Germanium

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Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Germanium

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2019 44th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz)

Science, technology and applications spanning the millimeter-waves, terahertz and infrared spectral regions


2019 56th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

EDA (Electronics Design Automation) is becoming ever more important with the continuous scaling of semiconductor devices and the growing complexities of their use in circuits and systems. Demands for lower-power, higher-reliability and more agile electronic systems raise new challenges to both design and design automation of such systems. For the past five decades, the primary focus of research track at DAC has been to showcase leading-edge research and practice in tools and methodologies for the design of circuits and systems.

  • 2022 59th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2021 58th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2020 57th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2018 55th ACM//IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2017 54th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2016 53nd ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2015 52nd ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2014 51st ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    DAC Description for TMRF The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading

  • 2013 50th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 session on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organization attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2012 49th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference (DAC) is the premier event for the design of electronic circuits and systems, and for EDA and silicon solutions. DAC features a wide array of technical presentations plus over 200 of the leading electronics design suppliers

  • 2011 48th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference is the world s leading technical conference and tradeshow on electronic design and design automation. DAC is where the IC Design and EDA ecosystem learns, networks, and does business.

  • 2010 47th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference (DAC) is the premier event for the design of electronic circuits and systems, and for EDA and silicon solutions. DAC features a wide array of technical presentations plus over 200 of the leading electronics design suppliers.

  • 2009 46th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    DAC is the premier event for the electronic design community. DAC offers the industry s most prestigious technical conference in combination with the biggest exhibition, bringing together design, design automation and manufacturing market influencers.

  • 2008 45th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference (DAC) is the premier event for the design of electronic circuits and systems, and for EDA and silicon solutions. DAC features a wide array of technical presentations plus over 250 of the leading electronics design suppliers.

  • 2007 44th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference (DAC) is the premier Electronic Design Automation (EDA) and silicon solution event. DAC features over 50 technical sessions covering the latest in design methodologies and EDA tool developments and an Exhibition and Demo Suite area with over 250 of the leading EDA, silicon and IP Providers.

  • 2006 43rd ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2005 42nd ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2004 41st ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2003 40th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2002 39th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2001 38th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2000 37th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 1999 36th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 1998 35th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 1997 34th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 1996 33rd ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)


2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN)

Industrial information technologies


2019 IEEE 19th Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems (SiRF)

This is a set of five conferences with a focus on wireless components, applications and systems that affect both now and our future lifestyle. The main niche of these conferences is to bring together technologists, circuit designers, system designers and entrepreneurs at a single event. It was and is the place where these worlds meet, where new processes and systems can be benchmarked against the needs of circuit designers at the bleeding edge of RF systems. This is also an area where today's design compromises can trigger tomorrow's advanced technologies, where dreams can become a reality.


2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)

Photovoltaic materials, devices, systems and related science and technology


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Periodicals related to Germanium

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Device and Materials Reliability, IEEE Transactions on

Provides leading edge information that is critical to the creation of reliable electronic devices and materials, and a focus for interdisciplinary communication in the state of the art of reliability of electronic devices, and the materials used in their manufacture. It focuses on the reliability of electronic, optical, and magnetic devices, and microsystems; the materials and processes used in the ...


Electron Device Letters, IEEE

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronic devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronics devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on

Measurements and instrumentation utilizing electrical and electronic techniques.


Lightwave Technology, Journal of

All aspects of optical guided-wave science, technology, and engineering in the areas of fiber and cable technologies; active and passive guided-wave componentry (light sources, detectors, repeaters, switches, fiber sensors, etc.); integrated optics and optoelectronics; systems and subsystems; new applications; and unique field trials.


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Most published Xplore authors for Germanium

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Xplore Articles related to Germanium

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Direct band gap electroluminescence from bulk germanium at room temperature using an asymmetric metal/germanium/metal structure

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan', u'full_name': u'Dong Wang'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan', u'full_name': u'Sho Kamezawa'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan', u'full_name': u'Keisuke Yamamoto'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan', u'full_name': u'Hiroshi Nakashima'}] 2014 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM), 2014

As a promising material for fabricating on-chip optoelectronic devices, germanium (Ge) has a direct band gap of 0.8 eV, which matches with the wavelength for optical communication. The energy difference is only 134 meV between direct and indirect band gaps, implying the possibility of a direct band gap light emission. In general, a p-i-n diode structure is used for a ...


Peculiarities of germanium driving back from germanium-silicate glass formed in the process of oxidation of the germanium-doped polycrystalline silikon films

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6, P. Brovka Str., Minsk, 220013, Belarus', u'full_name': u'A. A. Kovalevsky'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6, P. Brovka Str., Minsk, 220013, Belarus', u'full_name': u'V. M. Borisevich'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6, P. Brovka Str., Minsk, 220013, Belarus', u'full_name': u'A. S. Strogova'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, 6, P. Brovka Str., Minsk, 220013, Belarus', u'full_name': u'D. V. Plyakin'}] 2010 20th International Crimean Conference "Microwave & Telecommunication Technology", 2010

It is determined that the content of Ge in the volume of germanium-silicate glass (GSG) influences density of nanocrystalline grains. It is ascertained that germanium atoms are unevenly distributing between separate nanoclusters as well as in the limits of one cluster. The size and density of germanium nanoclusters may be independently checked by the way of changing of germanium content ...


Effects of germanium layer on silicon/germanium superlattice solar cells

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'A. A. Zulkefle'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'M. Zainon'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'Z. Zakaria'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'S. A. Shahahmadi'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'M. A. M. Bhuiyan'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'King Saud University, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia', u'full_name': u'M. M. Alam'}, {u'author_order': 7, u'affiliation': u'Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'K. Sopian'}, {u'author_order': 8, u'affiliation': u'Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia', u'full_name': u'N. Amin'}] 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2013

Silicon germanium solar cells have widely been explored in recent years due to the property of germanium material that is capable to absorb light in low energy (IR range). However, the lattice mismatch between the silicon and germanium materials may lead to misfit dislocation defect on the solar cell. The defect can be reduced by arranging the silicon and germanium ...


Effect of Germanium Concentration on the Dielectric Function of Strained Si1-xGex Films

[{u'author_order': 1, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38246719000', u'full_name': u'Manasa Medikonda', u'id': 38246719000}, {u'author_order': 2, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/38246718500', u'full_name': u'Gangadhara R. Muthinti', u'id': 38246718500}, {u'author_order': 3, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37268946100', u'full_name': u'Thomas N. Adam', u'id': 37268946100}, {u'author_order': 4, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37393056300', u'full_name': u'Alexander Reznicek', u'id': 37393056300}, {u'author_order': 5, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37287132900', u'full_name': u'Vamsi Paruchuri', u'id': 37287132900}, {u'author_order': 6, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37269283000', u'full_name': u'Alain C. Diebold', u'id': 37269283000}] 2012 International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM), 2012

Transistors fabricated using strained silicon-germanium alloy channels provide improved carrier mobility. While the electrical properties of Si1-xGexfor a variety of values of x and the optical properties of strain-free Si1-xGexfor x= 0 to 1 have been reported, reports of the optical properties of pseudomorphic Si1-xGexwere limited to x <; 0.3. For Ge concentrations of less than 30%, the optical properties ...


Laser Annealing of Amorphous Germanium on Silicon–Germanium Source/Drain for Strain and Performance Enhancement in pMOSFETs

[{u'author_order': 1, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37631011700', u'full_name': u'Fangyue Liu', u'id': 37631011700}, {u'author_order': 2, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37292824400', u'full_name': u'Hoong-Shing Wong', u'id': 37292824400}, {u'author_order': 3, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37285848700', u'full_name': u'Kah-Wee Ang', u'id': 37285848700}, {u'author_order': 4, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37655271700', u'full_name': u'Ming Zhu', u'id': 37655271700}, {u'author_order': 5, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37407481900', u'full_name': u'Xincai Wang', u'id': 37407481900}, {u'author_order': 6, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37301092900', u'full_name': u'Doreen Mei-Ying Lai', u'id': 37301092900}, {u'author_order': 7, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37287620600', u'full_name': u'Poh-Chong Lim', u'id': 37287620600}, {u'author_order': 8, u'authorUrl': u'https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/author/37272715000', u'full_name': u'Yee-Chia Yeo', u'id': 37272715000}] IEEE Electron Device Letters, 2008

We report the first demonstration of a novel germanium-enrichment process for forming a silicon-germanium (SiGe) source/drain (S/D) stressor with a high Ge content. The process involves laser-induced local melting and intermixing of a Ge layer with an underlying Si0.8Ge0.2S/D region, leading to a graded SiGe S/D stressor with a significant increase in the peak Ge content. Various laser fluences were ...


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Educational Resources on Germanium

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IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Gate‐on‐Germanium Source Tunnel Field‐Effect Transistor Enabling Sub‐0.5‐V Operation

    In this chapter, a novel device structure for a gate‐on‐germanium source (GoGeS) tunnel field‐effect transistor (TFET) on a bulk silicon substrate is proposed for sub‐0.5 V operation. Tunneling in line with the gate electric field, which increases the effective tunneling area and, hence, the ON‐state current_ION_, is achieved in this device by constructing its gate on the germanium source region. To improve the subthreshold swing (_SS_), lateral carrier tunneling is eliminated by carefully designing the device structure. The use of a small gate‐to‐channel overlap results in reduced fringing‐induced barrier lowering at the gate edge that further improves the_SS_and_ION_of the device. The spreading of the fringing electric field is also reduced by employing a step in the silicon channel region, which again improves both_SS_and_ION_. As a result of all these, supersteep_SS_and high_ION_are achieved, enabling sub‐0.5 V operation of the proposed gate‐on germanium source tunnel field‐effect transistor (GoGeS TFET).

  • Index

    No abstract.

  • Appendix: Summary of IBM Foundry Offerings

    No abstract.

  • Frontmatter

    The prelims comprise: * Half Title * Editorial Board * Title * Copyright * Dedication * Contents * Contributors * Foreword * Preface * Acknowledgments * Acronyms

  • About the Authors

    No abstract.

  • Modeling and Characterization

    Chapter 2 describes the next step in IBM's enablement, namely modeling and characterization. These methodologies have been matured over a decade of world-class development, and are a critical part of IBM's ability to provide first-pass enablement for designers. This chapter also reviews the predictive modeling work, presents the model characterization work, and discusses in detail the compact modeling of a broad range of devices. Key points brought out in this chapter include: * Discussion the background and methodology of IBM's predictive modeling work. * Discussion of IBM's model characterization development activities. * Presents the compact modeling work for the active HBT and FET devices. * Discussion compact modeling methodology for the advanced passive devices.

  • LeadingEdge Applications

    Chapter 4 provides an insight into some of the leading-edge applications, which have been enabled using the IBM advanced SiGe process technologies. These examples have been chosen to show both the leading-edge nature of the applications, but also the breadth of the application space - as initially discussed in the Introduction chapter. The chapter presents implementations of a wired SONET 40GB/s design, a 3G direct conversion receiver, a power amp for cellular radio, and a high-speed memory design. Key points brought out in this chapter include: * Presents an OC768 40-56GB/s Wired serializer/deserializer design. * Discussion of the design of a 3G W-CDMA direct conversion receiver. * Presents an Ericsson power amp design for use in cellular phones. * Presents a SiGe memory circuit design for use with high-speed micro-processors.

  • A Historical Perspective at IBM

    No abstract.

  • Technology Development

    Chapter 1 provides a detailed description of IBM's Silicon Germanium BiCMOS technology development program. This family of technologies provides high- performance SiGe HBTs combined with advanced CMOS enablement, and a variety of advanced passive devices critical for realizing an integrated AMS SoCs. The technologies have been utilized by internal and external customers through IBM's foundry offerings to produce ICs in a wide-ranging variety of applications - as discussed throughout the book. This chapter also reviews the IBM process development and integration methodologies, as well as the device characteristics. The discussions described how the development and device selection was geared towards usage in mixed-signal IC development. Key points brought out in this chapter include: * The development of active devices, namely NPN bipolars and FETs. * The development of advanced passive devices - such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors - as well as ESD protection devices. * Overview of many of the issues in process integration, including manufacturing - namely predictability, reliability, and yield. * Discussion of the technology implications of the different implementation choices.

  • Design Automation and Signal Integrity

    Chapter 3 discusses the enablement involving best-in-class design automation solutions - including the CAD tools environment, RF simulation algorithms, ESD CAD solutions, and signal integrity solutions for interconnect and substrate modeling. These offerings form together with the compact models, to form the design enablement for the customer. As such they are complex software engineering projects requiring very high quality and efficiency, and in the case of signal integrity the need for effective and efficient modeling usable by the design community. The chapter overviews the IBM design automation methodology, the ESD design automation offering, interconnect modeling requirements and solutions, and substrate isolation and modeling solutions. Key points brought out in this chapter include: * Overview of IBM's design automation methodology. * Discussion of the design automation environment for IBM's world-class ESD offering. * Introduction to the complex topic of interconnect modeling and extraction, including transmission line modeling and substrate interactions to interconnects. * Discussion of issues in substrate modeling and isolation, through co-ordinated TCAD and test-site activities at IBM.



Standards related to Germanium

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American National Standard Calibration and Use of Germanium Spectrometers for the Measurement of Gamma-Ray Emission Rates of Radionuclides


American National Standard Calibration of Germanium Detectors for In-Situ Gamma-Ray Measurements


IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors

Same as for 325-1986. Following is the abstract for 325-1986: The basic requirements for qualifying Class 1E equipment with interfaces that are to be used in nuclear power generating stations are described. The principles, procedures, and methods of qualification are covered. These qualification requirements, when met, will confirm the adequacy of the equipment design under normal, abnormal, design basis event, ...


IEEE Standard Test Procedures for High-Purity Germanium Crystals for Radiation Detectors



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