Lithography

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Lithography (from Greek λίθος - lithos, 'stone' + γράφειν - graphein, 'to write') is a method for printing using a stone or a metal plate with a completely smooth surface. Invented in 1796 by Bavarian author Alois Senefelder as a low-cost method of publishing theatrical works, lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or another suitable material. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Lithography

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2020 IEEE 16th International Workshop on Advanced Motion Control (AMC)

AMC2020 is the 16th in a series of biennial international workshops on Advanced Motion Control which aims to bring together researchers from both academia and industry and to promote omnipresent motion control technologies and applications.


2020 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)

IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS) is an annual conference coordinated by the Plasma Science and Application Committee (PSAC) of the IEEE Nuclear & Plasma Sciences Society.


2020 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM)

The scope of the 2020 IEEE/ASME AIM includes the following topics: Actuators, Automotive Systems, Bioengineering, Data Storage Systems, Electronic Packaging, Fault Diagnosis, Human-Machine Interfaces, Industry Applications, Information Technology, Intelligent Systems, Machine Vision, Manufacturing, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, Micro/Nano Technology, Modeling and Design, System Identification and Adaptive Control, Motion Control, Vibration and Noise Control, Neural and Fuzzy Control, Opto-Electronic Systems, Optomechatronics, Prototyping, Real-Time and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation, Robotics, Sensors, System Integration, Transportation Systems, Smart Materials and Structures, Energy Harvesting and other frontier fields.


2020 Joint Conference of the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (IFCS-ISAF)

Ferroelectric materials and applications


2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power


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Periodicals related to Lithography

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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging has its focus on the modeling, design, and analysis of advanced electronic, photonic, sensors, and MEMS packaging.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, IEEE Transactions on

Part I will now contain regular papers focusing on all matters related to fundamental theory, applications, analog and digital signal processing. Part II will report on the latest significant results across all of these topic areas.


Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on

Component parts, hybrid microelectronics, materials, packaging techniques, and manufacturing technology.


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Xplore Articles related to Lithography

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MAPPER: High Throughput Maskless Lithography

25th European Mask and Lithography Conference, 2009

Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam ...


Future electron-beam lithography and implications on design and CAD tools

16th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC 2011), 2011

Summary form only given. The steeply increasing price and difficulty of masks make the mask-based optical lithography, such as ArF immersion lithography and extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL), unaffordable when going beyond the 32-nm half-pitch (HP) node. Electron beam direct writing (EBDW), so called maskless lithography (ML2), provides an ultimate resolution without jeopardy from masks, but the extremely low productivity of ...


Progress of a laser-produced-plasma light source for EUV lithography

Digest of Papers Microprocesses and Nanotechnology 2003. 2003 International Microprocesses and Nanotechnology Conference, 2003

Summary form only given. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is a major candidate of next generation lithography (NGL) technology for the fabrication of 45 nm node and below. In this paper, we report the laser produced plasma EUV light source development status.


Laser produced plasma light source for next generation lithography

The 30th International Conference on Plasma Science, 2003. ICOPS 2003. IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts., 2003

Summary form only given, as follows. Our group is part of the Japanese Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association and working on laser produced plasma light sources. The system we developed since the project start last year is based on Xenon as a plasma source. Being continuously recycled the Xenon is injected into the vacuum chamber via a small diameter ...


Tin-Fueled High-Repetition-Rate Z-pinch EUV Source for Semiconductor Lithography

2007 IEEE 34th International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS), 2007

Summary form only given. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) is the potential candidate for the light source used in next generation semiconductor lithography. In EUV lithography (EUVL), IC pattern as small as 32-nm pitch or below will be realized by using 13.5-nm radiation. There are two major schemes to obtain high-power EUV; laser-produced plasma (LPP) and discharge-produced plasma (DPP). DPP seems to ...


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Educational Resources on Lithography

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • MAPPER: High Throughput Maskless Lithography

    Maskless electron beam lithography, or electron beam direct write, has been around for a long time in the semiconductor industry and was pioneered from the mid-1960s onwards. This technique has been used for mask writing applications as well as device engineering and in some cases chip manufacturing. However because of its relatively low throughput compared to optical lithography, electron beam lithography has never been the mainstream lithography technology. To extend optical lithography double patterning, as a bridging technology, and EUV lithography are currently explored. Irrespective of the technical viability of both approaches, one thing seems clear. They will be expensive. MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. In this way optical columns can be made with a throughput of 10-20 wafers per hour. By clustering several of these columns together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV alternatives. In 2007 MAPPER obtained its Proof of Lithography milestone by exposing in its Demonstrator 45 nm half pitch structures with 110 electron beams in parallel, where all the beams where individually switched on and off. In 2008 MAPPER has taken a next step in its development by building several tools. A new platform has been designed and built which contains a 300 mm wafer stage, a wafer handler and an electron beam column with 110 parallel electron beams. This manuscript describes the first patterning results with this 300 mm platform.

  • Future electron-beam lithography and implications on design and CAD tools

    Summary form only given. The steeply increasing price and difficulty of masks make the mask-based optical lithography, such as ArF immersion lithography and extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL), unaffordable when going beyond the 32-nm half-pitch (HP) node. Electron beam direct writing (EBDW), so called maskless lithography (ML2), provides an ultimate resolution without jeopardy from masks, but the extremely low productivity of the traditional single beam systems made it very laborious for mass manufacturing after over 3 decades of development. Although electron beam lithography has been long used for mask writing, it is yet very slow and typically takes from hours to days to write a complete 6-inch high-end mask. Direct writing a 300-mm wafer definitely would take much longer. Considering production efficiency in the cleanroom, the throughput of lithography tools should be in the order of 10 wafers per hour (WPH) per square meter as compared to that of an ArF scanner. To achieve such a throughput per e-beam column requires an improvement of more than 3-order. Increasing the beam current in the conventional single beam system would induce the space charge effect and thus is not a solution. Several groups have proposed different multiple electron beam maskless lithography (MEBML2) approaches, by multiplying either Gaussian beams, variable shape beams or by using cell projections, to increase the throughput. The maturing MEMS technology and electronic control technology enable precise control of more than ten thousands or even millions of electron beamlets, writing in parallel. Without the mask constraint, the exposure can be made by continuously scanning across the entire wafer diameter as long as the ultra-high speed data rate can be supported. Hence a much slower scan speed is required and therefore a small tool footprint is achievable.

  • Progress of a laser-produced-plasma light source for EUV lithography

    Summary form only given. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is a major candidate of next generation lithography (NGL) technology for the fabrication of 45 nm node and below. In this paper, we report the laser produced plasma EUV light source development status.

  • Laser produced plasma light source for next generation lithography

    Summary form only given, as follows. Our group is part of the Japanese Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography System Development Association and working on laser produced plasma light sources. The system we developed since the project start last year is based on Xenon as a plasma source. Being continuously recycled the Xenon is injected into the vacuum chamber via a small diameter nozzle A Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) Nd:YAG laser system oscillating at 1064 nm and a maximum repetition rate of 10 kHz is used for plasma generation. For various Xenon target and laser parameters, including two laser pulse durations of several ns and 30 ns (fwhm), we evaluated plasma characteristics relevant for lithography systems including emission spectra, in-band energy, energy stability and EUV conversion efficiency, out-of-band energy and EUV emission symmetry. Beside plasma characteristics, the lifetime of the collector mirror placed inside the vacuum chamber near the plasma will be a critical issue being strongly correlated to plasma debris and ion impact. Xenon debris can be due to Xe solid phase formation on the mirror surface but might, be reduced by the heat load of the mirror. In a first step we concentrated therefore on time-of-flight measurements in order to measure energy distributions of ions emitted from the generated plasmas.

  • Tin-Fueled High-Repetition-Rate Z-pinch EUV Source for Semiconductor Lithography

    Summary form only given. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) is the potential candidate for the light source used in next generation semiconductor lithography. In EUV lithography (EUVL), IC pattern as small as 32-nm pitch or below will be realized by using 13.5-nm radiation. There are two major schemes to obtain high-power EUV; laser-produced plasma (LPP) and discharge-produced plasma (DPP). DPP seems to provide more cost-effective source and easier way to obtain necessary EUV power than LPP. EUV is not a coherent radiation so that emitted radiation is collected by optics and transferred to an exposure tool. In volume production, significant amount of IC chip should be yielded. From these points of view, EUV radiation must be emitted from very small volume but have sufficient average power. In our development, Z-pinch plasma is employed to achieve such a high temperature and density micro plasma. It is very important to increase conversion efficiency (CE) of electrical energy input to 13.5-nm radiation. Xe used to be used as fuel material because of its easiness of handling and cleanliness. However, Sn is the best choice from the view point of CE. Despite its handling difficulties, Sn is now being commonly used in many EUV researches. In case of gas-discharge-produced plasma, it is necessary to feed the gas into the discharge region between the electrodes. For this purpose, we utilize SnH<sub>4</sub> gas, which is in gaseous state at room temperature and able to be controlled like Xe. EUV source for semiconductor lithography is also required to work at pulse repetition frequency more than 7 kHz. By using high rep-rate (8 kHz) and high-average- power (120 kW) pulsed power driver, and low-inductance Z-pinch load, radiation characteristics of SnH<sub>4</sub>-fueled Z-pinch were investigated. Radiation energy, radiation stability, plasma image, temporal radiation behavior of Z-pinch were investigated. As a result, EUV power within 2 % bandwidth at 13.5 nm reached 700 W/2 pisr.

  • Electron sources for MAPPER maskless lithography

    MAPPER Lithography is developing a maskless lithography technology based on massively-parallel electron-beam writing in combination with high speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. With 13,260 electron beams further on split in 49 sub beams, each sub beam delivering a current of 0.3nA on the wafer, a throughput of 10 wafers per hour (wph) is realized for 22nm node lithography. In total a current of 175μA on the wafer is required. By clustering several of these systems together high throughputs can be realized in a small footprint. This enables a highly cost-competitive alternative to double patterning and EUV.

  • Design intent utilization for lithography compliance check and layout refinement to improve manufacturability

    A collection of slides from the authors conference presentation about the design intent utilization for lithography compliance check and layout refinement to improve manufacturability is presented.

  • Diagnostics of ablation dynamics of tin micro-droplet for EUV lithography light source

    The ablation dynamics of tin micro-droplet target irradiated by double pulses was investigated for extreme ultraviolet lithography source. Debris from Sn droplet target was visualized by the laser-induced fluorescence imaging and shadowgraph imaging.

  • Laser produced plasma light source for HVM-EUVL

    A major technical challenge of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source for microlithography at 13.5 nm is the in-band power requirement of more than 115 W at the intermediate focus. The solution for HVM EUV lithography is a laser produced plasma light source with a cost effective CO<sub>2</sub> drive laser and a high conversion efficiency Sn target. To demonstrate this, a LPP source is developed for high volume manufacturing EUV lithography which is based on a high power CO<sub>2</sub> MOPA (Master Oscillator Power Amplifier) system and a tin target. It is concluded that the CO<sub>2</sub> laser driven Sn light source is the most promising candidate for HVM EUVL due to its scalability, high efficiency and long collector mirror lifetime.

  • Lithography and Other Patterning Techniques for Future Electronics

    For all technologies, from flint arrowheads to DNA microarrays, patterning the functional material is crucial. For semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs), it is even more critical than for most technologies because enormous benefits accrue to going smaller, notably higher speed and much less energy consumed per computing function. The consensus is that ICs will continue to be manufactured until at least the ldquo22 nm noderdquo (the linewidth of an equal line-space pattern). Most patterning of ICs takes place on the wafer in two steps: (a) lithography, the patterning of a resist film on top of the functional material; and (b) transferring the resist pattern into the functional material, usually by etching. Here we concentrate on lithography. Optics has continued to be the chosen lithographic route despite its continually forecast demise. A combination of 193-nm radiation, immersion optics, and computer-intensive resolution enhancement technology will probably be used for the 45- and 32-nm nodes. Optical lithography usually requires that we first make a mask and then project the mask pattern onto a resist-coated wafer. Making a qualified mask, although originally dismissed as a ldquosupport technology,rdquo now represents a significant fraction of the total cost of patterning an IC largely because of the measures needed to push resolution so far beyond the normal limit of optical resolution. Thus, although optics has demonstrated features well below 22 nm, it is not clear that optics will be the most economical in this range; nanometer-scale mechanical printing is a strong contender, extreme ultraviolet is still the official front runner, and electron beam lithography, which has demonstrated minimum features less than 10 nm wide, continues to be developed both for mask making and for directly writing on the wafer (also known as ldquomaskless lithographyrdquo). Going from laboratory demonstration to manufacturing technology is enormously expensive ( $1 billion) and for good reason. Just in terms of data rate (mask pattern to resist pattern), today's exposure tools achieve about 10 Tb/s at an allowable error rate of about 1/h; this data rate will double with each generation. In addition, the edge placement precision required will soon be 30 parts per billion. There are so many opportunities for unacceptable performance that making the right decision goes far beyond understanding the underlying physical principles. But the benefits of continuing to be able to manufacture electronics at the 22-nm node and beyond appear to justify the investment, and there is no shortage of ideas on how to accomplish this.



Standards related to Lithography

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No standards are currently tagged "Lithography"