Germanium

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Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Germanium

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2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on Solid -State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

Process & Device Technologies1. Channel Engineering2. High-k/Metal gate Technology3. Advanced Source/Drain Technology4. Interconnect Technology5. Advanced 3D Integration6. Novel Process Technologies7. Ultra-Thin Body Transistors and Device Variability8. Advanced High-k Metal Gate SoC and High Performance CMOS Platforms 9. CMOS Performance Enhancing and Novel Devices 10. Advanced FinFETs and Nanowire FETs11. CNT, MTJ Devices and Nanowire Photodiodes12. Low- Power and Steep Slope Switching Devices13. Graphene Devices14. Advanced Technologies for Ge MOSFETs15. Organic semiconductor devices and technologies16. Compound semiconductor devices and Technology 17. Ultra High Speed Transistors, HEMT/HBT etc. 18. Advanced Power Devices and Reliability19. Flash Memory20. IT Magnetic RAM21. Resistive RAMs22. Phase Change Memory23. 3-Dimensional Memory24. MEMS Technology25. Thin Film Transistors26. Biosensors27. PV and Energy Harvesting28. Front End of Line (FEOL) R

  • 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High Kdielectric , Advance Memories , nano -electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices ,sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material erization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation,Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low -power, RF devices & circuits, ICCAD

  • 2010 IEEE 10th International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology (ICSICT)

    Silicon IC, Silicon/germanium devices , Interconnect , Low K and High K dielectric , Advance Memories , nano-electronics, Organic and Compound semiconductor devices , sensors and MEMS, Semiconductor material characterization, Reliability , Modeling and simulation, Packaging and testing , Digital, Analog, Mixed Signal IC and SOC design technology,Low-power, RF devices & circuits, IC CAD .


2014 IEEE 45th Semiconductor Interface Specialists Conference (SISC)

The SISC provides a unique forum for device engineers, solid-state physicists, and materials scientists to discuss issues of common interest. Principal topics for discussion at SISC are semiconductor/insulator interfaces, the physics of insulating thin films, and the interaction among materials science, device physics, and state-of-the-art technology.


2013 23rd International Crimean Conference "Microwave & Telecommunication Technology" (CriMiCo)

The International Crimean Microwave Conference (CriMiCo) is held in Sevastopol, Ukraine, since 1991. During 22-year period it has been transformed into widely-known forum. Only in 2012 477 papers have been presented on theoretical, experimental, production and technological, application and historical aspects of microwave and telecommunication technologies. Authors of those papers are 1088 scientists and specialists from 184 universities and companies from 18 countries: Belarus, Great Britain, Vietnam, Germany, Israel, Spain, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, USA, Turkey, Ukraine, Finland, Czech Republic and Japan. The Conference is among the leading ones in Ukraine and CIS that is reflected in the specialized literature.



Periodicals related to Germanium

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Electron Device Letters, IEEE

Publishes original and significant contributions relating to the theory, design, performance and reliability of electron devices, including optoelectronic devices, nanoscale devices, solid-state devices, integrated electronic devices, energy sources, power devices, displays, sensors, electro-mechanical devices, quantum devices and electron tubes.


Lightwave Technology, Journal of

All aspects of optical guided-wave science, technology, and engineering in the areas of fiber and cable technologies; active and passive guided-wave componentry (light sources, detectors, repeaters, switches, fiber sensors, etc.); integrated optics and optoelectronics; systems and subsystems; new applications; and unique field trials.


Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Integrated circuits and systems;VLSI based Architecture and applications; highspeed circuits and interconnect; mixed-signal SoC; speed/area/power/noise tradeoffs in CMOS circuits.




Xplore Articles related to Germanium

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NOR solid state circuit

J. R. Nall; O. L. Meyer; R. J. Anstead 1959 International Electron Devices Meeting, 1959

Photolithographic techniques have been applied to fabrication of an NOR solid circuit containing four resistors and a transistor. The two dimensional circuit is layed out on diffused base germanium in a .1 inch square. Photographic slides of individual components are combined on a single slide by a photomicrographic camera with .25 mil indexing accuracy in X - Y directions. Several ...


Analytical expressions for the static characteristic of the tunnel diode

M. P. Beddoes Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the Institution of, 1964

The problem of obtaining an analytical expression for the tunnel-diode static characteristic is best approached using essentially a curve-matching technique. Two types of expressions are possible: (a) a simple expression (one or two terms only) which can be used in analytical studies (b) a complex expression suitable for computer manipulation. The error can be held to ±10% of the peak ...


Properties of a silver bonded diode for parametric amplification

S. Kita; K. Sugiyama; T. Okajima 1959 International Electron Devices Meeting, 1959

Recently the parametric amplifier has received attention because of its low noise characteristic. One of the authors has designed a new diode which is suited for a parametric amplifier. This diode is a silver bonded diode which is composed of a silver-gallium whisker and n-type germanium. After the whisker is contacted to the germanium crystal, electrical forming is applied to ...


A Novel Bottom-Up Fabrication Process for Controllable Sub-100 nm Magnetic Multilayer Devices

Ming-Yuan Kao; J. Y. Ou; Lance Horng; Jong-Ching Wu IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2008

We present a fabrication process for controllable sub-100 nm magnetic multilayer devices, pseudo spin valve, using a novel bottom-up technique. Stack of multilayer devices with diameter in nanometer scales were successfully made through a template of Ge/SiO2 stencil mask with very well undercutting profile of SiO2 insulating layer. The niche of using this method is that a device with diameter ...


Germanium P-N junction - Tunnel junction combination devices

I. A. Lesk; H. A. Jensen 1959 International Electron Devices Meeting, 1959

A P-N junction tunnel diode (designed PTN), in the low voltage region preceding the negative resistance, has current carried across the P-N junction primarily by electron tunneling, with very little minority carrier injection. In the higher current region following the negative resistance, minority carrier injection occurs. Despite some electron tunneling in this region and the very high impurity concentrations on ...


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Educational Resources on Germanium

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eLearning

NOR solid state circuit

J. R. Nall; O. L. Meyer; R. J. Anstead 1959 International Electron Devices Meeting, 1959

Photolithographic techniques have been applied to fabrication of an NOR solid circuit containing four resistors and a transistor. The two dimensional circuit is layed out on diffused base germanium in a .1 inch square. Photographic slides of individual components are combined on a single slide by a photomicrographic camera with .25 mil indexing accuracy in X - Y directions. Several ...


Analytical expressions for the static characteristic of the tunnel diode

M. P. Beddoes Electrical Engineers, Proceedings of the Institution of, 1964

The problem of obtaining an analytical expression for the tunnel-diode static characteristic is best approached using essentially a curve-matching technique. Two types of expressions are possible: (a) a simple expression (one or two terms only) which can be used in analytical studies (b) a complex expression suitable for computer manipulation. The error can be held to ±10% of the peak ...


Properties of a silver bonded diode for parametric amplification

S. Kita; K. Sugiyama; T. Okajima 1959 International Electron Devices Meeting, 1959

Recently the parametric amplifier has received attention because of its low noise characteristic. One of the authors has designed a new diode which is suited for a parametric amplifier. This diode is a silver bonded diode which is composed of a silver-gallium whisker and n-type germanium. After the whisker is contacted to the germanium crystal, electrical forming is applied to ...


A Novel Bottom-Up Fabrication Process for Controllable Sub-100 nm Magnetic Multilayer Devices

Ming-Yuan Kao; J. Y. Ou; Lance Horng; Jong-Ching Wu IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 2008

We present a fabrication process for controllable sub-100 nm magnetic multilayer devices, pseudo spin valve, using a novel bottom-up technique. Stack of multilayer devices with diameter in nanometer scales were successfully made through a template of Ge/SiO2 stencil mask with very well undercutting profile of SiO2 insulating layer. The niche of using this method is that a device with diameter ...


Germanium P-N junction - Tunnel junction combination devices

I. A. Lesk; H. A. Jensen 1959 International Electron Devices Meeting, 1959

A P-N junction tunnel diode (designed PTN), in the low voltage region preceding the negative resistance, has current carried across the P-N junction primarily by electron tunneling, with very little minority carrier injection. In the higher current region following the negative resistance, minority carrier injection occurs. Despite some electron tunneling in this region and the very high impurity concentrations on ...


More eLearning Resources

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • Introduction to Conduction Theory—Wannier Formalism and the Effective Mass

    This chapter contains sections titled: Perturbed Problem, Electrons in Germanium, Holes in Germanium and Silicon

  • Frontmatter

    The prelims comprise: Half Title Editorial Board Title Copyright Dedication Contents Contributors Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Acronyms

  • Attenuation Characteristics of Conventional, Micromachined, and Superconducting Coplanar Waveguides

    In this chapter the attenuation characteristics of conventional, micromachined, and superconducting coplanar waveguides are presented. Closed form equations based on the conformal mapping technique, the mode-matching method, and the modified matched asymptotic expansion technique are presented in order to compute the attenuation constant of a coplanar waveguide. Recently silicon (Si) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) based integrated circuits have emerged for RF/microwave applications, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based switches and actuators are being explored for potential phased array antenna applications. This chapter examines the attenuation characteristics of coplanar waveguides on CMOS grade low- and high-resistivity silicon wafers, and on micromachined silicon wafers. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the attenuation characteristics of high-temperature superconducting coplanar waveguides.

  • Introduction

    No abstract.

  • Group IV Alloys for Advanced Nano??? and Optoelectronic Applications

    Mainstream semiconductor technology builds on elements of group IV within the periodic table. Crystalline silicon remains the principal base material, whereas germanium and carbon have entered the mainstream in the embedded source/drain technology, as well as in heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) used in BiCMOS technology. Recently, it has been shown that alloying Ge with Sn enables the fabrication of fundamental direct bandgap group IV semiconductors, as well as optically pumped GeSn lasers grown on Si. This achievement pave the route toward efficient and monolithically integrated group IV light emitters, that is, lasers, for electronic???photonic integrated circuits (EPICs) that could solve the emerging power consumption crisis in complementary metal???oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology by enabling optical on???chip and chip???to???chip data transfer. The large parasitic capacitances introduced by various layers of copper (Cu) interconnects demand high transistor ION currents, which could be reduced if some of the Cu lines are replaced by optical interconnects.

  • LeadingEdge Applications

    Chapter 4 provides an insight into some of the leading-edge applications, which have been enabled using the IBM advanced SiGe process technologies. These examples have been chosen to show both the leading-edge nature of the applications, but also the breadth of the application space - as initially discussed in the Introduction chapter. The chapter presents implementations of a wired SONET 40GB/s design, a 3G direct conversion receiver, a power amp for cellular radio, and a high-speed memory design. Key points brought out in this chapter include: Presents an OC768 40-56GB/s Wired serializer/deserializer design. Discussion of the design of a 3G W-CDMA direct conversion receiver. Presents an Ericsson power amp design for use in cellular phones. Presents a SiGe memory circuit design for use with high-speed micro- processors.

  • A Historical Perspective at IBM

    No abstract.

  • About the Authors

    No abstract.

  • A Fully Integrated SiGe Receiver IC for 10Gb/s Data Rate

    A silicon germanium (SiGe) receiver IC is presented here which integrates most of the 10-Gb/s SONET receiver functions. The receiver combines an automatic gain control and clock and data recovery circuit (CDR) with a binary-type phase-locked loop, 1 : 8 demultiplexer, and a 27 - 1 pseudorandom bit sequence generator for self-testing. This work demonstrates a higher level of integration compared to other silicon designs as well as a CDR with SONET- compliant jitter characteristics. The receiver has a die size of 4.5 x 4.5 mm2 and consumes 4.5 W from -5 V.

  • Design Automation and Signal Integrity

    Chapter 3 discusses the enablement involving best-in-class design automation solutions - including the CAD tools environment, RF simulation algorithms, ESD CAD solutions, and signal integrity solutions for interconnect and substrate modeling. These offerings form together with the compact models, to form the design enablement for the customer. As such they are complex software engineering projects requiring very high quality and efficiency, and in the case of signal integrity the need for effective and efficient modeling usable by the design community. The chapter overviews the IBM design automation methodology, the ESD design automation offering, interconnect modeling requirements and solutions, and substrate isolation and modeling solutions. Key points brought out in this chapter include: Overview of IBM's design automation methodology. Discussion of the design automation environment for IBM's world-class ESD offering. Introduction to the complex topic of interconnect modeling and extraction, including transmission line modeling and substrate interactions to interconnects. Discussion of issues in substrate modeling and isolation, through co-ordinated TCAD and test-site activities at IBM.



Standards related to Germanium

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American National Standard Calibration and Use of Germanium Spectrometers for the Measurement of Gamma-Ray Emission Rates of Radionuclides


American National Standard Calibration of Germanium Detectors for In-Situ Gamma-Ray Measurements


IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Germanium Gamma-Ray Detectors

Same as for 325-1986. Following is the abstract for 325-1986: The basic requirements for qualifying Class 1E equipment with interfaces that are to be used in nuclear power generating stations are described. The principles, procedures, and methods of qualification are covered. These qualification requirements, when met, will confirm the adequacy of the equipment design under normal, abnormal, design basis event, ...


IEEE Standard Test Procedures for High-Purity Germanium Crystals for Radiation Detectors



Jobs related to Germanium

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