelligent life on a planet might theoretically involve four or five difficult evolutionary transitions along the way. These probably include the origins of the genetic code, of oxygenic photosynthesis, of eukaryotes, and of language. Optimistic and pessimistic scenarios for the long-term coevolution of the geosphere--biosphere were contrasted. A key finding was that dating of the major transitions in evolution and, to a lesser extent, dating of the major transitions in the state of the environment are subject to large error bars that need to be reduced in order to address the causal relationships of coevolution. A major output was a visualization of a time line of coevolution that includes these uncertainties. New suggestions of coevolutionary connections were also made. The feasibility of unequivocal life detection on extrasolar planets was questioned, but it was recognized that astrobiology is already encouraging a useful broadening of Earth system analysis. The failure of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) and the apparent difficulty of the transition to natural langua ge support the view that intelligence (or at least natural language) is extremely rare in the Universe. Habitation was defined as a first-order influence of life on the geochemical cycling of a planet, and it may be important for the maintenance of habitability. Theoretical considerations as well as Earth history suggests that there are limits (albeit rather broad ones) on how globally destructive life can become. A proposal was made to extend an existing model of global coevolution to address this and other Gaia questions. An "autocatalytic Gaia" hypothesis was put forward to suggest that autocatalytic recycling is an almost inevitable planetary phenomenon, once there is life. This is a natural extension of the autocatalytic theory of life (the chemoton model). Some broad lessons of sustainability can be learned from Gaia and the unfolding coevolution of life and its environment on Earth, in particular, the importance of avoiding long time lags for maintaining system stability.

  • Further Reading

    Energy is the only universal currency. One of its many forms must be transformed into another in order for stars to shine, planets to rotate, living things to grow, and civilizations to evolve. Recognition of this universality was one of the great achievements of nineteenth-century science, yet even today there is little literature that tries to view the world broadly through the prism of energy.In this highly original book, ecologist Vaclav Smil takes the principle of universality seriously, presenting a comprehensive and integrated survey of all the forms of energy that shape our world, from the sun to the human body, from bread to microchips. Written in a scientifically sophisticated yet accessible style, Energies consists of eighty-two short essays organized under six headings: Sun and Earth, Plants and Animals, People and Food, Preindustrial Societies, Fossil-Fueled Civilization, and Motion and Information. Each essay explains the science of the energy form as well as its implications for the functioning of the universe, life, or human society. Cross-links and summary diagrams allow easy comparisons among the various levels and flows of energy.

  • Units and Abbreviations

    In Energy at the Crossroads, Vaclav Smil considers the twenty-first century's crucial question: how to reconcile the modern world's unceasing demand for energy with the absolute necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere. With this book he offers a comprehensive, accessible guide to today's complex energy issues -- how to think clearly and logically about what is possible and what is desirable in our energy future.After a century of unprecedented production growth, technical innovation, and expanded consumption, the world faces a number of critical energy challenges arising from unequal resource distribution, changing demand patterns, and environmental limitations. The fundamental message of Energy at the Crossroads is that our dependence on fossil fuels must be reduced not because of any imminent resource shortages but because the widespread burning of oil, coal, and natural gas damages the biosphere and presents increasing economic and security problems as the world relies on more expensive supplies and Middle Eastern crude oil.Smil begins with an overview of the twentieth century's long-term trends and achievements in energy production. He then discusses energy prices, the real cost of energy, and "energy linkages" -- the effect energy issues have on the economy, on quality of life, on the environment, and in wartime. He discusses the pitfalls of forecasting, giving many examples of failed predictions and showing that unexpected events can disprove complex models. And he examines the pros and cons not only of fossil fuels but also of alternative fuels such as hydroenergy, biomass energy, wind power, and solar power. Finally, he considers the future, focusing on what really matters, what works, what is realistic, and which outcomes are most d esirable.

  • People and Food

    This chapter contains sections titled: Basal Metabolism, Thermoregulation, Pregnancy and Lactation, Human Growth, Walking and Running, Labor and Leisure, Grains, Bread, Lipids and Meat, Milk, Ethanol

  • Hydroelectric Power

    Enormous increases in the demand for power throughout the world make it imperative to reduce the environmental hazards and pollution associated with power generation. This book discusses the effects that power generation has had on the land, the water, the air, and the biosphere. It reviews the technological means available for abatement and control of damaging environmental effects and describes power generation techniques that could prove more compatible with the environment.To meet the growing demand for power in the United States, generating capacity must be doubled in the next ten years. Plants scheduled to be retired in that interval must also be replaced. Although there are promising, advanced techniques for generating power more efficiently and more cleanly at some future time, the problem at hand is how to construct the needed capacity for the next twenty years. This book focuses on those newer techniques which in realistic engineering terms show promise of large-scale application in that period of time.The primary means of generating power are nuclear, hydroelectric, and fossil fuel. What effects do these have on the environment? Nuclear generating plants and nuclear fuel processing plants release radionuclides in a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid chemical forms. Hydroelectric dams drastically alter the landscape and produce direct change in the ecology of life systems. Fuel combustion pollutes air with smoke and oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon. Mining activities scar land and pollute rivers. Nuclear- and fossil-fueled plants waste more energy than is contained in the usable power that they produce; most of the wasted energy warms lakes and rivers whose waters are diverted for cooling purposes.What can be done to control these widespread environme ntal effects? One proposal in this book is to encourage reduction of radioactive wastes from nuclear power generation by reducing the federal guidelines for radiation exposure of the population. This subject is particularly controversial. In separate chapters, the bases for the federal guidelines are questioned and supported by the respective proponents, and the technology for control is reviewed.Another proposal suggests wider application of improved combustion techniques for coal, the most abundant energy resource. Pollutants that formerly went up the stack can now be removed earlier in the process of combustion. Coal is also a source material for gaseous and liquid fuels, for which natural supplies are dwindling and to which our fuel economy is heavily committed.Man's desire for power must be reconciled with the needs of his environment. This book presents the many and varied relationships between power generation and environmental change and provides a basis for understanding the consequences of increased power generation capacity.



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