Conferences related to Ions

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2018 14th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA)

The goal of the 14th ASME/IEEE MESA2018 is to bring together experts from the fields of mechatronic and embedded systems, disseminate the recent advances in the area, discuss future research directions, and exchange application experience. The main achievement of MESA2018 is to bring out and highlight the latest research results and developments in the IoT (Internet of Things) era in the field of mechatronics and embedded systems.


2018 16th International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics (MEGAGAUSS)

The MG-XVI conference will take place between September 25-29, 2018 at the UTokyo Kashiwa Campus, near Tokyo, Japan. The MG XVI conference will serve as a platform for scientists to exchange information and ideas among the members of the international scientific community in the domain of generation and application of ultra-high magnetic fields, high-energy and high-current pulsed power physics and technology, magnetic-flux compression technologies for the production of multi-megagauss fields, high magnetic field applications in basic and applied research in solid-state physics, atomic physics and chemistry, high energy density physics and for other related and novel technical applications. The MG XVI conference encourages opportunities for a strong interaction and networking among experienced and young scientists, engineers, and students involved in this extremely interesting and unique research area.


2018 18th International Workshop on Junction Technology (IWJT)

IWJT is an open forum focused on the needs and interest of the community of a junction formation technology in semiconductors.


2018 20th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'18 ECCE Europe)

Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies


2018 25th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

The conference for researchers and experts has been providing good opportunitiesto exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays(AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics(PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, thefollowing topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): flexible display, LCDs, OLED, e-papers, 3D displays,touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFTsTechnologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline Si-based TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, such as graphene, semiconductor nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and device modeling, device & circuit simulation, and their reliability.Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous /crystalline Si heterojunction, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2017 24th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Paper are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): flexible display, LCDs, OLED, e-papers, 3D displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline Si-based TFTs, organic TFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2016 23rd International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs, displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2015 22nd International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs,displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs,organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2014 21st International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices(AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs, displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems.TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2013 Twentieth International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AM-FPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • 2012 19th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific ideas for advanced information on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AM-FPDs) including thin-film transistors (TFTs), and solar cells.


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Periodicals related to Ions

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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Electrical insulation common to the design and construction of components and equipment for use in electric and electronic circuits and distribution systems at all frequencies.


Electron Device Letters, IEEE

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronic devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


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Most published Xplore authors for Ions

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Xplore Articles related to Ions

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Photonic crystal application for microwaves output induced by the beam-plasma instability in the absence of ions

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya str., Saratov, Russia, 410012', u'full_name': u'Nikita Frolov'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya str., Saratov, Russia, 410012', u'full_name': u'Semen Kurkin'}] 2018 IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference (IVEC), None

In this paper we propose the application of photonic crystal structure for amplification of microwave oscillations in relativistic electron beam induced by the beam-plasma instability in the absence of ions. Previously, it has been shown that interaction between the electron beam and charged high-dense electron plasma represents a mechanism for microwaves generation in the range of 18-40 GHz depending on ...


Novel all-solid-state composite scintillators based on the epitaxial structures of LuAG garnet doped with Pr, Sc and Ce ions

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Powstańców Wielkopolskich str., 2, 85090 Bydgoszcz, Poland and from Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan, Poland.', u'full_name': u'S. Witkiewicz-Lukaszek'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Powstańców Wielkopolskich str., 2, 85090 Bydgoszcz, Poland and from Electronic Department Ivan Franko National University in Lviv, Ukraine.', u'full_name': u'V. Gorbenko'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Powstańców Wielkopolskich str., 2, 85090 Bydgoszcz, Poland and from Electronic Department Ivan Franko National University in Lviv, Ukraine.', u'full_name': u'T. Zorenko'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'full_name': u'K. Paprocki'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Scintillation Materials (ISM), National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, av. Nauki 60, 61001 Kharkiv, Ukraine.', u'full_name': u'O. Sidletskiy'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Institute for Scintillation Materials (ISM), National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, av. Nauki 60, 61001 Kharkiv, Ukraine.', u'full_name': u'I. Gerasymov'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Physics, AS Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka str., 10, 16253 Prague, Czech Republic.', u'full_name': u'J. A. Mares'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'full_name': u'R. Kucerkova'}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Physics, AS Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka str., 10, 16253 Prague, Czech Republic.', u'full_name': u'M. Nikl'}, {u'author_order': 10, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Physics, Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Powstańców Wielkopolskich str., 2, 85090 Bydgoszcz, Poland and from Electronic Department Ivan Franko National University in Lviv, Ukraine.', u'full_name': u'Yu. Zorenko'}] IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, None

This work presents our achievement in the development of new types of advanced composite scintillators based on the single crystalline films (SCFs) of Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) garnet, doped with Pr3+ and Sc3+ ions, and substrate from single crystals (SCs) of Ce3+ doped LuAG using the technology of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). We show the possibility of the simultaneous registration of α-particles ...


APD Rise Time Measurements for 50–300-keV Ions

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Department of Space Science and Engineering, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA', u'full_name': u'M. J. Starkey'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Department of Space Science and Engineering, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA', u'full_name': u'K. Ogasawara'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Department of Space Science and Engineering, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA', u'full_name': u'M. A. Dayeh'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Department of Space Science and Engineering, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA', u'full_name': u'M. I. Desai'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Department of Space Science and Engineering, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA', u'full_name': u'S. A. Livi'}] IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 2018

In this paper, we report the rise time of three silicon reach-through avalanche photodiodes (APD) when measuring alpha particles and low-energy ions in the energy range from 50 to 300 keV. The APDs were custom manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics and differ by their doping manufacturing method (p-type or n-type) and their depletion layer thickness (30 or $150~mu text{m}$ ). Our ...


Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide@Carbon Core–Shell Nanoparticles as Advanced Adsorbent for Efficient Removal of As(V) Ions From Wastewater

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Department of Physics, Tien Giang University, My Tho, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Le Minh Tung'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Department of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Pham Thi Lan Huong'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Department of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Vu Ngoc Phan'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Department of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Le Thanh Huy'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Physics at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Le Khanh Vinh'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Department of Physics, Hanoi University of Science, Hanoi, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Nguyen Quang Hoa'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Colleague of Natural Sciences, Can Tho University, Can Tho, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Huynh Thanh Tuan'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Ha Noi, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Man Hoai Nam'}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'Department of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam', u'full_name': u'Anh-Tuan Le'}] IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2018

In this paper, we have employed the facile one-pot process to synthesize superparamagnetic iron oxide@carbon (Fe3O4@C) core-shell nanoparticles by using ferrocene and acetone as a precursor. The Fe3O4@C nanoparticles were successfully produced by using a solvothermal reaction at 200 °C for 24 h. Effects of synthetic conditions such as amount of ferrocene, solvothermal temperature, and reaction time on the microstructure ...


Enhanced electrochemical detection of multi-heavy metal ions using a biopolymer-coated planar carbon electrode

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA', u'full_name': u'Jae-Hoon Hwang'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA', u'full_name': u'Xiaochen Wang'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'ENPLUS Co., Ltd Yeosu, Jeollanam-do 59670, South Korea', u'full_name': u'Sunkook Jung'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Department of Environmental Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, Gumi, Gyeongbuk 39177, South Korea', u'full_name': u'Younggyu Son'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA', u'full_name': u'Woo Hyoung Lee'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Department of Mechanical Aerospace Engineering, University of University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA', u'full_name': u'Hyoung J. Cho'}] 2018 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), None

In this study, a chitosan biopolymer-coated planar carbon electrode was developed for in situ determination of heavy metals (Zn2+ and Pb2+) using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The experimental conditions were optimized with respect to deposition time, amplitude and frequency. With 300 s deposition time, the heavy metal stripping was conducted at 0.05 V pulse amplitude, 20 Hz pulse ...


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Educational Resources on Ions

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eLearning

No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Ions"

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Interactions with Ions in a Hot-Electron Plasma

    This chapter contains sections titled: Plasma Dispersion and Weak-Beam Interactions, Strong Interaction with Ions

  • Investigations on the Oxidation of Metals as a Tool for the Exploration of the Movement of Ions in Solid Oxides

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Diffusion and Transport Processes in Oxide Layers, Oxide-Layer Formation at High Temperature, Factors Affecting Oxidation Rates at High Temperatures, Oxide-Layer Formation at Medium and Low Temperatures, Chemisorption and Space-Charge Boundary Layers in Oxides, Transport Processes in Space-Charge Boundary Layers, Some Applications to Problems of Ceramic Chemistry, References, Acknowledgement

  • Quantum Computing for Computer Architects, Second Edition

    Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore the systems-level challenges in achieving scalable, fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this lecture, we provide an engineering-oriented introduction to quantum computation with an overview of the theory behind key quantum algorithms. Next, we look at architectural case studies based upon experimental data and future projections for quantum computation implemented using trapped ions. While we ocus here on architectures targeted for realization using trapped ions, the techniques for quantum computer architecture design, quantum fault-tolerance, and compilation described in this lecture are applicable to many other physical technologies that may be viable candidates for building a large-scale quantum computing system. We also discuss general issues involved with programming a quantum computer as well as a discussion of work on quantum architectures based on quantum teleportation. Finally, we consider some of the open issues remaining in the design of quantum computers. Table of Contents: Introduction / Basic Elements for Quantum Computation / Key Quantum Algorithms / Building Reliable and Scalable Quantum Architectures / Simulation of Quantum Computation / Architectural Elements / Case Study: The Quantum Logic Array Architecture / Programming the Quantum Architecture / Using the QLA for Quantum Simulation: The Transverse Ising Model / Teleportation-Based Quantum Architecture / Concluding Remarks

  • Recording Materials for Holography

    This chapter discusses various recording materials for holography, including silver halide materials, photopolymer, photoresist, and dichromated gelatin (DCG). The silver halide materials chosen for holography are essentially gelatin‐based suspensions which are traditionally known as "emulsions", although technically defying the definition of "emulsion". These are, in the case of holographic recording materials, definitively based upon silver bromide, although silver chloride is also well known as a really useful photosensitive material, which is used extensively in the emulsions used for photographic papers. DCG has played a rather glorious role in holography in the past. As gelatin is such a remarkably inexpensive material, this method, which is capable of very high index modulation and diffraction efficiency over both narrow and wide spectral bandwidths, appeared to have a promising future until the advent of the photopolymer recording materials for holography.

  • Vacuum

    Vacuum technology is used in the infrared (IR) detector business for insulation in dewars and to improve adhesion in the deposition of optical coatings. To achieve these vacuums, a nearly leak‐free container is required. This chapter surveys the required pumping, measuring, leak detection, and cleanliness. The manometers are useful for pressures from atmospheric pressure down to a few millimeters of mercury, and are of historical interest, but modern work requires more sensitive and more robust gauges. The most common mechanical pump is the oil‐sealed rotary pump. Diffusion pumps use high‐speed jets of oil or mercury to trap gas molecules and sweep them into a reservoir of fluid. Adequate vacuum practice for long‐life sealed dewars has been studied thoroughly, and many tools are available to assist in vacuum decisions and predictions: residual gas analysis, outgassing rates, vacuum bake, time‐temperature schedules, and so on.

  • Ionospheric Radio Propagation

    The effects of the ionosphere on radio propagation are very important in radio communication between the terrestrial antennas and air vehicles (stationary or moving) or satellites. This chapter begins by briefly presenting information about the ionosphere as a continuous medium consisting of plasma, and describes the common effects of ionospheric plasma on radio propagation, following the description of ionospheric effects as well as on the authors' computations. Then, it discusses the effects of large‐scale and small‐scale ionospheric plasma inhomogeneities, and illustrates the main results of signal amplitude and phase variations, that is, the fast fading, resulting from the inhomogeneous structure of the ionosphere, on the basis of numerical computations carried out by the authors according to proposed ionospheric models. Finally, the chapter considers the effects of an inhomogeneous ionosphere on radio propagation at long distances.

  • Water Treatment

    This chapter discusses the various types of water streams utilized in an electric generation facility. Power plants use water in many systems for many different functions. The quality of the water directly impacts the ability of the system to function reliably. For example, in the power plant thermal cycle, the hardness of the water is critical to the heat transfer capability of the tubes in the boiler. Treatment of the water systems at the power plant utilizes various processes or series of processes depending on the type of material being removed from the water system and for the service that it will be placed in. The processes include the following: sedimentation, clarification, filtration, softening, oxidation, degasification, and demineralization. Demineralization can further be broken down into the processes used to remove minerals and ions and these three processes are evaporation, ion exchange, and reverse osmosis.

  • Integrated Device Level Simulation Techniques

    In this chapter, integrated device level simulation techniques are introduced, including relativistic binary-collision model, Intra-Nuclear Cascade (INC) model, evaporation model, automated device model builder based on GDS-II files, ion-tracking model and charge deposition and collection model. Since soft-error simulation results including multi cell upset (MCU) features downsize of down to 22 nm process devices are reported in detail elsewhere, major numerical techniques applied in COsmic Radiation IMpact Simulator (CORIMS) are highlighted and only typical results for fault-based upper-bound simulation with four fault modes such as cell-mode, bit-mode, ALPEN-mode and bipolar-mode by terrestrial radiation of most terrestrial particles are demonstrated. This chapter may be skipped for those who are not responsible for single event effect (SEE) simulation with detailed device modelling.

  • Strategies to Improve Sentences with Qualifiers

    This chapter demonstrates that there is a limit to the number of qualifiers that can be added to a sentence. It discusses the general rule for multiple qualifiers. It considers some attempts to insert three or more qualifiers in a sentence. Sentences with too many qualifiers can be clarified by breaking such sentences into two or more, with no more than two qualifiers in each sentence. Combining the two sentences may strengthen the relationship between the points made (separately) in the two sentences. The chapter presents some actual examples for which a repositioning of qualifiers¿¿-¿¿ both major and minor qualifiers¿¿-¿¿can provide additional clarity. The examples will be arranged within three categories, each of which suggests a reason for a potential repositioning: (1) to ensure that qualifiers are in close proximity to their antecedents, (2) to achieve closer subject/verb proximity, and (3) to correct ?>wayward?> prepositional phrases.

  • Electrohydrodynamics of Unipolar Ion Flows

    The ion flow identifies with a subsonic ion drift guided by the pattern of an electric field, and, as such, it can only assume a filamentary space structure. This issue is what characterizes this chapter as a whole. Ancillary sections of the chapter progressively introduce the reader into the multichanneled scenario of moving ions. The chapter discusses the combined mass-charge notion and the specialized conservation laws for charge, mass, momentum, and energy, as well as about Gauss's law, ion mobility, and Deutsch's hypothesis. It discusses the ion-drift equation and ion wind generation and propagation. The chapter ends with a discussion on Laplacian structure for ion flows.




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