Policy

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A policy is typically described as a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome(s). The term is not normally used to denote what is actually done, this is normally referred to as either procedure or protocol. (Wikipedia.org)






Conferences related to Policy

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2019 IEEE 15th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE)

The conference is the primary forum for cross-industry and multidisciplinary research in automation. Its goal is to provide a broad coverage and dissemination of foundational research in automation among researchers, academics, and practitioners.


2018 15th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC)

IEEE CCNC 2018 will present the latest developments and technical solutions in the areas of home networking, consumer networking, enabling technologies (such as middleware) and novel applications and services. The conference will include a peer-reviewed program of technical sessions, special sessions, business application sessions, tutorials, and demonstration sessions


2018 23rd Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC)

Core/Access Networks and Switching Subsystems, Transmission Systems and Their Subsystems, Optical Fibers, Fiber Amplifiers, and Related Devices, Optical Active Devices and Modules, Passive Devices and Modules

  • 2017 Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) and Photonics Global Conference (PGC)

    OECC and PGC 2017 will be held during 31 July - 4 August 2017 at Sands Expo and Convention Centre, Singapore. The aim of this conference is to foster interactions among broad disciplines in the photonics family. This mega conference brings together international leading researchers, scientists and engineers who are actively working in lasers and their applications, nanophotonics, metamaterial, biophotonics, plasmonics, optical devices, optical transmission and optical networking, optical fibers, optical switching system and related technologies. The conference widely covers the field of "Photonics" from devices to systems and networks.

  • 2015 Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC)

    To provide a platform for sharing the research work in various optical and photonic research fields

  • 2012 Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC)

    SC1. Core/Access Networks and Switching Subsystems SC2. Transmission Systems and Subsystems SC3. Optical Fibers, Cables, and Fiber Devices SC4. Optical Active Devices and Modules SC5. Optical Passive Devices and Modules SC6. CLEO Focus Session

  • 2011 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC)

    1 Core/Access Networks. 2. Transmission Systems 3. Optical Fibers, Cables and Fiber Devices 4. Optical Active Devices and Modules 5. Optical Passive Devices and Modules 6. LCD, Solar Cell, and Solid-state Lighting Technologies 7. Emerging Technologies

  • 2010 15th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC)

    1. Core/Access Networks and Switching Subsystems 2. Transmission Systems and their Subsystems 3. Optical Fibers, Cables and Fiber Devices 4. Optical Active Devices and Modules 5. Optical Passive Devices and Modules

  • 2009 14th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC)

    Optical Networks and Broadband Access, Transmission Systems and Switching Technologies, Optical Signal Processing, Optical Sensors and Systems, Optical Fiber and Waveguide Devices, Optoelectronic Materials, Devices and Modules, and Emerging Technologies


2018 55th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2022 59th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2021 58th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2020 57th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2019 56th ACM/ESDA/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    EDA (Electronics Design Automation) is becoming ever more important with the continuous scaling of semiconductor devices and the growing complexities of their use in circuits and systems. Demands for lower-power, higher-reliability and more agile electronic systems raise new challenges to both design and design automation of such systems. For the past five decades, the primary focus of research track at DAC has been to showcase leading-edge research and practice in tools and methodologies for the design of circuits and systems.

  • 2017 54th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2016 53nd ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2015 52nd ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2014 51st ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    DAC Description for TMRF The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 sessions on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus the NEW User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organizations attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading

  • 2013 50th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The world's premier EDA and semiconductor design conference and exhibition. DAC features over 60 session on design methodologies and EDA tool developments, keynotes, panels, plus User Track presentations. A diverse worldwide community representing more than 1,000 organization attends each year, from system designers and architects, logic and circuit designers, validation engineers, CAD managers, senior managers and executives to researchers and academicians from leading universities.

  • 2012 49th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference (DAC) is the premier event for the design of electronic circuits and systems, and for EDA and silicon solutions. DAC features a wide array of technical presentations plus over 200 of the leading electronics design suppliers

  • 2011 48th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference is the world s leading technical conference and tradeshow on electronic design and design automation. DAC is where the IC Design and EDA ecosystem learns, networks, and does business.

  • 2010 47th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference (DAC) is the premier event for the design of electronic circuits and systems, and for EDA and silicon solutions. DAC features a wide array of technical presentations plus over 200 of the leading electronics design suppliers.

  • 2009 46th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    DAC is the premier event for the electronic design community. DAC offers the industry s most prestigious technical conference in combination with the biggest exhibition, bringing together design, design automation and manufacturing market influencers.

  • 2008 45th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference (DAC) is the premier event for the design of electronic circuits and systems, and for EDA and silicon solutions. DAC features a wide array of technical presentations plus over 250 of the leading electronics design suppliers.

  • 2007 44th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

    The Design Automation Conference (DAC) is the premier Electronic Design Automation (EDA) and silicon solution event. DAC features over 50 technical sessions covering the latest in design methodologies and EDA tool developments and an Exhibition and Demo Suite area with over 250 of the leading EDA, silicon and IP Providers.

  • 2006 43rd ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2005 42nd ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2004 41st ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2003 40th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2002 39th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2001 38th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 2000 37th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 1999 36th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 1998 35th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 1997 34th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)

  • 1996 33rd ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)


2018 IEEE 87th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring)

The technical scope of VTC2018-Spring includes:Ad-hoc, Mesh, and Sensor NetworksAntennas and Propagation and RF DesignCognitive Radio and Spectrum SensingCooperative Communications, Distributed MIMO and RelayingMobile Networks, Applications and ServicesMultiple Antenna Systems and ServicesSatellite Networks, Positioning Technologies, Localization and NavigationTransmission Technologies and Communication TheoryTransportation, Vehicular Networks, and Vehicular Electronics and Telematics; Wireless AccessWireless Networks and SecurityHealth, Body-Area and Medical Device NetworksGreen NetworksMedium access control and routing protocolsNarrowband, wideband and ultra-widebandPHY and MAC layer designChannel modeling, equalization, synchronization, modulation and codingOFDM, CDMA, WiMAXLTE AdvancedITS, Car-to-car, and Car-to-X


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Periodicals related to Policy

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Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE

The IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine publishes articles concerned with the various aspects of systems for space, air, ocean, or ground environments.


Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on

The theory, design and application of Control Systems. It shall encompass components, and the integration of these components, as are necessary for the construction of such systems. The word `systems' as used herein shall be interpreted to include physical, biological, organizational and other entities and combinations thereof, which can be represented through a mathematical symbolism. The Field of Interest: shall ...


Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on

Broad coverage of concepts and methods of the physical and engineering sciences applied in biology and medicine, ranging from formalized mathematical theory through experimental science and technological development to practical clinical applications.


Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on

Part I will now contain regular papers focusing on all matters related to fundamental theory, applications, analog and digital signal processing. Part II will report on the latest significant results across all of these topic areas.


Communications Magazine, IEEE

IEEE Communications Magazine was the number three most-cited journal in telecommunications and the number eighteen cited journal in electrical and electronics engineering in 2004, according to the annual Journal Citation Report (2004 edition) published by the Institute for Scientific Information. Read more at http://www.ieee.org/products/citations.html. This magazine covers all areas of communications such as lightwave telecommunications, high-speed data communications, personal communications ...


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Most published Xplore authors for Policy

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Xplore Articles related to Policy

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New Hidden Policy CP-ABE for Big Data Access Control with Privacy-preserving Policy in Cloud Computing

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'University of Hyderabad', u'full_name': u'Sucharita Khuntia'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'IDRBT, Hyderabad', u'full_name': u'P. Syam Kumar'}] 2018 9th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), None

Cloud offers flexible and cost effective storage for big data but the major challenge is access control of big data processing. CP-ABE is a desirable solution for data access control in cloud. However, in CP-ABE the access policy may leak user's private information. To address this issue, Hidden Policy CP-ABE schemes proposed but those schemes still causing data leakage problem ...


Pixel-to-Action Policy for Underwater Pipeline Following via Deep Reinforcement Learning

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'The Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China’s Sea, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Yanan Liu'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'The Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China’s Sea, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Fang Wang'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'The Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China’s Sea, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Zeyu Lv'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'School of Information Science & Engineering, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, China', u'full_name': u'Kaihui Cao'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'The Key Laboratory of Mariculture & Stock Enhancement in North China’s Sea, Ministry of Agriculture, P. R. China', u'full_name': u'Yuanshan Lin'}] 2018 IEEE International Conference of Intelligent Robotic and Control Engineering (IRCE), None

In this paper, we investigate the problems of vision-based pipeline following for a fully actuated autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) that moves in the horizontal plane. The problems cannot be solved by most of model-based approaches. To this end, we firstly formulate the pipeline following problems for AUVs as continuous-state, continuous-action Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) under unkown transition probabilities. The pipeline ...


A Simulation-Based Policy Improvement Method for Joint-Operation of Building Microgrids With Distributed Solar Power and Battery

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Department of Automation, Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Yuanming Zhang'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Department of Automation, Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China', u'full_name': u'Qing-Shan Jia'}] IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2018

This paper investigates the joint-operation of building microgrids with distributed solar power and storage battery. The purpose of this paper is to improve the energy efficiency of the building microgrids taking advantage of the complementary building load profiles. Three major contributions are made in this paper. First, in order to incorporate the uncertainties in both the building load and solar ...


An overview of the Solar Photovoltaic policy in the Region of Madeira

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'University of Madeira and Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, Funchal, Madeira, 9000-390, Portugal', u'full_name': u'Daniel Garigali Pestana'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'University of Madeira and Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, Funchal, Madeira, 9000-390, Portugal', u'full_name': u'Sandy Rodrigues'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'University of Madeira and Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, Funchal, Madeira, 9000-390, Portugal', u'full_name': u'F. Morgado-Dias'}] 2018 Energy and Sustainability for Small Developing Economies (ES2DE), None

The Region of Madeira, being one of the top locations in Portugal in terms of solar exposition, started to bet on micro and mini production photovoltaic systems at the end of the year of 2008, which, environmentally, resulted in a lower number of carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels in thermal plants and, economically, led to the ...


Performance Evaluation of Fault Nodes Using Queue Threshold Based on N-Policy Priority Queueing Model

[{u'author_order': 1, u'affiliation': u'Sri Krishna College of Technology, Department of ECE, Coimbatore, India', u'full_name': u'P. Jayarajan'}, {u'author_order': 2, u'affiliation': u'Sri Krishna College of Technology, Department of ECE, Coimbatore, India', u'full_name': u'R. Maheswar'}, {u'author_order': 3, u'affiliation': u'Department of CSE, Veltech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, India', u'full_name': u'G. R. Kanagachidambaresan'}, {u'author_order': 4, u'affiliation': u'Sri Krishna College of Technology, Department of ECE, Coimbatore, India', u'full_name': u'V. Sivasankaran'}, {u'author_order': 5, u'affiliation': u'Onboard Software Section, Control Systems Group ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore, India', u'full_name': u'M. Balaji'}, {u'author_order': 6, u'affiliation': u'Onboard Software Section, Control Systems Group ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore, India', u'full_name': u'Jagannath Das'}] 2018 9th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), None

A major issue in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is the minimum availability of energy and hence reducing the amount of energy consumed is of greater interest. In WSN, large amount of energy is consumed during transmission and failure of nodes in sensor network is common. Here, a novel technique is proposed to reduce the node's energy consumption during data transmission ...


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Educational Resources on Policy

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eLearning

No eLearning Articles are currently tagged "Policy"

IEEE-USA E-Books

  • 3 Policy Responses to External Shocks: A Theory

    The growth of renewable energy is an example of a broader class of political- economic developments that stem from policy responses to external shocks. Drawing on insights from political economy and historical institutional analysis, we develop a theory of how policy responses to external shocks could trigger slow-moving but dynamic changes that produce systemic effects over time. The theory is generally applicable, and we use it to gain analytical leverage on the complex problem of renewable energy.

  • 7 Improving National Policy

    Although renewables have become increasingly competitive in global energy markets, their future remains subject to great uncertainty. Enthusiasts envision a future of nothing but renewable energy by the year 2050, a revolution in dealing with climate change and the problem of energy security (Vad Mathiesen, Lund, and Karlsson 2011). More moderate commentators, such as the 2013 World Energy Outlook (IEA 2013), expect renewables to contribute an increasing share of the world's total energy consumption, but in their telling, fossil fuels remain dominant for the next 50 to −100 years or so. As the energy analyst Daniel Yergin put it in an interview with Boston Globe, "It's a contest, or even a battleground…. Renewables will grow a lot, but they will still be, 20 years from now, a relatively small part of the overall mix."

  • Part I A Model of Data Sharing Policy Development

    Information sharing is an interdisciplinary issue, with relevant theory and literature in a broad range of fields. Some scholars focus on the people and organizations involved in data sharing policy development: the structures and dynamics of government organizations or the role of national initiatives. 1 Others focus primarily on the data itself, cataloging the incentives and barriers to sharing a particular type of data, or evaluating the success or failure of sharing within a particular field.2 The model presented here pulls these threads together, incorporating concepts from the literature on organizational theory, bureaucratic autonomy, international organizations, information policy, and many other areas to address both the people involved and the specific data context. The resulting model provides a holistic view of the data sharing policy development process that can provide insight into the current state of government data sharing and help explain the variation observed among different countries, fields, and agencies.

  • 7 Designing Policy and Action

    Stafford Beer landed in Santiago in the fall of 1971 to embark on an ambitious mission: to assist the Chilean government in the design of a system that would help manage the economy by monitoring its behavior in real time. The day of Beer's arrival, November 4, marked exactly a year since Salvador Allende had won the presidential election to become the first selfproclaimed Marxist to lead the country and pave, in his own words, a "Chilean way to Socialism" (Allende 1973). Allende's political career spanned four decades before it ended violently with the military coup of 1973. He was known for his "concern and empathy for the fate of the poor and the most vulnerable in society," but also for "his passion to find pragmatic and logical solutions to social problems" (Clark 2013, 28-29). A reformist for some, a revolutionary for others, Allende's policies aimed to expand the reach of the state while respecting existing liberties and democratic institutions. His policies involved the nationalization of large-scale industries, but also a commitment to decentralized governance and individual freedoms. Implementing these competing goals, however, was a complex task. This is why one of Allende's men decided to write a letter to Beer asking for his advice and inviting him to work with the government in the management of the nationalized sector of the economy (Medina 2011, 15). Beer was not only an internationally renowned operational research consultant; he was also one of the leading advocates of management cybernetics, a branch of the science of feedback and self- regulation that gained prominence following Norbert Wiener's work at MIT in the 1940s (Wiener 1948). Beer had already tested successfully his cybernetic ideas in the steel and publishing industries, but the Chilean request was his first chance to test those ideas on a national scale. His response to the invitation was an excited yes.

  • 8 Electric Industry Policy

    At present, electric power industry policy is a hodgepodge rooted in the federalism of fifty-state laboratories of various sizes in diverse economic and social circumstances. And, as we learn in grammar school, our federal government is one of constitutionally limited powers. As yet, there is no coherent vision or public policy to guide the future modernization of America's electricity infrastructure end to end. Public policy reforms coordinated on a national scale, including changes in legislation as well as regulatory policy, are urgently required. Otherwise, business, consumer, and environmental interests with often disparate goals will not succeed in what could and should be a long and concerted effort to modernize one of America's most vital infrastructures.

  • A Survey on Policy Search for Robotics

    Policy search is a subfield of Reinforcement Learning (RL) that focuses on finding good parameters for a given policy parameterization. It is well suited tor robotics as it can cope with high-dimensional state and action spaces, which is one of the main challenges in robot learning. A Survey on Policy Search for Robotics reviews recent successes of both model-free and model- based policy search in robot learning. Model-free policy search is a general approach to learn policies based on sampled trajectories. This text classifies model-free methods based on their policy evaluation, policy update, and exploration strategies, and presents a unified view of existing algorithms. Learning a policy is often easier than learning an accurate forward model, and, hence, model-free methods are more frequently used in practice. However, for each sampled trajectory, it is necessary to interact with the robot, which can be time consuming and challenging in practice. Model-based policy search addresses this problem by first learning a simulator of the robot's dynamics from data. Subsequently, the simulator generates trajectories that are used for policy learning. For both model-free and model-based policy search methods, A Survey on Policy Search for Robotics reviews their respective properties and their applicability to robotic systems. It is an invaluable reference for anyone working in the area.

  • Tactile Guidance for Policy Adaptation

    The development of behaviors for robot motion control is fundamental for robot operation in physical environments, yet is challenged by many factors such as sensor noise and approximate actuation models. Techniques like demonstration learning, that seed a training dataset with examples of behaviour execution by a task expert, are both powerful and practical for the development of motion control behaviors. To further endow a robot with the ability to continue learning from experience after demonstration can assist in robustness to poor demonstrators or demonstration interfaces, and also enable behavior adaptation to changes in the environment or task requirements. Tactile Guidance for Policy Adaptation introduces an approach for continuing motion control learning after demonstration that capitalizes on the availability of multiple sensor modalities through which a human teacher may transfer domain knowledge. Of particular note is that motion control corrections are provided through tac ile sensors located on the body of the robot. The approach is validated on a high degree-of-freedom robot system, for which both demonstration and correction are challenging. Tactile Guidance for Policy Adaptation should be of interest to those considering the use of demonstration and machine learning for the development of robot behaviors, in particular for high degree-of- freedom humanoids, as well as to those interested in the transfer of task knowledge through multiple sensor modalities.

  • The Policy Enforcer Details: Model, Architecture, Realization, and Impact

    This chapter contains sections titled: Policy Enforcement Modeling in the OSE Beyond the OSE: Policy Enforcement as Service Oriented Architecture Composition Logical Architecture versus Deployment Considerations Relationship to Parlay and IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) Policy Modeling Policy Enforcer through OMA Enabler Realization Relationship of Policy Enforcer to IETF PEP/PDP Policy Assembly, Composition, and Orchestration Summary - Next Steps

  • Quality of Service, Policy and Charging

    This chapter describes the concept of policy and charging control (PCC), and describes the architecture that is used for policy and charging in long‐term evolution (LTE). It discusses the procedures for PCC and session management, through which an application can request a specific quality of service from the network. The chapter focuses on data transport in the evolved packet core, and offline and online charging. In turn, the policy and charging parameters and the service data flows (SDFs) template make up a dataset known as a PCC rule. Each service data flow is associated with a PCC rule, which describes how the network recognizes and implements the SDF. As an alternative to the mobile originated procedure, an application function can ask the policy and charging rules function (PCRF) for a new service data flow with an improved quality of service.

  • Regulatory Policy and Economics of Cognitive Radio for Secondary Spectrum Access

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Spectrum Regulations: Why and How? Overview of Regulatory Bodies and Their Inter‐Relation Why Secondary Spectrum Access? Candidate Bands for Secondary Access Regulatory and Policy Issues Technology Enablers and Options for Secondary Sharing Economic Impact and Business Opportunities of SSA Outlook Conclusions Acknowledgements References



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