Conferences related to Ions

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2018 14th IEEE/ASME International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA)

The goal of the 14th ASME/IEEE MESA2018 is to bring together experts from the fields of mechatronic and embedded systems, disseminate the recent advances in the area, discuss future research directions, and exchange application experience. The main achievement of MESA2018 is to bring out and highlight the latest research results and developments in the IoT (Internet of Things) era in the field of mechatronics and embedded systems.


2018 16th International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics (MEGAGAUSS)

The MG-XVI conference will take place between September 25-29, 2018 at the UTokyo Kashiwa Campus, near Tokyo, Japan. The MG XVI conference will serve as a platform for scientists to exchange information and ideas among the members of the international scientific community in the domain of generation and application of ultra-high magnetic fields, high-energy and high-current pulsed power physics and technology, magnetic-flux compression technologies for the production of multi-megagauss fields, high magnetic field applications in basic and applied research in solid-state physics, atomic physics and chemistry, high energy density physics and for other related and novel technical applications. The MG XVI conference encourages opportunities for a strong interaction and networking among experienced and young scientists, engineers, and students involved in this extremely interesting and unique research area.


2018 18th International Workshop on Junction Technology (IWJT)

IWJT is an open forum focused on the needs and interest of the community of a junction formation technology in semiconductors.


2018 20th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'18 ECCE Europe)

Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies


2018 25th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

The conference for researchers and experts has been providing good opportunitiesto exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays(AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics(PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, thefollowing topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): flexible display, LCDs, OLED, e-papers, 3D displays,touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFTsTechnologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline Si-based TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, such as graphene, semiconductor nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and device modeling, device & circuit simulation, and their reliability.Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous /crystalline Si heterojunction, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2017 24th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Paper are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): flexible display, LCDs, OLED, e-papers, 3D displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline Si-based TFTs, organic TFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2016 23rd International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs, displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2015 22nd International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs,displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems. TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs,organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2014 21st International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices(AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AMFPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics: Flat Panel Display (FPD): LCDs OLED displays e papers 3 D displays LCDs, displays, epapers, 3-displays, flexible displays, touch screens, driving methods, integrated drivers, and display materials and systems.TFT Technologies (TFT): amorphous, microcrystalline, and polycrystalline Si TFTs, organicTFTs, oxide TFTs, other material TFTs such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and semiconductor nanowires, device modeling, device and circuit simulation, and reliability. Photovoltaics (PV): thin-film solar cells, amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction, passivation, transparent conductive oxides.

  • 2013 Twentieth International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific and technological knowledge on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AM-FPDs), thin-film transistors (TFTs), thin-film materials and devices (TFMD), photovoltaics (PV) technologies, and other related topics. Papers are solicited on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • 2012 19th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD)

    Conference for researchers and experts, this workshop has been providing good opportunities to exchange scientific ideas for advanced information on active-matrix flatpanel displays (AM-FPDs) including thin-film transistors (TFTs), and solar cells.


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Periodicals related to Ions

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Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, IEEE Transactions on

Electrical insulation common to the design and construction of components and equipment for use in electric and electronic circuits and distribution systems at all frequencies.


Electron Device Letters, IEEE

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronic devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


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Most published Xplore authors for Ions

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Xplore Articles related to Ions

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Ion imprinted chitosan based interferometric sensor for selective detection of heavy metal ions

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore Singapore (e-mail: RAGH0007@e.ntu.edu.sg)', u'full_name': u'Raghunandhan Ravikumar'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore Singapore (e-mail: lhchen@ntu.edu.sg)', u'full_name': u'Lihan Chen'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore Singapore (e-mail: mmeow001@e.ntu.edu.sg)', u'full_name': u'Melissa Meow Xin Hui'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Sino-German College of Intelligent Manufacturing, Shenzhen Technology University, Shenzhen, Guangdong China (e-mail: julian.chan@fibresensor.com)', u'full_name': u'Chi Chiu Chan'}] Journal of Lightwave Technology, None

A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) based Mach-Zehnder interferometric (MZI) sensor using ion imprinted chitosan for the detection of $rm Ni^{2+}$ ions is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor was fabricated by splicing a small section of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) between single mode fibers (SMFs). Nickel adsorbed chitosan was crosslinked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to increase its mechanical strength and thereby ...


Silver-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Film-based SPR Sensor for Detection of Pb<sup>2</sup>+ Ions

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Nilai, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'Wan Maisarah Mukhtar'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'National Metrology Institute of Malaysia (NMIM), Sepang, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'Razman Mohd Halim'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Nilai, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'Karsono Ahmad Dasuki'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Nilai, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'Affa Rozana Abdul Rashid'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Nilai, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'Nur Athirah Mohd Taib'}] 2018 IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics (ICSE), None

This study discussed the effect of nanocomposite film's thicknesses on the generation of SPR for detection of Pb2+ ions. Ag-GO nanocomposite film was deposited on the hypothenuse side of the triangular prism via Kretschmann configuration. The thicknesses of Ag-GO were varied between 50nm and 60nm by manipulating the Ag's thicknesses from 30nm to 50nm and GO's between 2nm and 10nm. ...


The Influence of Diamagnetic Ions to Features of Crystalline and Magnetic Structures of BaFe<inf>11.9</inf>M<inf>0.1</inf>O<inf>19</inf>(<tex>$text{M}= text{In}$</tex> and Sc)

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Department of Neutron Investigations of Condensed Matter, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia', u'full_name': u'V. Turchenko'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Department of Neutron Investigations of Condensed Matter, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia', u'full_name': u'A. Doroshkevich'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Department of Physics of Magnetic Films, SSPA, &#x201C;Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus&#x201D;, Minsk, Belarus', u'full_name': u'A. V. Trukhanov'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Department of Neutron Investigations of Condensed Matter, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia', u'full_name': u'S. Sumnikov'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Department of Physics of Magnetic Films, SSPA, &#x201C;Scientific and practical materials research centre of NAS of Belarus&#x201D;, Minsk, Belarus', u'full_name': u'S. V. Trukhanov'}] 2018 IEEE 38th International Conference on Electronics and Nanotechnology (ELNANO), None

The features of crystalline and magnetic structure of solid solution of barium ferrite BaFe11.9M0.1O19 (where M= In and Sc) with neutron diffraction method was studied. The substitution of Fe by In ions leads to increase of volume of unit cell while replacing with Sc ions insignificantly change the lattice parameters. The behavior of magnetic structure and unit cell parameters and ...


Rare Earth Ions Doped Down-conversion Materials for Third Generation Photovoltaic Solar Cells

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'LTI departement de Genie industriel ENSA Tanger, Universite Abdelmalek Essadi, Laboratoire des technologies innovantes, tanger, Morocco', u'full_name': u'M. El Ouafi'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'LTI departement de Genie industriel ENSA Tanger, Universite Abdelmalek Essadi, Laboratoire des technologies innovantes, tanger, Morocco', u'full_name': u'S. Belmokhtar'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'LTI departement de Genie industriel ENSA Tanger, Universite Abdelmalek Essadi, Laboratoire des technologies innovantes, tanger, Morocco', u'full_name': u'A. Bouajai'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'LTI departement de Genie industriel ENSA Tanger, Universite Abdelmalek Essadi, Laboratoire des technologies innovantes, tanger, Morocco', u'full_name': u'M. R. Britel'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Museo strorico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Roma, 00184, Italy', u'full_name': u'F. Enrichi'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CSMFO Lab. &#x0026; FBK-CMM, CNR-IFN, Povo, Trento, 38123, Italy', u'full_name': u'C. Armellini'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CSMFO Lab. &#x0026; FBK-CMM, CNR-IFN, Povo, Trento, 38123, Italy', u'full_name': u'A. Chiappini'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'full_name': u'M. Meneghet'}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CSMFO Lab. &#x0026; FBK-CMM, CNR-IFN, Povo, Trento, 38123, Italy', u'full_name': u'TranThi Ngoc'}, {u'author_order': 10, u'affiliation': u'Museo strorico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Roma, 00184, Italy', u'full_name': u'L. Zur'}, {u'author_order': 11, u'affiliation': u'Meridionale Impianti SpA, Caponago, Monza Brianza, 20867, Italy', u'full_name': u'F. Belluomo'}, {u'author_order': 12, u'affiliation': u'Museo strorico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Roma, 00184, Italy', u'full_name': u'M. Ferrari'}] 2017 International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), None

In order to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic solar cells and overcome their limitations, a matching between solar spectrum and semiconductor band gap is needed using luminescent materials. The following work present in this paper is mainly based on the adjustment of the solar spectrum to the cell bandgap by developing downconverting materials. Down conversion process is exploited to modify ...


Effect of Modifiers on Optical and Structural Properties of Barium Gallo-Germanate Glasses Doped with RE Ions

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow, 30-059, Poland', u'full_name': u'R. Jadach'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bialystok, 15-351, Poland', u'full_name': u'M. Kochanowicz'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bialystok, 15-351, Poland', u'full_name': u'J. Zmojda'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bialystok, 15-351, Poland', u'full_name': u'A. Baranowska'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Bialystok University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bialystok, 15-351, Poland', u'full_name': u'P. Miluski'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow, 30-059, Poland', u'full_name': u'M. Lesniak'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, Katowice, 40-007, Poland', u'full_name': u'M. So\u0142tys'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, Katowice, 40-007, Poland', u'full_name': u'J. Pisarska'}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'University of Silesia, Institute of Chemistry, Katowice, 40-007, Poland', u'full_name': u'W. A. Pisarski'}, {u'author_order': 10, u'affiliation': u'Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, PAS, Wroclaw, 50-422, Poland', u'full_name': u'A. Lukowiak'}, {u'author_order': 11, u'affiliation': u'AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow, 30-059, Poland', u'full_name': u'M. Sitarz'}, {u'author_order': 12, u'affiliation': u'Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia', u'full_name': u'L. Mochalov'}, {u'author_order': 13, u'affiliation': u'Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia', u'full_name': u'A. Nezhdanov'}, {u'author_order': 14, u'affiliation': u'Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie IFN-CNR, CSMFO Laboratory, Trento, 38123, Italy', u'full_name': u'M. Ferrari'}, {u'author_order': 15, u'affiliation': u'Enrico Fermi Centre, Roma, 00184, Italy', u'full_name': u'G. Righini'}, {u'author_order': 16, u'affiliation': u'AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Krakow, 30-059, Poland', u'full_name': u'D. Dorosz'}] 2018 20th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), None

In this paper structural and luminescence properties of modified barium-gallo- germanate glasses doped with Dy3+ and Eu3+ ions are investigated. Barium ions in the glass structure were gradually replaced with antimony ions. Luminescence properties were determined on the basis of emission spectra of Eu3+ and Dy3+ ions which were used as a dopant in prepared glass series. MIR spectra of ...


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Educational Resources on Ions

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eLearning

No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Ions"

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Interactions with Ions in a Hot-Electron Plasma

    This chapter contains sections titled: Plasma Dispersion and Weak-Beam Interactions, Strong Interaction with Ions

  • Investigations on the Oxidation of Metals as a Tool for the Exploration of the Movement of Ions in Solid Oxides

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction, Diffusion and Transport Processes in Oxide Layers, Oxide-Layer Formation at High Temperature, Factors Affecting Oxidation Rates at High Temperatures, Oxide-Layer Formation at Medium and Low Temperatures, Chemisorption and Space-Charge Boundary Layers in Oxides, Transport Processes in Space-Charge Boundary Layers, Some Applications to Problems of Ceramic Chemistry, References, Acknowledgement

  • Quantum Computing for Computer Architects, Second Edition

    Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore the systems-level challenges in achieving scalable, fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this lecture, we provide an engineering-oriented introduction to quantum computation with an overview of the theory behind key quantum algorithms. Next, we look at architectural case studies based upon experimental data and future projections for quantum computation implemented using trapped ions. While we ocus here on architectures targeted for realization using trapped ions, the techniques for quantum computer architecture design, quantum fault-tolerance, and compilation described in this lecture are applicable to many other physical technologies that may be viable candidates for building a large-scale quantum computing system. We also discuss general issues involved with programming a quantum computer as well as a discussion of work on quantum architectures based on quantum teleportation. Finally, we consider some of the open issues remaining in the design of quantum computers. Table of Contents: Introduction / Basic Elements for Quantum Computation / Key Quantum Algorithms / Building Reliable and Scalable Quantum Architectures / Simulation of Quantum Computation / Architectural Elements / Case Study: The Quantum Logic Array Architecture / Programming the Quantum Architecture / Using the QLA for Quantum Simulation: The Transverse Ising Model / Teleportation-Based Quantum Architecture / Concluding Remarks

  • Recording Materials for Holography

    This chapter discusses various recording materials for holography, including silver halide materials, photopolymer, photoresist, and dichromated gelatin (DCG). The silver halide materials chosen for holography are essentially gelatin‐based suspensions which are traditionally known as "emulsions", although technically defying the definition of "emulsion". These are, in the case of holographic recording materials, definitively based upon silver bromide, although silver chloride is also well known as a really useful photosensitive material, which is used extensively in the emulsions used for photographic papers. DCG has played a rather glorious role in holography in the past. As gelatin is such a remarkably inexpensive material, this method, which is capable of very high index modulation and diffraction efficiency over both narrow and wide spectral bandwidths, appeared to have a promising future until the advent of the photopolymer recording materials for holography.

  • Vacuum

    Vacuum technology is used in the infrared (IR) detector business for insulation in dewars and to improve adhesion in the deposition of optical coatings. To achieve these vacuums, a nearly leak‐free container is required. This chapter surveys the required pumping, measuring, leak detection, and cleanliness. The manometers are useful for pressures from atmospheric pressure down to a few millimeters of mercury, and are of historical interest, but modern work requires more sensitive and more robust gauges. The most common mechanical pump is the oil‐sealed rotary pump. Diffusion pumps use high‐speed jets of oil or mercury to trap gas molecules and sweep them into a reservoir of fluid. Adequate vacuum practice for long‐life sealed dewars has been studied thoroughly, and many tools are available to assist in vacuum decisions and predictions: residual gas analysis, outgassing rates, vacuum bake, time‐temperature schedules, and so on.

  • Ionospheric Radio Propagation

    The effects of the ionosphere on radio propagation are very important in radio communication between the terrestrial antennas and air vehicles (stationary or moving) or satellites. This chapter begins by briefly presenting information about the ionosphere as a continuous medium consisting of plasma, and describes the common effects of ionospheric plasma on radio propagation, following the description of ionospheric effects as well as on the authors' computations. Then, it discusses the effects of large‐scale and small‐scale ionospheric plasma inhomogeneities, and illustrates the main results of signal amplitude and phase variations, that is, the fast fading, resulting from the inhomogeneous structure of the ionosphere, on the basis of numerical computations carried out by the authors according to proposed ionospheric models. Finally, the chapter considers the effects of an inhomogeneous ionosphere on radio propagation at long distances.

  • Water Treatment

    This chapter discusses the various types of water streams utilized in an electric generation facility. Power plants use water in many systems for many different functions. The quality of the water directly impacts the ability of the system to function reliably. For example, in the power plant thermal cycle, the hardness of the water is critical to the heat transfer capability of the tubes in the boiler. Treatment of the water systems at the power plant utilizes various processes or series of processes depending on the type of material being removed from the water system and for the service that it will be placed in. The processes include the following: sedimentation, clarification, filtration, softening, oxidation, degasification, and demineralization. Demineralization can further be broken down into the processes used to remove minerals and ions and these three processes are evaporation, ion exchange, and reverse osmosis.

  • Integrated Device Level Simulation Techniques

    In this chapter, integrated device level simulation techniques are introduced, including relativistic binary-collision model, Intra-Nuclear Cascade (INC) model, evaporation model, automated device model builder based on GDS-II files, ion-tracking model and charge deposition and collection model. Since soft-error simulation results including multi cell upset (MCU) features downsize of down to 22 nm process devices are reported in detail elsewhere, major numerical techniques applied in COsmic Radiation IMpact Simulator (CORIMS) are highlighted and only typical results for fault-based upper-bound simulation with four fault modes such as cell-mode, bit-mode, ALPEN-mode and bipolar-mode by terrestrial radiation of most terrestrial particles are demonstrated. This chapter may be skipped for those who are not responsible for single event effect (SEE) simulation with detailed device modelling.

  • Strategies to Improve Sentences with Qualifiers

    This chapter demonstrates that there is a limit to the number of qualifiers that can be added to a sentence. It discusses the general rule for multiple qualifiers. It considers some attempts to insert three or more qualifiers in a sentence. Sentences with too many qualifiers can be clarified by breaking such sentences into two or more, with no more than two qualifiers in each sentence. Combining the two sentences may strengthen the relationship between the points made (separately) in the two sentences. The chapter presents some actual examples for which a repositioning of qualifiers¿¿-¿¿ both major and minor qualifiers¿¿-¿¿can provide additional clarity. The examples will be arranged within three categories, each of which suggests a reason for a potential repositioning: (1) to ensure that qualifiers are in close proximity to their antecedents, (2) to achieve closer subject/verb proximity, and (3) to correct ?>wayward?> prepositional phrases.

  • Electrohydrodynamics of Unipolar Ion Flows

    The ion flow identifies with a subsonic ion drift guided by the pattern of an electric field, and, as such, it can only assume a filamentary space structure. This issue is what characterizes this chapter as a whole. Ancillary sections of the chapter progressively introduce the reader into the multichanneled scenario of moving ions. The chapter discusses the combined mass-charge notion and the specialized conservation laws for charge, mass, momentum, and energy, as well as about Gauss's law, ion mobility, and Deutsch's hypothesis. It discusses the ion-drift equation and ion wind generation and propagation. The chapter ends with a discussion on Laplacian structure for ion flows.