Conferences related to Fossil Fuels

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OCEANS 2016

The Marine Technology Scociety and the Oceanic Engineering Society of the IEEE cosponor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, and policy. The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 500 technical papers and 150 -200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2015 - MTS/IEEE Washington

    The Marine Technology Scociety and the Oceanic Engineering Society of the IEEE cosponor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, and policy. The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 450 technical papers and 150-200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2014

    The OCEANS conference covers four days. One day for tutorials and three for approx. 450 technical papers and 150-200 exhibits.

  • OCEANS 2013

    Three days of 8-10 tracks of technical sessions (400-450 papers) and concurent exhibition (150-250 exhibitors)

  • OCEANS 2012

    Ocean related technology. Tutorials and three days of technical sessions and exhibits. 8-12 parallel technical tracks.

  • OCEANS 2011

    The Marine Technology Society and the Oceanic Engineering Scociety of the IEEE cosponsor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science engineering, and policy.

  • OCEANS 2010

    The Marine Technology Society and the Oceanic Engineering Scociety of the IEEE cosponsor a joint annual conference and exposition on ocean science engineering, and policy.

  • OCEANS 2009

  • OCEANS 2008

    The Marine Technology Society (MTS) and the Oceanic Engineering Society (OES) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) cosponsor a joint conference and exposition on ocean science, engineering, education, and policy. Held annually in the fall, it has become a focal point for the ocean and marine community to meet, learn, and exhibit products and services. The conference includes technical sessions, workshops, student poster sessions, job fairs, tutorials and a large exhibit.

  • OCEANS 2007

  • OCEANS 2006

  • OCEANS 2005


2014 IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference

North America's premier conference for the cement industry, attracting management and technical personnel from cement manufacturing plants and corporate offices from North, Central and South America, Europe and Asia. Includes three days of technical meetings and presentations, three afternoons of exhibits, four evenings of hospitality suites and a plant tour.

  • 2013 IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference

    The 2013 IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference being held at the Walt Disney World Dolphin Resort in Orlando is the leading technical conference for the cement industry. Please join us for tutorials and technical papers on a variety of topics related to the manufacturing of Portland cements.

  • 2012 IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference

    cement Industry technical conference and Exhibits

  • 2011 IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Conference

    The topics for the conference include 4-5 Tutorial's on Drives, Genreral Practices, Environmental & Safety, Power and Distribution. Then there is the presentation of the Technical Papers that is presented on Tuesday and Wednesday of the conference.

  • 2010 IEEE-IAS/PCA 52nd Cement Industry Technical Conference

    North America's premier conference for the cement industry, attracting management and technical personnel from cement manufacturing plants and corporate offices from North, Central and South America, Europe and Asia. Includes three days of technical meetings and presentations, three afternoons of exhibits, four evenings of hospitality suites and a plant tour.

  • 2009 IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Conference

    Annual cement industry technical workshops / Papers.


2012 7th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)

Industrial Informatics, Computational Intelligence, Control and Systems, Energy and Environment, Mechatronics, Power Electronics, Signal Processing, Network and Communication Technologies.

  • 2011 6th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)

    Industrial Informatics, Computational Intelligence, Control and Systems, Energy and Environment, Mechatronics, Power Electronics, Signal Processing, Network and Communication Technologies, Aerospace, Engineering Education.

  • 2010 5th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)

    Industrial Informatics, Computational Intelligence, Control and Systems, Energy and Environment, Mechatronics, Power Electronics, Signal Processing, Network and Communication Technologies.

  • 2009 4th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)

    Industrial Informatics, Computational Intelligence, Control and Systems, Energy and Environment, Mechatronics, Power Electronics, Signal Processing, Network and Communication Technologies, Aerospace Electronic and Information System.

  • 2008 3rd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA)

    Automation, Computer Intelligence, Control Systems and Applications, Energy and Environment, Mechatronics, Power Electronics, Signal Processing, Network and Communication Technologies and Emerging Technologies


2012 IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology - (POWERCON 2012)

The theme of this conference is Towards Smarter Resilient and Economic Power Systems . This is topical in the context of emerging trends of Smart Grids; resilience of electricity infrastructure to recent earthquakes, floods, nuclear-meltdown in the Asia-Pacifc region; and, trends towards Emission Trading Scheme and increased participation of private capital markets into electricity generation. A flavour of this theme in the context of New Zealand will be highlight to all our international participants.

  • 2010 International Conference on Power System Technology - (POWERCON 2010)

    distributed generation, renewables generation and its integration into power systems, UHV transmission, wide area interconnections, development of smart grid, energy storage, energy saving and emission reduction.

  • 2008 Joint International Conference on Power System Technology (POWERCON) and IEEE Power India Conference

    State-of-the-art lectures and tutorials by experts, and papers by practicing Engineers and Researchers will be presented in the areas of Power System Analysis , Computing and Economics, Modelling and Dynamic Performance, FACTS and HVDC, Restructured Energy Systems, Control and Operation, Communication and Control, Relaying and Protection, Energy Management System and Distribution Automation, Applications of Power Electronics and Power Quality, Distributed Generation & Renewable Energy Sources

  • 2006 International Conference on Power System Technology - (POWERCON 2006)


2012 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC)

Hydropower Engineering, Thermal Power Engineering, Nuclear Power Engineering, New and Renewable Sources of Energy, Power Transmission and Distribution Techniques, Power Systems Management, Smart Grid, Best Practice.

  • 2011 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC)

    Hydropower Engineering, Thermal Power Engineering, Nuclear Power Engineering, New and Renewable Sources of Energy, Power Transmission and Distribution Techniques, Power Systems Management, Smart Grid, Best Practice

  • 2010 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC)

    Hydropower Engineering, Thermal Power Engineering, Nuclear Power Engineering, New and Renewable Sources of Energy, Power Transmission and Distribution Techniques, Power Systems Management, Smart Grid, Best Practice



Periodicals related to Fossil Fuels

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Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.


Plasma Science, IEEE Transactions on

Plasma science and engineering, including: magnetofluid dynamics and thermionics; plasma dynamics; gaseous electronics and arc technology; controlled thermonuclear fusion; electron, ion, and plasma sources; space plasmas; high-current relativistic electron beams; laser-plasma interactions; diagnostics; plasma chemistry and colloidal and solid-state plasmas.


Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE

This magazine is devoted to all aspects of the electric power field involving planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and control of power systems.


Proceedings of the IEEE

The most highly-cited general interest journal in electrical engineering and computer science, the Proceedings is the best way to stay informed on an exemplary range of topics. This journal also holds the distinction of having the longest useful archival life of any EE or computer related journal in the world! Since 1913, the Proceedings of the IEEE has been the ...




Xplore Articles related to Fossil Fuels

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Single phase AC drive for isolated solar photovoltaic water pumping system

Jyoti H. Ugale; M. S. Panse 2015 International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT), 2015

In rural areas, the isolated solar photovoltaic water pumping system is the most effective system to pump the water for drinking water, water treatment and agriculture purpose. Today also, Life in rural areas run without electricity due to the growing demand of electricity and increasing cost of fossil fuel. This paper explained about the single phase AC drive for solar ...


Big Data + Big Cities: Graph Signals of Urban Air Pollution [Exploratory SP]

Rishee K. Jain; Jose M. F. Moura; Constantine E. Kontokosta IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2014

In this article, we apply signal processing and data science methodologies to study the environmental impact of burning different types of heating oil in New York City, where currently the burning of heavy fuel oil in buildings produces more annual black carbon, a key component of PM2.5, emissions, than all cars and trucks combined. The data utilized in this article ...


Global renewable electricity potential

F. R. Pazheri; A. A. Al-Arainy; M. F. Othman; N. H. Malik 2013 7th IEEE GCC Conference and Exhibition (GCC), 2013

Due to the concern in the rising of global warming and in the dwindling supply of fossil fuels, global exploitation of renewable energy technologies is increasing spontaneously. Most of the countries in the world are blessed with two or more renewable energy sources (RES) and hence have formulated policies to boost the utilization of RES for their electricity production. In ...


Nuclear Fission Fuel is Inexhaustible

H. Douglas Lightfoot; Wallace Manheimer; Daniel A. Meneley; Duane Pendergast; George S. Stanford 2006 IEEE EIC Climate Change Conference, 2006

Nuclear fission energy is as inexhaustible as those energies usually termed ldquorenewablerdquo, such as hydro, wind, solar, and biomass. But, unlike the sum of these energies, nuclear fission energy has sufficient capacity to replace fossil fuels as they become scarce. Replacement of the current thermal variety of nuclear fission reactors with nuclear fission fast reactors, which are 100 times more ...


Rooftop solar projects enhance the environmental friendly power dispatch in Kerala

F. R. Pazheri; Saudi Aramco; Tiju Baby; O. K. Safoora 2014 International Conference on Advances in Energy Conversion Technologies (ICAECT), 2014

Renewable energy sources have been the backbone of our energy system during most of human history. It is increasingly becoming accepted that renewable energy has a decisive place in the future energy system and that the "future" may not be very far away, considering not just issues of their uneven distribution over the earth but also their greenhouse gas emissions ...


More Xplore Articles

Educational Resources on Fossil Fuels

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eLearning

Single phase AC drive for isolated solar photovoltaic water pumping system

Jyoti H. Ugale; M. S. Panse 2015 International Conference on Green Computing and Internet of Things (ICGCIoT), 2015

In rural areas, the isolated solar photovoltaic water pumping system is the most effective system to pump the water for drinking water, water treatment and agriculture purpose. Today also, Life in rural areas run without electricity due to the growing demand of electricity and increasing cost of fossil fuel. This paper explained about the single phase AC drive for solar ...


Big Data + Big Cities: Graph Signals of Urban Air Pollution [Exploratory SP]

Rishee K. Jain; Jose M. F. Moura; Constantine E. Kontokosta IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 2014

In this article, we apply signal processing and data science methodologies to study the environmental impact of burning different types of heating oil in New York City, where currently the burning of heavy fuel oil in buildings produces more annual black carbon, a key component of PM2.5, emissions, than all cars and trucks combined. The data utilized in this article ...


Global renewable electricity potential

F. R. Pazheri; A. A. Al-Arainy; M. F. Othman; N. H. Malik 2013 7th IEEE GCC Conference and Exhibition (GCC), 2013

Due to the concern in the rising of global warming and in the dwindling supply of fossil fuels, global exploitation of renewable energy technologies is increasing spontaneously. Most of the countries in the world are blessed with two or more renewable energy sources (RES) and hence have formulated policies to boost the utilization of RES for their electricity production. In ...


Nuclear Fission Fuel is Inexhaustible

H. Douglas Lightfoot; Wallace Manheimer; Daniel A. Meneley; Duane Pendergast; George S. Stanford 2006 IEEE EIC Climate Change Conference, 2006

Nuclear fission energy is as inexhaustible as those energies usually termed ldquorenewablerdquo, such as hydro, wind, solar, and biomass. But, unlike the sum of these energies, nuclear fission energy has sufficient capacity to replace fossil fuels as they become scarce. Replacement of the current thermal variety of nuclear fission reactors with nuclear fission fast reactors, which are 100 times more ...


Rooftop solar projects enhance the environmental friendly power dispatch in Kerala

F. R. Pazheri; Saudi Aramco; Tiju Baby; O. K. Safoora 2014 International Conference on Advances in Energy Conversion Technologies (ICAECT), 2014

Renewable energy sources have been the backbone of our energy system during most of human history. It is increasingly becoming accepted that renewable energy has a decisive place in the future energy system and that the "future" may not be very far away, considering not just issues of their uneven distribution over the earth but also their greenhouse gas emissions ...


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Hydrogen's Discovery: Phlogiston and Inflammable Air

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. An invisible, tasteless, colorless gas, it can be converted to nonpolluting, zero-emission, renewable energy. When burned in an internal combustion engine, hydrogen produces mostly harmless water vapor. It performs even better in fuel cells, which can be 2.5 times as efficient as internal-combustion engines. Zero- emission hydrogen does not contribute to CO2-caused global warming. Abundant and renewable, it is unlikely to be subject to geopolitical pressures or scarcity concerns. In this new edition of his pioneering book Tomorrow's Energy, Peter Hoffmann makes the case for hydrogen as the cornerstone of a new energy economy. Hoffmann covers the major aspects of hydrogen production, storage, transportation, fuel use, and safety. He explains that hydrogen is not an energy source but a carrier, like electricity, and introduces the concept of "hydricity," the essential interchangeability of electricity and hydrogen. He brings the hydrogen story up to date, reporting on the latest developments, including new hydrogen and fuel-cell cars from GM, Daimler, BMW, Honda, and Toyota. He describes recent political controversies, including Obama administration Energy Secretary (and Nobel laureate in Physics) Steven Chu's inexplicable dismissal of hydrogen--which puts him at odds with major automakers, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and others. Our current energy system is a complex infrastructure, and phasing in hydrogen will take effort and money. But if we consider the real costs of fossil fuels--pollution and its effects, international tensions over gas and oil supplies, and climate change--we would be wise to promote its development.

  • Producing Hydrogen from Water, Natural Gas, and Green Plants

    This chapter contains sections titled: Early Examples: Electrolysis in the Desert, Hydrogen Production: Count the Ways, The Holy Grail: Extracting Hydrogen from Water, Electrolyzers, Splitting Steam, Thermochemical Water Splitting, Producing Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels and by Other Means

  • Index

    In Energy at the Crossroads, Vaclav Smil considers the twenty-first century's crucial question: how to reconcile the modern world's unceasing demand for energy with the absolute necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere. With this book he offers a comprehensive, accessible guide to today's complex energy issues -- how to think clearly and logically about what is possible and what is desirable in our energy future.After a century of unprecedented production growth, technical innovation, and expanded consumption, the world faces a number of critical energy challenges arising from unequal resource distribution, changing demand patterns, and environmental limitations. The fundamental message of Energy at the Crossroads is that our dependence on fossil fuels must be reduced not because of any imminent resource shortages but because the widespread burning of oil, coal, and natural gas damages the biosphere and presents increasing economic and security problems as the world relies on more expensive supplies and Middle Eastern crude oil.Smil begins with an overview of the twentieth century's long-term trends and achievements in energy production. He then discusses energy prices, the real cost of energy, and "energy linkages" -- the effect energy issues have on the economy, on quality of life, on the environment, and in wartime. He discusses the pitfalls of forecasting, giving many examples of failed predictions and showing that unexpected events can disprove complex models. And he examines the pros and cons not only of fossil fuels but also of alternative fuels such as hydroenergy, biomass energy, wind power, and solar power. Finally, he considers the future, focusing on what really matters, what works, what is realistic, and which outcomes are most d esirable.

  • Table of Conversion Factors for Units of Measure

    Design or build a battery-powered electric bicycle For much of the world, bicycles are a transportation mainstay. Electric bicycles——powered by a rechargeable battery pack——are proven to deliver the highest possible energy efficiency, even compared to pedal bikes. A transportation alternative to fossil fuels, electric bicycles are fast catching on, in part because they don't require factory assembly. End-users can easily construct them with available components.The text reveals important techniques, data, and examples that allow readers to judge various propulsion setups——used in both home- and factory-made bikes——and estimate speed and travel distance for each. Numerous charts clearly present the costs, benefits, and trade-offs between both commercial and user-converted models.Key features include: Estimating motor-performance for wind, hill, and cruising power requirements Estimating battery capacity and a thorough description of battery charging Motor and motor-control options Evaluating motor-to-wheel coupling options Placement of propulsion components Configurations and performance How systems-engineering techniques can produce electric-bicycle designs that have long travel range and low life-cycle cost Testing Developments to watchA comprehensive resource for harnessing innovation, Electric Bicycles is the definitive practical guide to taking full advantage of this exciting alternative energy technology.

  • References

    Energy in Nature and Society is a systematic and exhaustive analysis of all the major energy sources, storages, flows, and conversions that have shaped the evolution of the biosphere and civilization. Vaclav Smil uses fundamental unifying metrics (most notably for power density and energy intensity) to provide an integrated framework for analyzing all segments of energetics (the study of energy flows and their transformations). The book explores not only planetary energetics (such as solar radiation and geomorphic processes) and bioenergetics (photosynthesis, for example) but also human energetics (such as metabolism and thermoregulation), tracing them from hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies through modern-day industrial civilization. Included are chapters on heterotrophic conversions, traditional agriculture, preindustrial complexification, fossil fuels, fossil-fueled civilization, the energetics of food, and the implications of energetics for the environment. The book concludes with an examination of general patterns, trends, and socioeconomic considerations of energy use today, looking at correlations between energy and value, energy and the economy, energy and quality of life, and energy futures. Throughout the book, Smil chooses to emphasize the complexities and peculiarities of the real world, and the counterintuitive outcomes of many of its processes, over abstract models. Energy in Nature and Society provides a unique, comprehensive, single-volume analysis and reference source on all important energy matters, from natural to industrial energy flows, from fuels to food, from the Earth's formation to possible energy futures, and can serve as a text for courses in energy studies, global ecology, earth systems science, biology, and chemistry. Vaclav Smil is Distinguished Professor at the University of Manitoba and the author of many books, including Energy at the Crossroads (2003), The Earth's Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics, and Change (2002), and Energies: An Illustrated Guide to the Biosphere and Civilization (1998), all of which are published by The MIT Press.

  • Index

    In this book, Vaclav Smil argues that power density is a key determinant of the nature and dynamics of energy systems. Any understanding of complex energy systems must rely on quantitative measures of many fundamental variables. Power density -- the rate of energy flux per unit of area -- is an important but largely overlooked measure. Smil provides the first systematic, quantitative appraisal of power density, offering detailed reviews of the power densities of renewable energy flows, fossil fuels, thermal electricity generation, and all common energy uses. Smil shows that careful quantification, critical appraisals, and revealing comparisons of power densities make possible a deeper understanding of the ways we harness, convert, and use energies. Conscientious assessment of power densities, he argues, proves particularly revealing when contrasting the fossil fuel--based energy system with renewable energy conversions. Smil explains that modern civilization has evolve as a direct expression of the high power densities of fossil fuel extraction. He argues that our inevitable (and desirable) move to new energy arrangements involving conversions of lower-density renewable energy sources will require our society -- currently dominated by megacities and concentrated industrial production -- to undergo a profound spatial restructuring of its energy system.

  • Index

    Design or build a battery-powered electric bicycle For much of the world, bicycles are a transportation mainstay. Electric bicycles——powered by a rechargeable battery pack——are proven to deliver the highest possible energy efficiency, even compared to pedal bikes. A transportation alternative to fossil fuels, electric bicycles are fast catching on, in part because they don't require factory assembly. End-users can easily construct them with available components.The text reveals important techniques, data, and examples that allow readers to judge various propulsion setups——used in both home- and factory-made bikes——and estimate speed and travel distance for each. Numerous charts clearly present the costs, benefits, and trade-offs between both commercial and user-converted models.Key features include: Estimating motor-performance for wind, hill, and cruising power requirements Estimating battery capacity and a thorough description of battery charging Motor and motor-control options Evaluating motor-to-wheel coupling options Placement of propulsion components Configurations and performance How systems-engineering techniques can produce electric-bicycle designs that have long travel range and low life-cycle cost Testing Developments to watchA comprehensive resource for harnessing innovation, Electric Bicycles is the definitive practical guide to taking full advantage of this exciting alternative energy technology.

  • Index

    With the advent of modernity, the sharing of resources and infrastructures rapidly expanded beyond local communities into regional, national, and even transnational space -- nowhere as visibly as in Europe, with its small-scale political divisions. This volume views these shared resource spaces as the seedbeds of a new generation of technology-rich bureaucratic and transnational commons. Drawing on the theory of cosmopolitanism, which seeks to model the dynamics of an increasingly interdependent world, and on the tradition of commons scholarship inspired by the late Elinor Ostrom, the book develops a new theory of "cosmopolitan commons" that provides a framework for merging the study of technology with such issues as risk, moral order, and sustainability at levels beyond the nation-state. After laying out the theoretical framework, the book presents case studies that explore the empirical nuances: airspace as transport commons, radio broadcasting, hydropower, weather forecasting and genetic diversity as information commons, transboundary air pollution, and two "capstone" studies of interlinked, temporally layered commons: one on overlapping commons within the North Sea for freight, fishing, and fossil fuels; and one on commons for transport, salmon fishing, and clean water in the Rhine.Contributors:Håkon With Andersen, Nil Disco, Paul N. Edwards, Arne Kaijser, Eda Kranakis, Kristiina Korjonen-Kuusipuro, Tiago Saraiva, Nina WormbsThe hardcover edition does not include a dust jacket.

  • Name Index

    Energy in Nature and Society is a systematic and exhaustive analysis of all the major energy sources, storages, flows, and conversions that have shaped the evolution of the biosphere and civilization. Vaclav Smil uses fundamental unifying metrics (most notably for power density and energy intensity) to provide an integrated framework for analyzing all segments of energetics (the study of energy flows and their transformations). The book explores not only planetary energetics (such as solar radiation and geomorphic processes) and bioenergetics (photosynthesis, for example) but also human energetics (such as metabolism and thermoregulation), tracing them from hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies through modern-day industrial civilization. Included are chapters on heterotrophic conversions, traditional agriculture, preindustrial complexification, fossil fuels, fossil-fueled civilization, the energetics of food, and the implications of energetics for the environment. The book concludes with an examination of general patterns, trends, and socioeconomic considerations of energy use today, looking at correlations between energy and value, energy and the economy, energy and quality of life, and energy futures. Throughout the book, Smil chooses to emphasize the complexities and peculiarities of the real world, and the counterintuitive outcomes of many of its processes, over abstract models. Energy in Nature and Society provides a unique, comprehensive, single-volume analysis and reference source on all important energy matters, from natural to industrial energy flows, from fuels to food, from the Earth's formation to possible energy futures, and can serve as a text for courses in energy studies, global ecology, earth systems science, biology, and chemistry. Vaclav Smil is Distinguished Professor at the University of Manitoba and the author of many books, including Energy at the Crossroads (2003), The Earth's Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics, and Change (2002), and Energies: An Illustrated Guide to the Biosphere and Civilization (1998), all of which are published by The MIT Press.

  • How Power Density Matters

    In this book, Vaclav Smil argues that power density is a key determinant of the nature and dynamics of energy systems. Any understanding of complex energy systems must rely on quantitative measures of many fundamental variables. Power density -- the rate of energy flux per unit of area -- is an important but largely overlooked measure. Smil provides the first systematic, quantitative appraisal of power density, offering detailed reviews of the power densities of renewable energy flows, fossil fuels, thermal electricity generation, and all common energy uses. Smil shows that careful quantification, critical appraisals, and revealing comparisons of power densities make possible a deeper understanding of the ways we harness, convert, and use energies. Conscientious assessment of power densities, he argues, proves particularly revealing when contrasting the fossil fuel--based energy system with renewable energy conversions. Smil explains that modern civilization has evolve as a direct expression of the high power densities of fossil fuel extraction. He argues that our inevitable (and desirable) move to new energy arrangements involving conversions of lower-density renewable energy sources will require our society -- currently dominated by megacities and concentrated industrial production -- to undergo a profound spatial restructuring of its energy system.




Jobs related to Fossil Fuels

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