Lithography

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Lithography (from Greek λίθος - lithos, 'stone' + γράφειν - graphein, 'to write') is a method for printing using a stone or a metal plate with a completely smooth surface. Invented in 1796 by Bavarian author Alois Senefelder as a low-cost method of publishing theatrical works, lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or another suitable material. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Lithography

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2020 IEEE 16th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (AMC)

AMC2020 is the 16th in a series of biennial international workshops on Advanced Motion Control which aims to bring together researchers from both academia and industry and to promote omnipresent motion control technologies and applications.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)

IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.


2020 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

The scope of the 2020 IEEE/ASME AIM includes the following topics: Actuators, Automotive Systems, Bioengineering, Data Storage Systems, Electronic Packaging, Fault Diagnosis, Human-Machine Interfaces, Industry Applications, Information Technology, Intelligent Systems, Machine Vision, Manufacturing, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, Micro/Nano Technology, Modeling and Design, System Identification and Adaptive Control, Motion Control, Vibration and Noise Control, Neural and Fuzzy Control, Opto-Electronic Systems, Optomechatronics, Prototyping, Real-Time and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation, Robotics, Sensors, System Integration, Transportation Systems, Smart Materials and Structures, Energy Harvesting and other frontier fields.


2020 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (IFCS-ISAF)

Ferroelectric materials and applications


2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power


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Periodicals related to Lithography

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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging has its focus on the modeling, design, and analysis of advanced electronic, photonic, sensors, and MEMS packaging.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, IEEE Transactions on

Part I will now contain regular papers focusing on all matters related to fundamental theory, applications, analog and digital signal processing. Part II will report on the latest significant results across all of these topic areas.


Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


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Xplore Articles related to Lithography

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MAPPER: High Throughput Maskless Lithography

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'V. Kuiper'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'B. J. Kampherbeek'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'M. J. Wieland'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'G. de Boer'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'G. F. ten Berge'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'J. Boers'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'R. Jager'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'T. van de Peut'}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'J. J. M. Peijster'}, {u'author_order': 10, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'E. Slot'}, {u'author_order': 11, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'S. W. H. K. Steenbrink'}, {u'author_order': 12, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'T. F. Teepen'}, {u'author_order': 13, u'affiliation': u'MAPPER Lithography B.V., Computerlaan 15, 2628 XK Delft, The Netherlands', u'full_name': u'A. H. V. van Veen'}] 25th European Mask and Lithography Conference, 2009

Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam ...


Future electron-beam lithography and implications on design and CAD tools

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Maskless Lithography Program, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30077', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37578897900', u'full_name': u'Jack J. H. Chen', u'id': 37578897900}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Maskless Lithography Program, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30077', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37569536000', u'full_name': u'Faruk Krecinic', u'id': 37569536000}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Maskless Lithography Program, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30077', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37859011700', u'full_name': u'Jen-Hom Chen', u'id': 37859011700}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Maskless Lithography Program, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30077', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37855027000', u'full_name': u'Raymond P. S. Chen', u'id': 37855027000}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Maskless Lithography Program, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30077', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37276212600', u'full_name': u'Burn J. Lin', u'id': 37276212600}] 16th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC 2011), 2011

Summary form only given. The steeply increasing price and difficulty of masks make the mask-based optical lithography, such as ArF immersion lithography and extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL), unaffordable when going beyond the 32-nm half-pitch (HP) node. Electron beam direct writing (EBDW), so called maskless lithography (ML2), provides an ultimate resolution without jeopardy from masks, but the extremely low productivity of ...


Progress of a laser-produced-plasma light source for EUV lithography

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37425216800', u'full_name': u'H. Komori', u'id': 37425216800}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37421121700', u'full_name': u'T. Abe', u'id': 37421121700}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37339392000', u'full_name': u'T. Suganuma', u'id': 37339392000}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37421578500', u'full_name': u'Y. Imai', u'id': 37421578500}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37414889700', u'full_name': u'H. Someya', u'id': 37414889700}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37415869200', u'full_name': u'H. Hoshino', u'id': 37415869200}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37415727400', u'full_name': u'M. Nakano', u'id': 37415727400}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37426160500', u'full_name': u'G. Soumagne', u'id': 37426160500}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37409589300', u'full_name': u'Y. Takabayashi', u'id': 37409589300}, {u'author_order': 10, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37629581300', u'full_name': u'H. Mizoguchi', u'id': 37629581300}, {u'author_order': 11, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37305791700', u'full_name': u'A. Endo', u'id': 37305791700}, {u'author_order': 12, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38202475300', u'full_name': u'K. Toyoda', u'id': 38202475300}, {u'author_order': 13, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37267316000', u'full_name': u'Y. Horiike', u'id': 37267316000}] Digest of Papers Microprocesses and Nanotechnology 2003. 2003 International Microprocesses and Nanotechnology Conference, 2003

Summary form only given. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is a major candidate of next generation lithography (NGL) technology for the fabrication of 45 nm node and below. In this paper, we report the laser produced plasma EUV light source development status.


Laser produced plasma light source for next generation lithography

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'T. Suganuma'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'T. Abe'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'H. Hoshino'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'Y. Imai'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'H. Komori'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'H. Someya'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'G. Soumagne'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'Y. Sugimoto'}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'H. Mizoguchie'}, {u'author_order': 10, u'affiliation': u'Hiratsuka Res. & Dev. Center, Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Syst. Dev. Assoc., Kanagawa, Japan', u'full_name': u'A. Endoe'}] The 30th International Conference on Plasma Science, 2003. ICOPS 2003. IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts., 2003

Summary form only given, as follows. Our group is part of the Japanese Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association and working on laser produced plasma light sources. The system we developed since the project start last year is based on Xenon as a plasma source. Being continuously recycled the Xenon is injected into the vacuum chamber via a small diameter ...


Tin-Fueled High-Repetition-Rate Z-pinch EUV Source for Semiconductor Lithography

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37324072000', u'full_name': u'Yusuke Teramoto', u'id': 37324072000}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37321917700', u'full_name': u'Zenzo Narihiro', u'id': 37321917700}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37426017400', u'full_name': u'Daiki Yamatani', u'id': 37426017400}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37630779100', u'full_name': u'Takuma Yokoyama', u'id': 37630779100}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37412093500', u'full_name': u'Kazunori Bessho', u'id': 37412093500}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37871444000', u'full_name': u'Yuki Joshima', u'id': 37871444000}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37418817300', u'full_name': u'Takahiro Shirai', u'id': 37418817300}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37871443400', u'full_name': u'Shinsuke Mouri', u'id': 37871443400}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37879982400', u'full_name': u'Takahiro Inoue', u'id': 37879982400}, {u'author_order': 10, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37319219900', u'full_name': u'Hiroshi Mizokoshi', u'id': 37319219900}, {u'author_order': 11, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37272499100', u'full_name': u'Hironobu Yabuta', u'id': 37272499100}, {u'author_order': 12, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38559962700', u'full_name': u'Kohkan C. Paul', u'id': 38559962700}, {u'author_order': 13, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37268247000', u'full_name': u'Tetsu Takemura', u'id': 37268247000}, {u'author_order': 14, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37415288900', u'full_name': u'Toshio Yokota', u'id': 37415288900}, {u'author_order': 15, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37426019000', u'full_name': u'Kiyoyuki Kabuki', u'id': 37426019000}, {u'author_order': 16, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37425674600', u'full_name': u'Koji Miyauchi', u'id': 37425674600}, {u'author_order': 17, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37415552600', u'full_name': u'Kazuaki Hotta', u'id': 37415552600}, {u'author_order': 18, u'affiliation': u'Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association, 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37420574800', u'full_name': u'Hiroto Sato', u'id': 37420574800}, {u'author_order': 19, u'affiliation': u'Ushio Inc., 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37323092100', u'full_name': u'Gohta Niimi', u'id': 37323092100}, {u'author_order': 20, u'affiliation': u'Ushio Inc., 1-90 Komakado, Gotenba, Shizuoka 412-0038, Japan', u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37396447500', u'full_name': u'Tomonao Hosokai', u'id': 37396447500}] 2007 IEEE 34th International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS), 2007

Summary form only given. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) is the potential candidate for the light source used in next generation semiconductor lithography. In EUV lithography (EUVL), IC pattern as small as 32-nm pitch or below will be realized by using 13.5-nm radiation. There are two major schemes to obtain high-power EUV; laser-produced plasma (LPP) and discharge-produced plasma (DPP). DPP seems to ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • How Lithography Enables Moore's Law

    Moore's Law sets the pace for the electronics industry, delivering increasing computing capabilities at stable cost. This was driven by the steady pace of the increase of components in an integrated circuit (IC), which has to a large extent been enabled by optical lithography printing increasingly smaller electronic features on a silicon wafer. This chapter quantifies what the contribution of lithography to Moore's Law has been in the past and then discusses the future lithography options to extend Moore's Law into the future. Optical lithography has always been the workhorse for IC manufacturing. The next step for optical lithography is extreme ultraviolet (EUV), which will greatly simplify patterning and thus promises faster yield ramp and lower cost. The alternative patterning techniques, Directed self‐assembly (DSA) still needs optical lithography to guide the patterns and should thus be seen as a complementary technology.

  • 32 nm: Lithography at a Crossroad

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * Lithography Roadmap * Double Patterning * Immersion Beyond Water * EUV Lithography * Summary and Conclusion * Acknowledgments * References ]]>

  • EUV Lithography: Today and Tomorrow

    This chapter contains sections titled: * Introduction * A Very Short History of EUVL * Present of EUVL: Update on the Current Situation * EUVL and Alternatives: The Future * Conclusions ]]>

  • Specifying and Testing Digital Optics

    This chapter contains sections titled:Fabless Lithographic Fabrication ManagementSpecifying the Fabrication ProcessFabrication EvaluationOptical Functionality Evaluation

  • Design for Manufacturing

    This chapter contains sections titled:The Lithographic ChallengeSoftware Solutions: Reticle Enhancement TechniquesHardware SolutionsProcess Solutions

  • Semiconductor Manufacturing

    In this chapter, we describe the fundamentals of semiconductor manufacturing, popularly known as?>chip manufacturing?>. Starting with the use of larger single crystal silicon wafers and defect density reduction techniques necessary for manufacturing chips with lower cost, the principles of lithography and etching are presented. The basic sequence in integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing is transistor formation (front-end processing), interconnect formation (back-end processing), and assembly and test. Advancements in lithography, single-wafer processing and advanced process control have played key roles in manufacturing semiconductor products with critical dimension (CD) as small as about 20 nm today. Process variability is one of the key challenges that the industry faces as CDs are scaled to roughly the 10 nm regime. Fundamental research on new materials, their interfaces, new processes and new devices is certainly required if we are ever to achieve practical ICs with sufficiently low power consumption for products manufactured with critical dimensions approaching 5 nm and beyond.

  • Nanofabrication Techniques for Chipless RFID Sensors

    This chapter first presents an overview of various fabrication techniques that can be used for the development of various chipless radio‐frequency identification (RFID) sensors. It then reviews innovative micro‐ and nanofabrication technologies suitable for roll‐to‐roll chipless RFID sensor printing. Next, the chapter highlights the limitations of conventional fabrication processes and provides industrial solutions for on‐demand, high‐speed printing for flexible, robust, mass productivity of chipless RFID sensor. The state‐of‐the‐art micro‐/nanofabrication processes that can be used to develop the chipless RFID sensor are electrodeposition, physical and chemical vapor deposition, laser ablation and direct pattern writing by photolithography/electron beam lithography (EBL)/ion beam lithography. The nanofabrication processes also include nanoimprint lithography (NIL) and etching, material modification by ion implantation, diffusion, doping, and thermal annealing. Finally, the chapter gives a general survey and comparison of the different fabrication techniques.

  • Future of Digital Silicon

    There are reasons to be concerned about the future of digital silicon. It looks bright to many, as long as the future is about the next‐generation technology and products. Some might be even braver and willing to bet on the EUV lithography finally making its mark in the next wave of chips coming to the market. Unimaginable obstacles and uncertainties have never been short of supply in this space, unmatched by any seen in all fields of engineering except perhaps for the spirit of creativity, imagination, and determination. This book examines a wide range of microelectronic‐related fields, including solid‐state electronics, material science, optoelectronics, bioelectronics, and renewable energies. The topics covered range from fundamental physical principles, materials and device technologies, and major new market opportunities. The book provides contributions from leading industry professionals in semiconductor micro‐ and nano‐electronics.

  • Manufacturability Aware Routing in Nanometer VLSI

    This paper surveys key research challenges and recent results of manufacturability aware routing in nanometer VLSI designs. The manufacturing challenges have their root causes from various integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing processes and steps, e.g., deep sub-wavelength lithography, random defects, via voids, chemical-mechanical polishing, and antenna-effects. They may result in both functional and parametric yield losses. The manufacturability aware routing can be performed at different routing stages including global routing, track routing, and detail routing, guided by both manufacturing process models and manufacturing-friendly rules. The manufacturability/yield optimization can be performed through both correct-by- construction (i.e., optimization during routing) as well as construct-by- correction (i.e., post-routing optimization). This paper will provide a holistic view of key design for manufacturability issues in nanometer VLSI routing.

  • Gallium Nitride‐Based Lateral and Vertical Nanowire Devices

    This chapter focuses on the first fabrication and characterization of GaN‐based lateral and vertical nanowire (NW) field‐effect transistors (FETs) by using top‐down approach, where one combined conventional e‐beam lithography and dry etching techniques with strong anisotropic tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) wet etching. Wet etching usually provides high etching selectivity that often offers an advantage in simplifying the fabrication process compared to the dry plasma etching. To fabricate the AlGaN/GaN O‐shaped‐gate nanowire FET, the GaN epitaxial layers were first grown on c‐plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD. The epitaxial structure of Si‐doped GaN/undoped‐GaN/Si‐doped GaN stack was grown by MOCVD on sapphire substrate. The AlGaN‐/GaN‐based omega‐gate NW FETs have been fabricated using TMAH orientation‐selective lateral wet etching of atomic layer‐deposited (ALD)‐deposited HfO2sidewall spacer. The top‐down approach provides a viable pathway toward gate‐all‐around (GAA) devices for III‐nitride semiconductors, which are very promising candidates for steep‐switching power device applications.



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