Germanium

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Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Germanium

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2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on Solid -State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAMs22. Phase Change Memory23. 3-Dimensional Memory24. MEMS Technology25. Thin Film Transistors26. Biosensors27. PV and Energy Harvesting28. Front End of Line (FEOL) R

  • 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High Kdielectric , Advance Memories , nano -electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices ,sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material erization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation,Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low -power, RF devices & circuits, ICCAD

  • 2010 IEEE 10th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High K dielectric , Advance Memories , nano-electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices , sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material characterization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation, Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low-power, RF devices & circuits, IC CAD .


2014 IEEE 45th Semiconductor Interface Specialists Conference (SISC)

The SISC provides a unique forum for device engineers, solid-state physicists, and materials scientists to discuss issues of common interest. Principal topics for discussion at SISC are semiconductor/insulator interfaces, the physics of insulating thin films, and the interaction among materials science, device physics, and state-of-the-art technology.


2013 23rd International Crimean Conference "Microwave & Telecommunication Technology" (CriMiCo)

The International Crimean Microwave Conference (CriMiCo) is held in Sevastopol, Ukraine, since 1991. During 22-year period it has been transformed into widely-known forum. Only in 2012 477 papers have been presented on theoretical, experimental, production and technological, application and historical aspects of microwave and telecommunication technologies. Authors of those papers are 1088 scientists and specialists from 184 universities and companies from 18 countries: Belarus, Great Britain, Vietnam, Germany, Israel, Spain, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, USA, Turkey, Ukraine, Finland, Czech Republic and Japan. The Conference is among the leading ones in Ukraine and CIS that is reflected in the specialized literature.


2006 IEEE Workshop on Microelectronics and Electron Devices (WMED)


2006 International Symposium on VLSI Technology, Systems, and Applications (VLSI-TSA-Tech)


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Periodicals related to Germanium

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Electron Device Letters, IEEE

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronic devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


Lightwave Technology, Journal of

All aspects of optical guided-wave science, technology, and engineering in the areas of fiber and cable technologies; active and passive guided-wave componentry (light sources, detectors, repeaters, switches, fiber sensors, etc.); integrated optics and optoelectronics; systems and subsystems; new applications; and unique field trials.


Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on

All aspects of the theory and applications of nuclear science and engineering, including instrumentation for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; particle accelerators and their controls; nuclear medicine and its application; effects of radiation on materials, components, and systems; reactor instrumentation and controls; and measurement of radiation in space.


Sensors Journal, IEEE

The Field of Interest of the IEEE Sensors Journal is the science and applications of sensing phenomena, including theory, design, and application of devices for sensing and transducing physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. The emphasis is on the electronics, physics, biology, and intelligence aspects of sensors and integrated sensor-actuators. (IEEE Guide for Authors) (The fields of interest of the IEEE ...


Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Integrated circuits and systems;VLSI based Architecture and applications; highspeed circuits and interconnect; mixed-signal SoC; speed/area/power/noise tradeoffs in CMOS circuits.




Xplore Articles related to Germanium

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Development of low-bandgap Ge and Si<sub>0.07</sub>Ge<sub>0.93</sub> solar cells for monolithic and mechanically-stacked cascade applications

R. Venkatasubramanian; M. L. Timmons; R. T. Pickett; T. S. Colpitts; J. S. Hils; J. A. Hutchby; P. A. Hes; C. L. Chu IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

Ge and Si0.07Ge0.93 materials are suitable for cascade solar cell applications in tandem with ~1.6 eV top cells in 1- and 100-sun space photovoltaic arrays. Ge homojunction cell performance, measured undo Spectrolab XT-10 and Hoffman simulators, is presented. Short-circuit current densities of as much as 70.5 mA/cm2 have been measured under the XT-10, suggesting excellent photocollection from the epitaxially grown ...


Graded-band-gap AlGaAs solar cells for AlGaAs/Ge cascade cells

M. L. Timmons; R. Venkatasubramanian; T. S. Colpitts; J. S. Hills; J. A. Hutchby; P. A. Iles; C. L. Chu IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

The development of a graded-emitter Al0.8Ga0.92 As cell that is to be incorporated in an AlGaAs/Ge cascade cell and that has essentially equaled the performance predicted by initial modeling is described. The AlxGa(1-x)As is graded from x=0.08 to 0.18 in a 0.25 μm thick emitter. The best measured efficiency for the structure under AM0 conditions is 19.5% using an Al ...


Strained Si n-FET featuring compliant SiGe Stress Transfer Layer (STL) and Si<inf>0.98</inf>C<inf>0.02</inf> source/drain stressors for performance enhancement

Grace Huiqi Wanga; Eng-Huat Toh; Doran Weeks; Trevan Landin; Jennifer Spear; Chih Hang Tung; Shawn G. Thomas; Ganesh Samudra; Yee-Chia Yeo 2007 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, 2007

We report the first demonstration of an n-channel transistor (n-FET) featuring a compliant Si0.75Ge0.25 stress transfer layer (STL) and in situ doped Si0.98C0.02 source/drain (S/D) stressors for performance enhancement. Due to the stress coupling between Si0.98C0.02 and the compliant SiGe STL, additional strain is imparted to the Si channel. Devices with gate length LG down to 30 nm were fabricated. ...


SiGe technology: application to wireless digital communications

C. Kermarrec; G. Dawe; T. Tewksbury; B. Meyerson; D. Harame; M. Gilbert Proceedings of 1994 IEEE Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Circuits Symposium, 1994

Heterojunction bipolar technology using SiGe epitaxial base grown by ultra high vacuum/chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) offers very high performance and very low cost for the production of wireless communication high frequency ICs. This paper reports on the status of SiGe HBT development and compares it with existing Si and GaAs technologies.<>


Pileup attenuation for spectroscopic signals using a sparse reconstruction

M. Lopatin; N. Moskovitch; T. Trigano; Y. Sepulcre 2012 IEEE 27th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, 2012

In the field of Gamma spectroscopy, the energy spectrum is a histogram of particle energies which is of interest in order to identify an unknown radioactive source. These energies are typically computed as the integral of electrical pulses generated the interaction of Gamma photons with a known semiconductor detector. Due to the finite resolution of the detector, close electrical pulses ...


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Educational Resources on Germanium

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eLearning

Development of low-bandgap Ge and Si<sub>0.07</sub>Ge<sub>0.93</sub> solar cells for monolithic and mechanically-stacked cascade applications

R. Venkatasubramanian; M. L. Timmons; R. T. Pickett; T. S. Colpitts; J. S. Hils; J. A. Hutchby; P. A. Hes; C. L. Chu IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

Ge and Si0.07Ge0.93 materials are suitable for cascade solar cell applications in tandem with ~1.6 eV top cells in 1- and 100-sun space photovoltaic arrays. Ge homojunction cell performance, measured undo Spectrolab XT-10 and Hoffman simulators, is presented. Short-circuit current densities of as much as 70.5 mA/cm2 have been measured under the XT-10, suggesting excellent photocollection from the epitaxially grown ...


Graded-band-gap AlGaAs solar cells for AlGaAs/Ge cascade cells

M. L. Timmons; R. Venkatasubramanian; T. S. Colpitts; J. S. Hills; J. A. Hutchby; P. A. Iles; C. L. Chu IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists, 1990

The development of a graded-emitter Al0.8Ga0.92 As cell that is to be incorporated in an AlGaAs/Ge cascade cell and that has essentially equaled the performance predicted by initial modeling is described. The AlxGa(1-x)As is graded from x=0.08 to 0.18 in a 0.25 μm thick emitter. The best measured efficiency for the structure under AM0 conditions is 19.5% using an Al ...


Strained Si n-FET featuring compliant SiGe Stress Transfer Layer (STL) and Si<inf>0.98</inf>C<inf>0.02</inf> source/drain stressors for performance enhancement

Grace Huiqi Wanga; Eng-Huat Toh; Doran Weeks; Trevan Landin; Jennifer Spear; Chih Hang Tung; Shawn G. Thomas; Ganesh Samudra; Yee-Chia Yeo 2007 International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, 2007

We report the first demonstration of an n-channel transistor (n-FET) featuring a compliant Si0.75Ge0.25 stress transfer layer (STL) and in situ doped Si0.98C0.02 source/drain (S/D) stressors for performance enhancement. Due to the stress coupling between Si0.98C0.02 and the compliant SiGe STL, additional strain is imparted to the Si channel. Devices with gate length LG down to 30 nm were fabricated. ...


SiGe technology: application to wireless digital communications

C. Kermarrec; G. Dawe; T. Tewksbury; B. Meyerson; D. Harame; M. Gilbert Proceedings of 1994 IEEE Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Circuits Symposium, 1994

Heterojunction bipolar technology using SiGe epitaxial base grown by ultra high vacuum/chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) offers very high performance and very low cost for the production of wireless communication high frequency ICs. This paper reports on the status of SiGe HBT development and compares it with existing Si and GaAs technologies.<>


Pileup attenuation for spectroscopic signals using a sparse reconstruction

M. Lopatin; N. Moskovitch; T. Trigano; Y. Sepulcre 2012 IEEE 27th Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel, 2012

In the field of Gamma spectroscopy, the energy spectrum is a histogram of particle energies which is of interest in order to identify an unknown radioactive source. These energies are typically computed as the integral of electrical pulses generated the interaction of Gamma photons with a known semiconductor detector. Due to the finite resolution of the detector, close electrical pulses ...


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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • About the Authors

    No abstract.

  • A Fully Integrated SiGe Receiver IC for 10Gb/s Data Rate

    A silicon germanium (SiGe) receiver IC is presented here which integrates most of the 10-Gb/s SONET receiver functions. The receiver combines an automatic gain control and clock and data recovery circuit (CDR) with a binary-type phase-locked loop, 1 : 8 demultiplexer, and a 27 - 1 pseudorandom bit sequence generator for self-testing. This work demonstrates a higher level of integration compared to other silicon designs as well as a CDR with SONET- compliant jitter characteristics. The receiver has a die size of 4.5 x 4.5 mm2 and consumes 4.5 W from -5 V.

  • Attenuation Characteristics of Conventional, Micromachined, and Superconducting Coplanar Waveguides

    In this chapter the attenuation characteristics of conventional, micromachined, and superconducting coplanar waveguides are presented. Closed form equations based on the conformal mapping technique, the mode-matching method, and the modified matched asymptotic expansion technique are presented in order to compute the attenuation constant of a coplanar waveguide. Recently silicon (Si) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) based integrated circuits have emerged for RF/microwave applications, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based switches and actuators are being explored for potential phased array antenna applications. This chapter examines the attenuation characteristics of coplanar waveguides on CMOS grade low- and high-resistivity silicon wafers, and on micromachined silicon wafers. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the attenuation characteristics of high-temperature superconducting coplanar waveguides.

  • Gate???on???Germanium Source Tunnel Field???Effect Transistor Enabling Sub???0.5???V Operation

    In this chapter, a novel device structure for a gate???on???germanium source (GoGeS) tunnel field???effect transistor (TFET) on a bulk silicon substrate is proposed for sub???0.5 V operation. Tunneling in line with the gate electric field, which increases the effective tunneling area and, hence, the ON???state current ION , is achieved in this device by constructing its gate on the germanium source region. To improve the subthreshold swing (SS), lateral carrier tunneling is eliminated by carefully designing the device structure. The use of a small gate???to???channel overlap results in reduced fringing???induced barrier lowering at the gate edge that further improves the SS and ION of the device. The spreading of the fringing electric field is also reduced by employing a step in the silicon channel region, which again improves both SS and ION . As a result of all these, supersteep SS and high ION are achieved, enabling sub???0.5 V operation of the proposed gate???on germanium source tunnel field???effect transistor (GoGeS TFET).

  • LeadingEdge Applications

    Chapter 4 provides an insight into some of the leading-edge applications, which have been enabled using the IBM advanced SiGe process technologies. These examples have been chosen to show both the leading-edge nature of the applications, but also the breadth of the application space - as initially discussed in the Introduction chapter. The chapter presents implementations of a wired SONET 40GB/s design, a 3G direct conversion receiver, a power amp for cellular radio, and a high-speed memory design. Key points brought out in this chapter include: Presents an OC768 40-56GB/s Wired serializer/deserializer design. Discussion of the design of a 3G W-CDMA direct conversion receiver. Presents an Ericsson power amp design for use in cellular phones. Presents a SiGe memory circuit design for use with high-speed micro- processors.

  • Technology Development

    Chapter 1 provides a detailed description of IBM's Silicon Germanium BiCMOS technology development program. This family of technologies provides high- performance SiGe HBTs combined with advanced CMOS enablement, and a variety of advanced passive devices critical for realizing an integrated AMS SoCs. The technologies have been utilized by internal and external customers through IBM's foundry offerings to produce ICs in a wide-ranging variety of applications - as discussed throughout the book. This chapter also reviews the IBM process development and integration methodologies, as well as the device characteristics. The discussions described how the development and device selection was geared towards usage in mixed-signal IC development. Key points brought out in this chapter include: The development of active devices, namely NPN bipolars and FETs. The development of advanced passive devices - such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors - as well as ESD protection devices. Overview of many of the issues in process integration, including manufacturing - namely predictability, reliability, and yield. Discussion of the technology implications of the different implementation choices.

  • Introduction to Conduction Theory&#x2014;Wannier Formalism and the Effective Mass

    This chapter contains sections titled: Perturbed Problem, Electrons in Germanium, Holes in Germanium and Silicon

  • Index

    No abstract.

  • Design Automation and Signal Integrity

    Chapter 3 discusses the enablement involving best-in-class design automation solutions - including the CAD tools environment, RF simulation algorithms, ESD CAD solutions, and signal integrity solutions for interconnect and substrate modeling. These offerings form together with the compact models, to form the design enablement for the customer. As such they are complex software engineering projects requiring very high quality and efficiency, and in the case of signal integrity the need for effective and efficient modeling usable by the design community. The chapter overviews the IBM design automation methodology, the ESD design automation offering, interconnect modeling requirements and solutions, and substrate isolation and modeling solutions. Key points brought out in this chapter include: Overview of IBM's design automation methodology. Discussion of the design automation environment for IBM's world-class ESD offering. Introduction to the complex topic of interconnect modeling and extraction, including transmission line modeling and substrate interactions to interconnects. Discussion of issues in substrate modeling and isolation, through co-ordinated TCAD and test-site activities at IBM.

  • Group IV Alloys for Advanced Nano??? and Optoelectronic Applications

    Mainstream semiconductor technology builds on elements of group IV within the periodic table. Crystalline silicon remains the principal base material, whereas germanium and carbon have entered the mainstream in the embedded source/drain technology, as well as in heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) used in BiCMOS technology. Recently, it has been shown that alloying Ge with Sn enables the fabrication of fundamental direct bandgap group IV semiconductors, as well as optically pumped GeSn lasers grown on Si. This achievement pave the route toward efficient and monolithically integrated group IV light emitters, that is, lasers, for electronic???photonic integrated circuits (EPICs) that could solve the emerging power consumption crisis in complementary metal???oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology by enabling optical on???chip and chip???to???chip data transfer. The large parasitic capacitances introduced by various layers of copper (Cu) interconnects demand high transistor ION currents, which could be reduced if some of the Cu lines are replaced by optical interconnects.



Standards related to Germanium

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American National Standard Calibration and Use of Germanium Spectrometers for the Measurement of Gamma-Ray Emission Rates of Radionuclides


American National Standard Calibration of Germanium Detectors for In-Situ Gamma-Ray Measurements


IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors

Same as for 325-1986. Following is the abstract for 325-1986: The basic requirements for qualifying Class 1E equipment with interfaces that are to be used in nuclear power generating stations are described. The principles, procedures, and methods of qualification are covered. These qualification requirements, when met, will confirm the adequacy of the equipment design under normal, abnormal, design basis event, ...


IEEE Standard Test Procedures for High-Purity Germanium Crystals for Radiation Detectors



Jobs related to Germanium

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