Conferences related to Fabrication

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2019 20th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems & Eurosensors XXXIII (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXXIII)

The world's premiere conference in MEMS sensors, actuators and integrated micro and nano systems welcomes you to attend this four-day event showcasing major technological, scientific and commercial breakthroughs in mechanical, optical, chemical and biological devices and systems using micro and nanotechnology.The major areas of activity in the development of Transducers solicited and expected at this conference include but are not limited to: Bio, Medical, Chemical, and Micro Total Analysis Systems Fabrication and Packaging Mechanical and Physical Sensors Materials and Characterization Design, Simulation and Theory Actuators Optical MEMS RF MEMS Nanotechnology Energy and Power


2019 IEEE 15th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE)

The conference is the primary forum for cross-industry and multidisciplinary research in automation. Its goal is to provide a broad coverage and dissemination of foundational research in automation among researchers, academics, and practitioners.


2019 IEEE 69th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC)

premier components, packaging and technology conference


2018 11th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

The main theme of the GSMM2018 is Millimeter-wave Propagation: Hardware, Measurements and Systems. It covers millimeter-wave and THz devices, circuits, systems, and applications, with a special focus on mmWave propagation. The conference will include keynote talks, technical sessions, panels, and exhibitions on the listed topics.

  • 2017 10th Global Symposium on Millimeter-Waves (GSMM)

    The main theme of the symposium is Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Sensing and Communications. It covers millimeter- wave and THz antennas, circuits, devices, systems and applications.

  • 2016 Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM) & ESA Workshop on Millimetre-Wave Technology and Applications

    The main theme of the conference is millimeter-wave and terahertz sensing and communications and the conference covers different topics related to millimeter-wave and terahertz technologies, such as: antennas and propagation, passive and active devices, radio astronomy, earth observation and remote sensing, communications, wireless power transfer, integration and packaging, photonic systems, and emerging technologies.

  • 2015 Global Symposium On Millimeter Waves (GSMM)

    The main theme of the GSMM 2015 is “Future Millimeter-wave and Terahertz Wireless and Wireline”. It will cover all emerging and future millimeter wave and terahertz software and hardware aspects ranging from communicating devices, circuits, systems and applications to passive and active sensing and imaging technologies and applications. The GSMM 2015 will feature world-class keynote speeches, technical sessions, panel discussions and industrial exhibitions in the following (but not limited to) topics listed below.In addition to the regular program, the GSMM 2015 will organize a unique industrial forum for presenting and discussing future wireless technologies and trends including 5G and Terahertz Wireless Systems.

  • 2012 5th Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM 2012)

    The aim of the conferences is to bring together people involved in research and development of millimeter-wave components, equipment and systems, and to explore common areas.

  • 2009 Global Symposium On Millimeter Waves (GSMM 2009)

    The GSMM2009 will be held in Sendai, Japan from April 20 to April 22, 2009. The GSMM2009 is the second international conference in its name after the three conferences of TSMMW, MINT-MIS, and MilliLab Workshop on Millimeter-wave Technology and Applications were integrated into GSMM (Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves) in 2007. The main theme of the GSMM2009 is "Millimeter Wave Communications at Hand" and it will focus on millimeter wave devices and systems to realize Giga-bit wireless applications. The

  • 2008 Global Symposium On Millimeter Waves (GSMM 2008)

    Frequency Management and Utilization, Millimeter-Wave Communication Systems, Devices and Circuit Technologies, Wireless Access Systems, Mobile Access Systems, Satellite Communications, LANs and PANs, Home Link Systems, Photonics, Antennas and Propagation, Phased Array Antennas, Signal Processing, Wearable Devices and Systems, Automotive Radars and Remote Sensing, Supporting and Related Technologies


2018 20th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'18 ECCE Europe)

Energy conversion and conditioning technologies, power electronics, adjustable speed drives and their applications, power electronics for smarter grid, energy efficiency,technologies for sustainable energy systems, converters and power supplies


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Periodicals related to Fabrication

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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging has its focus on the modeling, design, and analysis of advanced electronic, photonic, sensors, and MEMS packaging.


Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on

Experimental and theoretical advances in antennas including design and development, and in the propagation of electromagnetic waves including scattering, diffraction and interaction with continuous media; and applications pertinent to antennas and propagation, such as remote sensing, applied optics, and millimeter and submillimeter wave techniques.


Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on

Contains articles on the applications and other relevant technology. Electronic applications include analog and digital circuits employing thin films and active devices such as Josephson junctions. Power applications include magnet design as well asmotors, generators, and power transmission


Automation Science and Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

The IEEE Transactions on Automation Sciences and Engineering (T-ASE) publishes fundamental papers on Automation, emphasizing scientific results that advance efficiency, quality, productivity, and reliability. T-ASE encourages interdisciplinary approaches from computer science, control systems, electrical engineering, mathematics, mechanical engineering, operations research, and other fields. We welcome results relevant to industries such as agriculture, biotechnology, healthcare, home automation, maintenance, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, retail, ...


Biomedical Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

The Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems addresses areas at the crossroads of Circuits and Systems and Life Sciences. The main emphasis is on microelectronic issues in a wide range of applications found in life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. The primary goal of the journal is to bridge the unique scientific and technical activities of the Circuits and Systems ...


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Most published Xplore authors for Fabrication

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Xplore Articles related to Fabrication

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Direct and all-dry fabrication of paper-based microfluidic device using parylene-C deposition and maskless microplasma writing

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Department of Micro/Nano-electronics, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro fabrication of Ministry of Education, and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China', u'full_name': u'Tao Wang'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Department of Micro/Nano-electronics, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro fabrication of Ministry of Education, and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China', u'full_name': u'M. S. Hu'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Department of Micro/Nano-electronics, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro fabrication of Ministry of Education, and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China', u'full_name': u'Bin Yang'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Department of Micro/Nano-electronics, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro fabrication of Ministry of Education, and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China', u'full_name': u'X. L. Wang'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Department of Micro/Nano-electronics, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro fabrication of Ministry of Education, and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China', u'full_name': u'Xiang Chen'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Department of Micro/Nano-electronics, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro fabrication of Ministry of Education, and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China', u'full_name': u'Jing-Quan Liu'}] 2018 IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2018

This paper reports a novel and simple method for direct and all-dry fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices using parylene-C deposition and maskless atmospheric pressure microplasma writing. Microplasma jet with diameter of about 10 μm was demonstrated to investigate the feasibility of this method in this paper and well defined hydrophilic-hydrophobic contrast channels are fabricated. By controlling the diameter of the ...


Design and fabrication of a TSV interposer for SRAM integration

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Yunhui Zhu'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Shenglin Ma'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Qinghu Cui'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Wenping Kang'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Zhiyuan Zhu'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Xin Sun'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Guanjiang Wang'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Mengmeng Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 9, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Jing Chen'}, {u'author_order': 10, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Min Miao'}, {u'author_order': 11, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Yufeng Jin'}] 2011 12th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging, 2011

TSV interposer provides a cost efficient solution way for 3D IC integration. In this paper, a TSV interposer technology is proposed for SRAM stacking. A simple fabrication process is developed for cost-sensitive application. The mushroomlike Cu/Sn bumps by copper overburden can be directly connected with other substrate, which eliminates a CMP planarization to improve the yield and reduce fabrication cost. ...


Wafer-level fabrication of a triboelectric energy harvester

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication Lab, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, CHINA', u'full_name': u'Mengdi Han'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication Lab, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, CHINA', u'full_name': u'Bocheng Yu'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication Lab, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, CHINA', u'full_name': u'Zongming Su'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication Lab, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, CHINA', u'full_name': u'Bo Meng'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication Lab, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, CHINA', u'full_name': u'Xiaoliang Cheng'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication Lab, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, CHINA', u'full_name': u'Xiao-Sheng Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication Lab, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, CHINA', u'full_name': u'Haixia Zhang'}] 2015 28th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2015

We present a wafer-level fabrication method for triboelectric energy harvester (TEH), which fabricates the TEH completely in batch fabrication process, without any manually assembly step. Finite element method (FEM) simulation was conducted to investigate the open-circuit potential distribution and short- circuit charge distribution. Experimental measurements show that this device can produce 235 mV peak voltage at the frequency of 30 ...


Fabrication of silica opal array with high mechanical strength

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Hui Li'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Wei Wang'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Huaiqiang Yu'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Renxin Wang'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Zewen Wei'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Zhihong Li'}] The 8th Annual IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, 2013

This paper focuses on fabrication of opal structures by self-assembling silica spheres, which can be used as an array of high throughput and low cost reactors or micro-filters. The reactors can carry out hundreds different reactions in parallel; while there is about 50 nano-liter reagent consumed in each reactor. It not only provides large surface area for reaction, but also ...


Design and fabrication of a mems capacitive accelerometer based on double-device-layers SOI wafer

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University 100871, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Qifang. Hu'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University 100871, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Chengchen. Gao'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University 100871, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Yilong. Hao'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University 100871, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Dacheng. Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University 100871, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Guizhen. Yan'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University 100871, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Yangxi. Zhang'}] 2010 IEEE 5th International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, 2010

This paper presents a capacitive MEMS accelerometer with highly symmetric sandwich structure (Glass-Si-Glass). In order to get highly symmetric beam- mass structure (silicon middle-layer), a double-device-layer SOI (D-SOI) wafer, which has identical buried oxides (BOX) and device layers on both sides of a thick handle layer was adopted in fabrication. The fabrication process produced proof mass with though wafer thickness ...


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Educational Resources on Fabrication

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No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Fabrication"

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Aperture Antennas in Application

    The already theory of aperture antennas is only part of the story in creating aperture antennas. This chapter introduces another side of antenna engineering, that of fabrication, measurement and testing. The principles of fabrication, measurement and test are summarized. These antennas are a lightweight horn for space flight, a dual reflector producing multiple beams and a radio telescope that operates with multiple beams to reduce observation time. Vital to the application of aperture antennas is their construction and testing, which often involves techniques that are suitable for the purpose within budget constraints. The fabrication of aperture antennas can be slightly different from other antennas, due to their geometry and often large dimensions. A variety of techniques are used, and some are described in the chapter. The design and fabrication of a compact, low‐sidelobe horn aperture antennas; the multibeam antenna design; and radio telescopes are also described.

  • Digital Optics Fabrication Techniques

    This chapter contains sections titled:Holographic OriginationDiamond Tool MachiningPhoto‐reductionMicrolithographic Fabrication of Digital OpticsMicro‐refractive Element Fabrication TechniquesDirect Writing TechniquesGray‐scale Optical LithographyFront/Back Side Wafer Alignments and Wafer StacksA Summary of Fabrication Techniques

  • Personal Fabrication

    While fabrication technologies have been in use in industry for several decades, expiring patents have recently allowed the technology to spill over to technology-enthusiastic “makers”. The big question now is whether the technology will further progress towards consumers, which would allow the technology to scale from hundreds of thousands of users to hundreds of millions of users. Such a transition would enable consumers to use computing not just to process data, but physical matter. This holds the promise of democratizing a whole range of fields preoccupied with physical objects, from product design to interior design, to carpentry, and some areas of mechanical and structural engineering. Personal Fabrication analyzes similar trends in the history of computing that made the transition from industry to consumers, such as desktop publishing and home video editing, and comes to the conclusion that such a transition is likely. The analysis also reveals, however, that any transition to consumers first requires a hardware and software system that embodies the skills and expert knowledge that consumers lack. These are: (1) hardware and materials that allow fabricating the intended objects, (2) software that embodies domain knowledge, (3) software that embodies the know- how required to operate the machinery, and (4) software that provides immediate feedback and supports interactive exploration. At the same time, sustained success will only be possible if we also consider future implications, in particular (5) sustainability and (6) intellectual property. Personal Fabrication argues that researchers in HCI and computer graphics are well equipped to tackle these six challenges. It surveys the already existing work and derives an actionable research agenda. While the main focus is on human-computer interaction and computer graphics, it also includes selected works from adjacent fields such as mechanical engineering, material science, and robotics.

  • Design and Fabrication of Electrospun PVDF Piezo-Energy Harvesters

    Nanogenerators capable of converting energy from mechanical sources to electricity with high effective efficiency using low-cost, nonsemiconducting, organic nanomaterials are attractive for many applications, including energy harvesters. In this work, near-field electrospinning is used to direct-write poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers with in situ mechanical stretch and electrical poling characteristics to produce piezoelectric properties. Under mechanical stretching, nanogenerators have shown repeatable and consistent electrical outputs with energy conversion efficiency an order of magnitude higher than those made of PVDF thin films. The early onset of the nonlinear domain wall motions behavior has been identified as one mechanism responsible for the apparent high piezoelectricity in nanofibers, rendering them potentially advantageous for sensing and actuation applications.

  • Design and Fabrication of Flexible Piezoelectric Generators Based on ZnO Thin Films

    The piezoelectric transducer for vibration-energy harvesting is constructed of a piezoelectric layer, bottom electrode and a top electrode. In order to obtain an appropriate transducer for the low-frequency operating; environmentally-friendly and long-term, the flexible substrate, the piezoelectric layer, and the additional mass-loading have been investigated thoroughly. Firstly, flexible piezoelectric harvesters based on ZnO (Zinc Oxide) thin films for self-powering and broad bandwidth applications. The design and simulation of a piezoelectric cantilever plate was described by using commercial software ANSYS FEA (finite element analysis) to determine the optimum thickness of PET substrate, internal stress distribution, operation frequency and electric potential. A modified design of a flexible piezoelectric energy-harvesting system with a serial bimorph of ZnO piezoelectric thin film was presented to enhance significantly higher power generation. This high-output system was examined at 15 Hz. The maximum DC (direct current) voltage output voltage with loading was 3.18 V, and the maximum DC power remained at 2.89 µW/cm2. Secondly, this investigation fabricates double-sided piezoelectric transducers for harvesting vibration- power. The double-sided piezoelectric transducer is constructed by depositing piezoelectric thin films. The Ti (titanium) and Pt (platinum) layers were deposited using a dual-gun DC sputtering system between the piezoelectric thin film and the back side of the SUS304 substrate. The maximum open circuit voltage of the double-sided ZnO power transducer is approximately 18 V. After rectification and filtering through a 33 nF capacitor, a specific power output of 1.3 µW/cm2 is obtained from the double-sided ZnO transducer with a load resistance of 6 M?>

  • Design and Fabrication of Rotary Electromagnetic Microgenerator

    This study focuses on the design, fabrication, test and application of in- plane rotary electromagnetic micro-generator to obtain a high power output. The micro-generator comprises multilayer planar low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) Ag micro-coil and multipole hard magnet of Nd/Fe/B. Finite element simulations have been carried out to observe electromagnetic information. The study also establishes analytical solutions for the micro- generator to predict the induced voltage. The experimental results show that the micro-generator with sector-shaped micro-coil has the highest power output of 1.89 mW, and the effective value of the induced voltage of 205.7 mV at 13,325 rpm is achieved. In application, this study designed and fabricated a planar rotary electromagnetic energy harvester with a low rotary speed for use in bicycle dynamos. LTCC technology was applied to fabricate Ag planar multilayer coils with 20 layers. A 28-pole magnet Nd/Fe/B with an outer diameter of 50 mm and a thickness of 2 mm was also sintered and magnetized. This harvester system was approximately 50×50×3 mm3 in volume. The experimentally induced voltages for 20-layer coils were 1.539 V at the rotary speeds of 300 rpm. The power output was 0.788 mW with an external resistance load of 740 O, and the efficiency was 26.62%. This harvester is capable of powering a minimum of 200 light emitted diodes (LEDs) (forward voltage (VF) <2.2 V and 20 mA) using a rotary speed of 250 rpm, and can be used for bicycle dynamo lighting.

  • Introduction

    n applications, microsystems have to be self-powered; therefore, efficient energy scavenging is crucial. The self-powered microsystems are designed to avoid the replacement of energy cells and miniature sensing devices. Vibration-based energy harvesting is a process of capturing ambient kinetic energy and converting it into usable electricity. The growing demand of cell phone devices such as miniature wireless sensor networks, the recent advent of the extremely low power controlled circuit and MEMS devices make such renewable power sources very attractive. In addition, the energy harvesting process is practicable with environmental vibrations such as running machines and human body movement. However, the wide range of environmental energy keeps harvester low efficiency when deployed in a stochastic surrounding vibration.

  • Fields Radiated by an Aperture

    This chapter presents the theory needed for analysing aperture antennas. It examines special cases of interest pertaining to the topic of radiation from an aperture. The parameters related to radiation that are used to describe the characteristics of radiation are defined. In the near‐field region, the field differs little from that in the aperture field itself although there are fluctuations due to diffraction from any nearby edges or rim and the phase will have become slightly non‐uniform. The exponential factor inside the integral contributes to a phase variation across the aperture, which is significant. The chapter talks about near‐field region, Fresnel zone, far‐field region, and far‐field radiation characteristics. The radiation pattern of an aperture antenna is sensitively dependent upon the phase distribution of the aperture field. Variation from the ideal uniform phase distribution causes phase aberrations.

  • Background Theory

    This chapter provides some background theory and introduces notation in preparation for use throughout the remainder of this text. The equations that were devised by James Clerk Maxwell and placed in differential form by Oliver Heaviside and Heinrich Hertz are introduced. Heaviside, and independently Hertz, reduced these 20 equations to the four vector field equations that are essentially used today. For Heaviside, the concepts of fields, symmetry and vector notation were vital. The partial field pairs, satisfy separate sets of Maxwell's equations. The time‐averaged conservation of energy in the electromagnetic field is given by Poynting's theorem. The chapter also summarizes the important concepts of field duality, equivalent sources and image theory. Finally, radiation from elementary sources is investigated, and this allows a description of some basic radiation parameters as well as an introduction to mutual coupling.

  • Appendix G Properties of Fock Functions for Convex Surfaces

    The Fock functions occur in the asymptotic representation of the circular cylinder and are also used in the description of general convex surfaces. These functions are integrals in the complex [See PDF for text that cannot be displayed in HTML]‐plane of the Airy integral or its derivative. A surface Fock function of the n‐th kind, order m, is defined in this chapter. Two families of functions are also defined in the chapter. These are known as soft and hard surface functions. A zero‐order hard surface Fock function of the first kind is required for an asymptotic expansion. Acoustic Fock functions arise in the asymptotic representation of the field scattered by or radiated from a curved surface. Two basic forms that are discussed in the chapter are soft acoustic Fock function and hard acoustic Fock function.



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