Cadaver

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A corpse, also called a cadaver in medical, literary, and legal usage or when intended for dissection, is a dead human body. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Cadaver

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2018 7th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (Biorob)

The RAS/EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics - BioRob 2018 - is a joint effort of the two IEEE Societies of Robotics and Automation - RAS - and Engineering in Medicine and Biology - EMBS.BioRob covers both theoretical and experimental challenges posed by the application of robotics and mechatronics in medicine and biology. The primary focus of Biorobotics is to analyze biological systems from a "biomechatronic" point of view, trying to understand the scientific and engineering principles underlying their extraordinary performance. This profound understanding of how biological systems work, behave and interact can be used for two main objectives: to guide the design and fabrication of novel, high performance bio-inspired machines and systems for many different applications; and to develop novel nano, micro-, macro- devices that can act upon, substitute parts of, and assist human beings in prevention, diagnosis, surgery, prosthetics, rehabilitation.


2018 IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS)

Held since 1992, the IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS) is a vibrant interdisciplinary forum where psychophysicists, engineers, and designers come together to share advances, spark new collaborations, and envision a future that benefits from rich physical interactions between humans and computers, generated through haptic (force and tactile) devices.

  • 2016 IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS)

    Held since 1992, the IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS) is a vibrant interdisciplinary forum where psychophysicists, engineers, and designers come together to share advances, spark new collaborations, and envision a future that benefits from rich physical interactions between humans and computers, generated through haptic (force and tactile) devices. In 2016, this conference will be held in central Philadelphia, one of the most historic and beautiful cities in North America. HAPTICS 2016 will be a four-day conference with a full day of tutorials and workshops and three days of conference activities including technical paper presentations and hands-on demonstrations.Features:ExhibitsWorkshops and TutorialsHands-on Demonstrations

  • 2014 IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS)

    This conference brings together researchers in diverse engineering and human science disciplines who are interested in the design, analysis, and evaluation of systems that display haptic (force and touch) information to human operators, and the study of the human systems involved in haptic interacti

  • 2012 IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS)

    This conference brings together researchers in diverse engineering and human science disciplines who are interested in the design, analysis, and evaluation of systems that display haptic (force and touch) information to human operators, and the study of the human systems involved in haptic interaction.

  • 2010 IEEE Haptics Symposium (Formerly known as Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems)

    The Haptics Symposium is a bi-annual, single-track conference that brings together researchers who are advancing the human science, technology and design processes underlying haptic (force and tactile) interaction systems. Our community spans the disciplines of biomechanics, psychology, neurophysiology, engineering, human-computer interaction and computer science.

  • 2008 16th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (Haptics 2008)

    The Haptics Symposium is an annual, single-track conference that brings together researchers in diverse engineering and human science disciplines who are interested in the design, analysis, and evaluation of systems that display haptic (force and touch) information to human operators.

  • 2006 14th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems


2018 IEEE-EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES)

IECBES is a series of bi-annual conference since 2010. The conference will provide excellent platform for knowledge exchange between researchers, scientists, academicians and engineers working in the areas of biomedical engineering. It is open for local and international participants.

  • 2016 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES)

    IECBES is the flagship conference of EMB Malaysia Chapter. Its scope includes new findings in research areas of Biomedical Engineering with keywords indicated above.

  • 2014 IEEE Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES)

    Biomedical Signal and Image Processing:Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Neural, Biomedical Instrumentation & Devices: Sensor, Micro / Nano / Wearable Technology,Biomaterial, Biomimetics, Rehabilitation andTherapeutic Health System, Biomedical Modeling and Simulation, Bioinformatics, Biomechanics and medical robotics, Ergonomics & Human Factors,Healthcare Information System, Telemedicine, eHealth, myHealth.

  • 2012 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES 2012)

    Biomedical Signal and Image Processing:Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Neural, Biomedical Instrumentation & Devices: Sensor, Micro / Nano / Wearable Technology,Biomaterial, Biomimetics, Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Health System, Biomedical Modeling and Simulation, Bioinformatics, Biomechanics and medical robotics, Ergonomics & Human Factors,Healthcare Information System, Telemedicine, eHealth, myHealth.

  • 2010 IEEE EMBS Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (IECBES)

    Biomedical Signal and Image Processing: Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Neural Biomedical Instrumentation & Devices: Sensor, micro/ nano/wearable technology, biomaterial, biomimetic Rehabilitation and Therapeutic Health System Biomedical Modelling and Simulation Bioinformatics Biomechanics and medical robotics Healthcare Information System: Telemedicine, eHealth, mHealth


2017 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2017

The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.

  • 2036 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2036

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2031 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2031

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2029 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2029

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2026 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2026

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2025 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2025

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conferencecovering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies;encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including thelatest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulationand more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions,panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2024 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2024

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2023 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2023

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2022 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2022

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2021 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2021

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.

  • 2020 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2020

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2019 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2019

    Comprehensive symposium on microwave theory and techniques including active and passive circuit components, theory and microwave systems.

  • 2018 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2018

    Microwave theory and techniques, RF/microwave/millimeter-wave/terahertz circuit design and fabrication technology, radio/wireless communication.

  • 2016 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - IMS 2016

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2015 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2015

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics. The IMS includes technical sessions, both oral and interactive, worksh

  • 2014 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2014

    IMS2014 will cover developments in microwave technology from nano devices to system applications. Technical paper sessions, interactive forums, plenary and panel sessions, workshops, short courses, industrial exhibits, and a wide array of other technical activities will be offered.

  • 2013 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2013

    The IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the premier conference covering basic technologies, to passives and actives components to system over a wide range of frequencies including VHF, UHF, RF, microwave, millimeter -wave, terahertz, and optical. The conference will encompass the latest in RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation, wireless systems, RFID and related topics.The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2012 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2012

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2011 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2011

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2010 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2010

    Reports of research and development at the state-of-the-art of the theory and techniques related to the technology and applications of devices, components, circuits, modules and systems in the RF, microwave, millimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave and Terahertz ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  • 2009 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2009

    The IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the world s foremost conference covering the UHF, RF, wireless, microwave, millimeter-wave, terahertz, and optical frequencies; encompassing everything from basic technologies to components to systems including the latest RFIC, MIC, MEMS and filter technologies, advances in CAD, modeling, EM simulation and more. The IMS includes technical and interactive sessions, exhibits, student competitions, panels, workshops, tutorials, and networking events.

  • 2008 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2008

  • 2007 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2007

  • 2006 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2006

  • 2005 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2005

  • 2004 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2004

  • 2003 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2003

  • 2002 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2002

  • 2001 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2001

  • 2000 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT 2000

  • 1999 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '99

  • 1998 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '98

  • 1997 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '97

  • 1996 IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave Symposium - MTT '96


2017 12th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering (ISKE)

It covers practice, experience and promising new ideas in the broad area of intelligent systems and knowledge engineering. The topics include: Foundations of Intelligent Systems; Knowledge Engineering and Management; Practical Applications and Systems.


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Periodicals related to Cadaver

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Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (CG&A) bridges the theory and practice of computer graphics. From specific algorithms to full system implementations, CG&A offers a strong combination of peer-reviewed feature articles and refereed departments, including news and product announcements. Special Applications sidebars relate research stories to commercial development. Cover stories focus on creative applications of the technology by an artist or ...


Computing in Science & Engineering

Physics, medicine, astronomy—these and other hard sciences share a common need for efficient algorithms, system software, and computer architecture to address large computational problems. And yet, useful advances in computational techniques that could benefit many researchers are rarely shared. To meet that need, Computing in Science & Engineering (CiSE) presents scientific and computational contributions in a clear and accessible format. ...


Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE

Both general and technical articles on current technologies and methods used in biomedical and clinical engineering; societal implications of medical technologies; current news items; book reviews; patent descriptions; and correspondence. Special interest departments, students, law, clinical engineering, ethics, new products, society news, historical features and government.


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Xplore Articles related to Cadaver

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A computer model of the human arm to study the control of FES-assisted reaching

R. Davoodi; G. E. Loeb Proceedings of the Second Joint 24th Annual Conference and the Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society] [Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 2002

A biomechanical model of a partially paralyzed human arm has been developed to aid in analysis of FES controllers for reaching in quadriplegia. The model represents an average adult arm and is based on data from cadaver measurements reported in the literature. Particular emphasis has been placed on the accuracy of parameters that are important for control, including the moment ...


Stereotactic analysis of spinal motion segments

B. C. Cheng; H. Mihara; S. M. David; T. A. Zdeblick Proceedings of the First Joint BMES/EMBS Conference. 1999 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 21st Annual Conference and the 1999 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society (Cat. N, 1999

The 3D image space defined from the 3-space of CT image data is capable of accurately identifying the anatomy of vertebral bodies. With the recent advances made by highly accurate stereotactic systems, a means of consistently identifying six markers on a vertebral body was implemented and subsequent 3D measurements were ascertained. Three points were used to form two vectors on ...


Elongation patterns of the collateral ligaments of the human knee

C. Chuinard; D. Harfe; L. Espinoza; K. Thomas; M. Solomonow Proceedings of the 1997 16 Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference, 1997

Repair of defective knee ligaments requires knowledge of their normal function to achieve optimal surgical results and to prevent joint arthropathy. Many investigations have been conducted detailing the mechanics of the collateral ligaments of the human knee. A review of this literature, however, reveals a bewildering array of results, making it difficult to form confident conclusions concerning normal ligament function. ...


Dynamic Signature Verification Using Sensor Based Data Glove

Shohel Sayeed; Rosli Besar; Nidal S. Kamel 2006 8th international Conference on Signal Processing, 2006

Handwritten signature verification is a well-established and potential area of research with numerous applications such as commercial (e.g., credit card, bank check verification etc.), government (e.g., National ID card, Driver's license, passport control etc.) and forensic (e.g., corpse identification) application. In this paper, we propose a new approach to deal with the problem of handwritten signature verification and forgery detection ...


A new method to develop the finite element model of the bones in the hand from CT scans

S. Battula; G. O. Njus IEEE 30th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2004. Proceedings of the, 2004

There is a need for biomechanical computer models that can qualitatively and quantitatively generate an accurate representation of the patient's condition. Such a model of the hand was developed using computerized axial tomography (CT) scans from a cadaver hand. CT and magnetic resonance (MR) scans of a cadaver hand glued to a polycarbonate box were acquired in the axial orientation. ...


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A computer model of the human arm to study the control of FES-assisted reaching

R. Davoodi; G. E. Loeb Proceedings of the Second Joint 24th Annual Conference and the Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society] [Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 2002

A biomechanical model of a partially paralyzed human arm has been developed to aid in analysis of FES controllers for reaching in quadriplegia. The model represents an average adult arm and is based on data from cadaver measurements reported in the literature. Particular emphasis has been placed on the accuracy of parameters that are important for control, including the moment ...


Stereotactic analysis of spinal motion segments

B. C. Cheng; H. Mihara; S. M. David; T. A. Zdeblick Proceedings of the First Joint BMES/EMBS Conference. 1999 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology 21st Annual Conference and the 1999 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society (Cat. N, 1999

The 3D image space defined from the 3-space of CT image data is capable of accurately identifying the anatomy of vertebral bodies. With the recent advances made by highly accurate stereotactic systems, a means of consistently identifying six markers on a vertebral body was implemented and subsequent 3D measurements were ascertained. Three points were used to form two vectors on ...


Elongation patterns of the collateral ligaments of the human knee

C. Chuinard; D. Harfe; L. Espinoza; K. Thomas; M. Solomonow Proceedings of the 1997 16 Southern Biomedical Engineering Conference, 1997

Repair of defective knee ligaments requires knowledge of their normal function to achieve optimal surgical results and to prevent joint arthropathy. Many investigations have been conducted detailing the mechanics of the collateral ligaments of the human knee. A review of this literature, however, reveals a bewildering array of results, making it difficult to form confident conclusions concerning normal ligament function. ...


Dynamic Signature Verification Using Sensor Based Data Glove

Shohel Sayeed; Rosli Besar; Nidal S. Kamel 2006 8th international Conference on Signal Processing, 2006

Handwritten signature verification is a well-established and potential area of research with numerous applications such as commercial (e.g., credit card, bank check verification etc.), government (e.g., National ID card, Driver's license, passport control etc.) and forensic (e.g., corpse identification) application. In this paper, we propose a new approach to deal with the problem of handwritten signature verification and forgery detection ...


A new method to develop the finite element model of the bones in the hand from CT scans

S. Battula; G. O. Njus IEEE 30th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 2004. Proceedings of the, 2004

There is a need for biomechanical computer models that can qualitatively and quantitatively generate an accurate representation of the patient's condition. Such a model of the hand was developed using computerized axial tomography (CT) scans from a cadaver hand. CT and magnetic resonance (MR) scans of a cadaver hand glued to a polycarbonate box were acquired in the axial orientation. ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Future Technologies for Medical Applications

    The modern age of surgery began at the end of the nineteenth century because medicine discovered the Industrial Age, with its wealth of revolutionary technologies such as anesthesia, asepsis, microscopy, and new materials. At the close of the twentieth century, the Information Age diffused into medicine, and a revolution of even greater magnitude occurred. To understand the change it is necessary to look outside of medicine to society as a whole and find the underlying principles, and then apply them within our discipline. The medical record is now becoming electronic and nearly all of our imaging has changed from film (atoms) to digital images (bits). Medical education is using computer-aided instructions, CD-ROM, and VR to simulate and supplement cadaver and animal models. With the new research in robotics, even our hand motions are being changed in to electronic signals and being sent from one place to another. The future of medicine is no longer blood and guts, but bits and bytes. A commonality of information enables us to tie together a whole new concept of how medicine could evolve, like an entire medical ecosystem, whereby discoveries in micro-sensors permits new imaging devices, which in turn enable new forms of image-based surgery. It is an upward spiral, one discovery providing a giant step forward toward the next technology and escalating the whole changing system logarithmically. This could help explain why we are all so overwhelmed by the rapidity of our changing profession. Yet the younger generation of physicians-to-be are not so uncomfortable with the rapidly changing technologies. One of their fundamental tools is the ability to understand the world in the form of three-dimensional (3-D) visualization. There is a speculative scenario that can be used as a framework to illuminate the integrating power of this concept. It is referred to as the doorway t o the future and extrapolates to 20, 50 or perhaps 100 years into the future. As a patient visits her surgeon for a consult, she passes through the office door and, just as scanning is performed today by airport security, she has multiple imaging modalities scanning her (perhaps CT, MRI, ultrasound, and infrared). The data are all collected and then displayed as a 3-D image of her (looking like the Visible Human) but with not only correct anatomic structure but also all the biochemical and other data added to the correct organ systems. If an abnormality is seen, such as a colon mass, a virtual colonoscopy can be done on the image by flying through the colon with the same view as an actual colonoscopy. If a lesion is found, the image can be used for patient education, illustrating to the patient exactly what her specific problem is. At the time of surgery, an image can be imported onto the video monitor of laparoscopic colon resection, and with data fusion the two images displayed simultaneously as an intraoperative navigation tool (stereotactic navigation). At the postoperative follow up visit, the patient is scanned again, by comparing the postoperative with the preoperative datasets and using digital subtraction techniques, the difference between the two datasets is automatic outcomes analysis. Because the record is a dataset, it can be stored on a credit card (the U.S. military is using a prototype card called the MARC card) or kept on a Web server to be distributed worldwide over the Internet for consultation. The purpose of the this scenario is to provide an explanation of and rationale for why it is so important to understand how information can empower us, to show the looking glass through which the next-generation surgeon will be viewing the world. To bring the scenario out of the speculative and rhetorical and into the real world, the technologies that these views are presented in this chapter must be held accountable to the scrutiny of science. Only when these new discoveries are properly evaluated with rigorous testing and clinical trials can ...

  • Virtual Reality and MedicineChallenges for the TwentyFirst Century

    Robert Mann first proposed a virtual reality (VR) system for medical applications in 1965. His initial ideas were for a rehabilitation application for virtual reality. Later, his vision was to develop a system that would allow surgeons to test out multiple operations for a given orthopedic problem. Then in a virtual environment (VE), the clock could be speeded up to predict the future outcome of different surgical approaches. In effect, the patient could leave the operating table, go through rehabilitation, and then return for evaluation. The surgeon could then pick the best choice for the real operation. This approach would need a model that was not only patient specific but also accurate in terms of the deformity and its response to treatment over time. This is the ultimate goal for the twenty-first century for a VR system in surgery. It is difficult to create a model of the human body that is realistic enough to accurately portray a surgical mission that is planned. The interface tools that are presently available are much more advanced than the ones discussed here that were available to NASA in the 1980s; however, without a true model to interact with they are unable to provide the realism for surgical education and training that is needed. Present cadaver laboratories and training through hands-on experience provide the majority of medical education today in surgery. It is unlikely that present VR simulators will change this without a significant improvements in the models. Most of the author's work has been directed at creating digital models of humans. Some of this work is reviewed and what needs to be done is emphasized, rather than focus on what has already been accomplished. Systems are presently available for many medical training applications, including microsurgery, urology, general surgery, heart surgery, vascular surgery, eye surgery, otolaryngology, mi litary wound d?bridement, and obstetrics. Ultimately these systems will be able to provide teaching at a distance for telemedicine and telesurgery. The goal of this chapter is to better define where is needed to make improvements in the human body models for all of these systems. Most of these systems assume normal tissue properties and do not address the response over time of the tissues to the disease state, to the surgical intervention, or to the healing process. The pathologic state of tissues and the tissue's response to interventions over time should be the next grand challenge in virtual reality and medicine.

  • Practitioner, Heal Thyself

    This chapter suggests that a software industry could be improved by utilizing a medical school model in universities. Like most current curricula, individual courses would cover requirements, design, implementation, testing, quality assurance and configuration management, project management, formal methods, maintenance, metrics, and so on. After all, people should strive to teach how to do things, not just how to talk about things. Like medical students, each software student should also be assigned a cadaver: a large software system that either works now or worked at one time. During every regular class, students would simultaneously enroll in the cadaver lab, where they would perform related tasks on their assigned software. As in medicine, the students must complete a minimum one-year internship. Internships could take place in special for-profit or not-for-profit companies closely affiliated with or established by the school of software.



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